- Executive Outcomes
Executive Outcomes was a
private military companyfounded in South Africaby former Lieutenant-Colonelof the South African Defence Force Eeben Barlowin 1989. It was controlled by the South Africa-based holding companyStrategic Resource Corporation. [http://www.caat.org.uk/publications/government/mercenaries-1999.php The Privatisation of Violence: New mercenaries and the state] Christopher Wrigley CAAT March 1999]
Executive Outcomes provided military personnel, training and logistical support to officially recognized governments only. They were however often accused of providing the military strength for
corporationsto control natural resourcesin failed statesor conflict-ridden areas, because these governments mostly paid for their services with mining concessions. [cite news
first = Anthony C.
title = EO: A New Kind of Army for Privatized Global Warfare
accessdate = ]
mission statementwas described by the company as [http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/99summer/adams.htm The New Mercenaries and the Privatization of Conflict] Thomas K. Adams Parameters, Summer 1999] :cquote
To provide a highly professional and confidential military advisory service to legitimate governments.
To provide sound military and strategic advice.
To provide the most professional military training packages currently available to armed forces, covering aspects related to sea, air, and land warfare.
To provide advice to armed forces on weapon and weapon platform selection.
To provide a total apolitical service based on confidentiality, professionalism, and dedication.
In 1989, following the conclusion of
South African Border Wars in Angolaand Namibia, the apartheidregime in South Africa was beginning to dissolve. The South African Defence Forcewas looking at broad cuts in its personnel. African National Congressleader Nelson Mandelademanded that then South African President Frederik Willem de Klerkdismantle some of the South African and South-West African Special Forces units such as 32 Battalion, Koevoetand the Reconnaissance Regiments. One of these was the Civil Cooperation Bureau(CCB), a unit that carried out covert assassinations of government opponents, and worked to bypass the United Nationsapartheid sanctions by setting up overseas front companies.
Only Koevoet — being part of the
South West African Police(SWAPOL) — was disbanded as part of independence negotiations for South-West Africa(now Namibia). Many members of the other units, or simply former national servicemen, were recruited by Executive Outcomes (EO).
Eeben Barlow, formerly in charge of the Western European section of the CCB, [ [http://www.galago.co.za/CAT1_025.htm Eeben Barlow's autobiography: Executive Outcomes - "Against all Odds"] ] became the first leader of Executive Outcomes, and the company went on to recruit many of its personnel from these units. Within a short period, EO could boast of having 500 military advisers and over 3000 highly-trained military personnel at its disposal. Through the CCB, Barlow gained extensive corporate connections, among which were
Tony Buckinghamand Simon Mannwho helped set up the company. In 1993, the three registered Executive Outcomes in the United Kingdom.
Executive Outcomes fought on behalf of the
Angolan government against UNITAafter a 1994 peace settlement broke down. In March 1995, it contained an insurrection of guerrillas known as the Revolutionary United Front(RUF) in Sierra Leone, regained control of the diamond fields, and forced a negotiated peace. In both these instances they are credited with rescuing the legitimate government in both countries from destabilizing forces. In the case of Angola this led to a cease fire and the Lusaka Protocol, which ended the Angolan civil war — albeit only for a few years.Citation
title =Conflict, Inc.: Selling the Art of War
December 7 1997
Center for Defense Information
url = http://www.cdi.org/adm/1113/transcript.html] As is characteristic of one of the first Private Military Companies (PMCs), Executive Outcomes was directly involved militarily in Angola and Sierra Leone. The company was notable in its ability to provide all aspects of a highly-trained modern army to the less professional government forces of Sierra Leone and Angola. For instance, in Sierra Leone, Executive Outcomes fielded not only professional fighting men, but armor and support aircraft such as the Mi-24 Hind and Mi-8 Hip helicopters, and the BMP-2 infantry fighting vehicle. It also possessed medevac capabilities for the wounded to airlift out of combat zones via Boeing 707 aircraft. These were bought from lucrative sources in the worldwide arms trade within Africa as well as Eastern Europe. Citation [Venter, Al. War Dog: Fighting Other People's Wars - The Modern Mercenary in Combat] ] .Executive Outcomes had
contracts with transnational corporations such as De Beers, Chevron, Rio Tinto Zincand Texaco. The governments of Angola, Sierra Leone, and Indonesiawere also clients.
The South African intelligence services started to defame Executive Outcomes for a long period. Although Executive Outcomes was highly regarded in the military world, allegations that Executive Outcomes was paid in diamonds and oil- and mineral concessions was the cause that the company got bad coverage in the press. Despite their initial successes in Sierra Leone, where the contractors were welcomed by the local population (citation needed), the company was forced to leave the country by the United Nations. After Executive Outcomes left, the country was back in turmoil again.
In 1997, Eeben Barlow left the company, disillusioned by the negative national and international press coverage.
Apart from Eeben Barlow, other Executive Outcomes personnel were reported to be Nic van der Bergh and Lafras Luitingh.
Executive Outcomes was dissolved on
January 1, 1999when South Africa introduced the 1998 "Regulation of Foreign Military Assistance Act".
The aim of the Act was to stop
mercenaryactivities by the dual actions of:
# preventing direct participation as a combatant in armed conflict for private gain including the training, recruitment and use of mercenaries; and,
# requiring approval of the National Conventional Arms Control Committee for offering of military assistance overseas. [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmselect/cmfaff/922/2061322.htm Chapter 2 — The Private Military Companies' Perspective] Select Committee on Foreign Affairs August 1, 2002]
The company's personnel most likely continued their activities under the names of Lifeguard, Saracen, or another private military company with links to Executive Outcomes, albeit with a much reduced level of visibility. [http://fmso.leavenworth.army.mil/documents/merc.htm Executive Outcomes: Mercenary Corporation OSINT Guide] Dr. Robert J. Bunker and Steven F. Marin US Army Foreign Military Studies Office July 1999]
Executive Outcomes was once linked to the
United Kingdomprivate military company Sandline International. Sandline subcontracted Executive Outcomes on a mission in Papua Guinea in 1997, but due to poor preparations and treachery on the side of Papua Guinea, the mission failed.
7. The book "Untapped: The Scramble for Africa's Oil" by John Ghazvinian discusses Executive Outcomes participation in coup attempts.
Private military company
UN Mercenary Convention
* [http://web.archive.org/web/19981212024722/http://www.eo.com/ Mirror of Executive Outcomes' official website in 1998, from archive.org]
* [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1400097819 Licensed to Kill, Hired Guns in the War on Terror] by Robert Young Pelton (Crown, Sept 1, 2006)
*"The Hunter, The Hammer, and Heaven: Journeys to Three Worlds Gone Mad, by Robert Young Pelton" (ISBN 1-58574-416-6)
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/executive_outcomes.htm Executive Outcomes] page by
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3916465.stm Profile: Simon Mann] BBC News September 10, 2004
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