- Skull (symbolism)
Skull symbolism is the attachment of symbolic meaning to the human
skull. The most common symbolic use of the skull is as a representation of death and mortality, but such a reading varies with changing cultural contexts.
Humans can often recognize the buried fragments of an only partially revealed cranium even when other bones may look like shards of stone. The human brain has a specific region for recognizing faces [ [http://www.bangor.ac.uk/news/BrainArea.htm (University of Wales, Bangor) "New function identified for an area of the brain"] ] , and is so attuned to finding them that it can see faces in a few dots and lines or punctuation marks; the human brain cannot separate the image of the human skull from the familiar human face. Because of this, both the death of, and the now past life of the skull are symbolized.
Moreover, a human skull with its large eye sockets displays a degree of
neoteny, which humans often find visually appealing—yet a skull is also obviously dead. As such, human skulls often have a greater visual appeal than the other bones of the human skeleton, and can fascinate even as they repel. Our present society predominantly associates skulls with death and evil. However, to some ancient societies it is believed to have had the opposite association, where objects like crystal skulls represent "life": the honoring of humanity in the flesh and the embodiment of consciousness.
The skull that is often engraved or carved on the head of early
New Englandtombstones might be merely a symbol of mortality, but the skull is also often backed by an angelic pair of wings [ [http://www.prairieghosts.com/grave_symbols.html Tony Taylor, "The Mystery of Graveyard Art & Symbols"] ] , lofting mortality beyond its own death.One of the best-known examples of skull symbolism occurs in Shakespeare's " Hamlet", where the title character recognizes the skull of an old friend: "Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest. . ." Hamlet is inspired to utter a bitter soliloquy of despair and rough ironic humor.
Compare Hamlet's words "Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft" to
Talmudicsources: "…Rabi Ishmael [the High Priest] … put [the decapitated head of a martyr] in his lap… and cried: oh sacred mouth!…who buried you in ashes…!". The skull was an emblem of melancholyfor Shakespeare's contemporaries. [See Albrecht Dürer's " Melencolia".]
emblemof the skull cannot be assumed to be a mere symbol of Death. The skull is placed significantly on the writing desk of Saint Jeromein Albrecht Dürer's woodcut. Not truly a " Memento mori", the skull's huge empty eye-sockets contrast with Jerome's downcast eyes in one of the best evocations of the interior vision of contemplation, perhaps focused on Eternity, ever realized in Western art Fact|date=February 2007.
Skulls and skeletons are the main symbol of the
Mexican holiday, Day of the Dead.
Venetian painters of the 16th century elaborated moral allegories for their patrons, and "memento mori" was a common theme. The theme carried by an inscription on a rustic tomb, "
Et in Arcadia ego"—"I too [am] in Arcadia", if it is Death that is speaking—is made famous by two paintings by Nicholas Poussin, but the motto made its pictorial debut in Guercino's version, 1618-22 (in the Galleria Barberini, Rome): in it, two awestruck young shepherds come upon an inscribed plinth, in which the inscription ET IN ARCADIA EGO gains force from the prominent presence of a wormy skull in the foreground.
Next to the Magdalene's dressing-mirror, in a convention of Baroque painting Fact|date=February 2007, the Skull has quite different connotations and reminds the viewer that the Magdalene has become a symbol for repentance. In
C. Allan Gilbert's much-reproduced lithograph of a lovely Gibson Girl seated at her fashionable toilette, an observer can witness its transformation into an alternate image. A ghostly echo of the worldly Magdalene's repentance motif lurks behind this turn-of-the 20th century icon.
The skull becomes an
iconitself when its painted representation becomes a substitute for the real thing. Simon Schamachronicled the ambivalence of the Dutch to their own worldly success during the Dutch Golden Ageof the first half of the 17th century in " The Embarrassment of Riches." The possibly frivolous and merely decorative nature of the still lifegenre was avoided by Pieter Claeszin his " Vanitas" ("illustration, below right"): Skull, opened case-watch, overturned emptied wineglasses, snuffed candle, book: "Lo, the wine of life runs out, the spirit is snuffed, oh Man, for all your learning, time yet runs on: Vanity!" The visual cues of the hurry and violence of life are contrasted with eternityin this somber, still and utterly silent painting.
When the skull is represented in Nazi SS insignia, the death's-head ("
Totenkopf") deals with the fear of death, but when tattooed on the forearm its apotropaicpower helps an outlaw bikercheat death. [Margo DeMello, "Bodies of Inscription: A Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community", (Duke University Press) 2000, ch. "Creation of Meaning" explores the semiotics of modern tattooing.] The skull and crossbonessignify "Poison" when they appear on a glass bottle containing a white powder, or any container in general. But it is not the same emblemwhen it flies high above the poop deck as the Jolly Roger: there the pirate death's-head epitomizes the pirates' ruthlessness and despair: their usage of death imagery might be paralleled with their occupation challenging the natural order of things. ["In Virginia in 1720 one of the six pirates facing the gallows "called for a Bottle of Wine, and taking a Glass of it, he drank Damnation to the Governour and Confusion to the Colony", which the Rest pledg'd". (Marcus Rediker, "Under the Banner of King Death": The Social World of Anglo-American Pirates, 1716 to 1726" "The William and Mary Quarterly", Third Series, 38.2 (April 1981:203-227) p. 219.] "Pirates also affirmed their unity symbolically", Marcus Rediker asserts, remarking the skeleton or skull symbol with bleeding heart and hourglass on the black pirate ensign, and asserting "it triad of interlocking symbols— death, violence, limited time—simultaneously pointed to meaningful parts of the seaman's experience, and eloquently bespoke the pirates' own consciousness of themselves as preyed upon in turn. Pirates seized the symbol of mortality from ship captains who used the skull 'as a marginal sign in their logs to indicate the record of a death'" [Rediker 1981:221, and 223, quoting S. Charles Hill, "Episodes of piracy in Eastern waters", "Indian Antiquary" 49 (1920:37).] When a skull was worn as a trophy on the belt of the Lombard king Alboin, it was a constant grim triumph over his old enemy, and he drank from it. In the same way a skull is a warning when it decorates the palisade of a city, or deteriorates on a pike at a Traitor's Gate. The Skull Tower, with the embedded skulls of Serbian rebels, was built in 1809 on the highway near Niš, Serbia, as a stark political warning from the Ottoman government. In this case the skulls "are" the statement: that the current owner had the power to kill the former. "Drinking out of a skull the blood of slain (sacrificial) enemies is mentioned by Ammianus and Livy, [MacCulloch is referring to Livy xxxiii.24, of events of 216 BCE: "Postumius died there fighting with all his might not to be captured alive. The Gauls stripped him of all his spoils and the Boiitook his severed head in a procession to the holiest of their temples.There it was cleaned and the bare skull was adorned with gold, as is their custom. It was used thereafter as a sacred vessel on special occasions and as a ritual drinking-cup by their priests and temple officials."] and Solinusdescribes the Irish custom of bathing the face in the blood of the slain and drinking it." [J.A. MacCulloch, "The Religion of the Ancient Celts" 1911:239f.] The rafters of a traditional Jivaromedicine house in Peru [ [http://www.head-hunter.com/account.html F.W. Up De Graff. "Head hunters of the Amazon: Seven Years of Exploration and Adventure", New York: Garden City 1925 p. 273-283] ] , or in New Guinea. The temple of Kaliis veneered with skulls, but the goddess Kali offers life through the welter of blood. The late medieval and Early Renaissance Northern and Italian painters place the skull where it lies at the foot of the Crossat Golgotha(Hebrew: "the place of the skull"). But for them it has become quite specifically the skull of Adam.
The Serpent crawling through the eyes of a skull is a familiar image that survives in contemporary
Goth subculture. The serpent is a chthonicgod of knowledge and of immortality, because he sloughs off his skin. The serpent guards the Tree in the Greek Garden of the Hesperides and, later, a Tree in the Garden of Eden. The serpent in the skull is always making its way through the socket that was the eye: knowledge persists beyond death, the emblem says, and the serpent has the secret.
The skull speaks. It says "
Et in Arcadia ego" or simply " Vanitas." In a first-century mosaic tabletop from a Pompeiian triclinium(now in Naples), the skull is crowned with a carpenter's squareand plumb-bob, which dangles before its empty eyesockets (Death as the great leveller), while below is an image of the ephemeral and changeable nature of life: a butterfly atop a wheel—a table for a philosopher's " symposium".
Similarly, a skull might be seen crowned by a chaplet of dried roses, a "
Carpe diem", though rarely as bedecked as Mexican printmaker José Guadalupe Posada's Catrina.In Mesoamerican architecture, stacks of skulls (real or sculpted) represented the result of human sacrifices.The skull speaks in the catacombs of the Capuchin brothers beneath the church of Santa Maria della Concezionein Rome [http://www.cappucciniviaveneto.it/cappuccini_ing.html The Crypt: Church of the Immaculate] . Official site of the Capuchins] , where disassembled bones and teeth and skulls of the departed Capuchins have been rearranged to form a rich Baroque architectureof the human condition, in a series of anterooms and subterranean chapels with the inscription, set in bones:
:"Noi eravamo quello che voi siete, e quello che noi siamo voi sarete." :"We were what you are; and what we are, you will be."
An old Yoruba folktale [William R. Bascom: "
IfáDivination: Communication Between Gods and Men in West Africa" (Indiana) ISBN 0-253-20638-3] tells of a man who encountered a skull mounted on a post by the wayside. To his astonishment, the skull spoke. The man asked the skull why it was mounted there. The skull said that it was mounted there for talking. The man then went to the king, and told the king of the marvel he had found, a talking skull. The king and the man returned to the place where the skull was mounted; the skull remained silent. The king then commanded that the man be beheaded, and ordered that his head be mounted in place of the skull.
VajrayanaBuddhist iconography, skull symbolism is often used in depictions of wrathful deitiesand of dakinis.
Lee Falk's popular superhero" The Phantom" uses the mark of the skull as his trademark. He is noted for wearing a Skull Ring, which leaves a permanent skull-mark on whomever he hits with his fist. The Phantom often use the mark of the skull to psychologically outwit his enemies.
*In the popular video games
Halo 2and Halo 3, there are hidden skulls, which modify aspects of the game, such as the "Grunt Birthday Party" skull, where if you give a grunt a head-shot, confetti will pop out and children will cheer. Others, such as the Thunderstorm skull, increase the difficulty of the enemies by raising them up one level. For example: Minor Elites become Major Elites.
*The symbolic image of the skull permeates the
Indiana Jonesmovies to such an extent that skulls become décor—and even comic relief when Marion encounters multiple cobwebby skulls and skeletons during the escape from the subterranean Well of the Souls at Tanis (" Raiders of the Lost Ark", 1981). Every appearance of a skull in the "Jones" series emphasizes the 1930s' cultural view: a gulf between the rational, modern, progressive, scientific, and vigorously physical daylight world embodied by the intrepid American archaeologist, with the sinister, dangerous, mythical, exotic, dead lore of Antiquity or the Orientin torchlit interiors of caves and temples, as well as exemplifying the fate of those who have gone before but failed.
gorilla King Konghad his home on "Skull Island", presumably a place of dangerous power. Perhaps a similar power flows to the superhero He-Manfrom CastleGrayskull, a castle shaped like a huge gray skull. It has been suggested that the relationship of He-Man and the sorceress of Grayskull mirrors Carl Jung's ideas about the " animus" and the "anima": the sorceress, an all-knowing woman, is the source of the hero's power, and she dwells within the head. Still, the skullface of Grayskull is also the face of Skeletor, He-Man's enemy.
*The evil mystique of a skull is playfully subverted in the
LucasArtsadventure game The Curse of Monkey Island, in which the face of Skull Island (revealed after a long pan) is actually that of a duck. The game also introduces Murray, the mighty talking skull, who cackles and threatens demonically but, lacking arms, is actually completely helpless.
Marvel Comicsanti-hero, The Punisher, wears a costume with a large, stylized human skull emblazoned on the front.
Harry Potternovels, the Dark Mark, emblem of Lord Voldemort, is a skull entwined with a serpent.
Death's Headis also the name of a Marvel Comicscharacter.
*The helmets of the Stormtroopers, and
Darth Vaderin particular, in Star Warswere said to be "Death's Head" masks during character development. Darth Vader's mouth piece resembles teeth, his visors the eye sockets, as well as the angular cheeks resembling cheek bones, all features of a skull. Stormtrooper helmets have "eyes" and "teeth" that remind people of skulls.
monster truckGrave Digger has a large skull mountain as the backdrop for its graveyardmural paint scheme. Skulls are also used on many t-shirts, posters, and other promotional materials for the truck, as they correlate with the truck's somewhat macabreimage.
Games Workshop Warhammerfranchises use a skull motif frequently.
Marvelcomic book character Ghost Riderhas a flaming skull for a head.
*The board game
HeroScapefeatures a skeleton-like race called Marro.
Symbols of death
The Ambassadors (Holbein)
Skull and crossbones
#Ariès, Philippe, "L'Homme devant la mort": (Seuil, 1985), 2 vol. ISBN 2-02-008944-0, ISBN 2-02-008945-9
#Veyne, Paul (1987). "A History of Private Life : 1. From Pagan Rome to Byzantium" ( p. 208 illustrates the skull mosaic from Pompeii)
* [http://www.kolahstudio.com/Underground/?p=174 A Great Article about Skull symbols around the globe]
* [http://www.archimedes-lab.org/skull_illusions.html Skull representations and symbolism in art and optical illusions]
* [http://altreligion.about.com/od/imagesofdeath/ A Gallery of Images of Death]
* [http://www.crystalskulls.com/pictures.html#gallery A Image Gallery of Crystal Skulls]
* [http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/ARTH214/Ambassadors_Home.html#anchor1386598 Examining the symbolism of the anamorphic skull in Hans Holbein's double portrait "The Ambassadors"]
* [http://motorcyclecity.com/skulls/ "Skulls and the Motorcycle"]
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