- Photonic integrated circuit
A photonic integrated circuit (PIC) or integrated optical circuit is a device that integrates multiple photonic functions and as such is analogous to an Electronic Integrated Circuit. The major difference between the two is that a photonic integrated circuit provides functionality for information signals imposed on
opticalwavelengths typically in the Visible spectrumor near infrared850nm-1650nm.
A 2005 development [cite journal | last = Rong | first = Haisheng | coauthors = Jones, Richard; Liu, Ansheng; Cohen, Oded; Hak, Dani; Fang, Alexander; and Paniccia, Mario | year = 2005 | month = February | title = A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser | journal = Nature | volume = 433 | issue = 7027 | pages = 725–728 | doi = 10.1038/nature03346 | url = ftp://download.intel.com/technology/silicon/sp/download/nature_cw_laser.pdf | format = PDF ] solved a
quantum noiseproblem that prevented siliconfrom being used to generate laserlight, permitting new integrated circuits to use high-bandwidth laser light generated within the circuit itself as a signal medium.
Comparison to electronic integration
Unlike electronic integration where
siliconis the dominant material, system photonic integrated circuits have been fabricated from a variety of material systems, including silica on silicon, Silicon on insulator, various polymers and semiconductormaterials which are used to make semiconductor laserssuch as GaAsand InP. The different material systems are used because they each provide different advantages and limitations depending on the function to be integrated.
The fabrication techniques are similar to those used in electronic integrated circuits in which
photolithographyis used to pattern wafers for etching and material deposition. Unlike electronics where the primary device is the transistorthere is no single dominant device. The range of devices required on a chip includes low loss interconnect waveguides, power splitters, optical amplifiers, optical modulators, filters, lasersand detectors. These devices require a variety of different materials and fabrication techniques making it difficult to realize all of them on a single chip.
Examples of photonic integrated circuits
The primary application for photonic integrated circuits is in the area of
fiber-optic communicationthough applications in other fields such as biomedicalare also possible.
arrayed waveguide grating(AWG) which are commonly used as optical (de)multiplexers in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-optic communicationsystems are an example of a photonic integrated circuit which has replaced previous multiplexing schemes which utilized multiple discrete filter elements.
Another example of a photonic integrated chip in wide use today in
fiber-optic communicationsystems is the externally modulated laser (EML) which combines a distributed feed back laser diode with an electro-absorption modulator[ [http://www.rp-photonics.com/electroabsorption_modulators.html Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology - electroabsorption modulators, electro-absorption modulators ] ] on a single InP based chip.
Advantages of photonic circuits
Photonic integrated circuits can allow optical systems to be made more compact and higher performance than with discrete optical components. They also offer the possibility of integration with electronic circuits to provide increased functionality. [http://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2004/volume08issue02/art06_siliconphoto/vol8_art06.pdf "Silicon Photonics." Intel Technology Journal, Volume 08, Issue 02. 10 May 2004.]
Photonic integrated circuits should also be immune to the hazards of functionality losses associated with
electromagnetic pulse(EMP), though may not be immune to high neutron flux.
Notes and references
* Alastair D. McAulay: "Optical Computer Architectures: The Application of Optical Concepts to Next Generation Computers" (1999).
* " [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=30367 Architectural issues in designing symbolic processors in optics] ".
* D. Goswami, " [http://www.iisc.ernet.in/academy/resonance/June2003/June2003p56-71.html Optical Computing 1:Optical Components and Storage Systems] ", "Resonance", June 2003; " [http://www.iisc.ernet.in/academy/resonance/July2003/July2003p8-21.htm 2:Research Trends] July 2003.
* K.-H. Brenner, Alan Huang: "Logic and architectures for digital optical computers (A)", "J. Opt. Soc. Am.", A3, 62, (1986).
* K.-H. Brenner: "A programmable optical processor based on symbolic substitution", "Appl. Opt." 27, No. 9, 1687–1691, (1988).
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