infobox UK place
country = Wales
population= 1,338 (2001 census)
constituency_westminster= Meirionnydd Nant Conwy
postcode_district = LL27
Trefriw (pronounced IPA2|ˈtrɛ.vrɨu, approximately "TREV-ryoo") is a
villagein Conwy county borough, Wales. It lies on the river Conwyin north Wales, lying a few miles south of the site of the Roman fort of Canovium, sited at Caerhun. Trefriw
Trefriw lies on the edge of
Snowdonia, on the B5106 to the north-west of Llanrwst, and about 4½ miles north of Betws-y-coedby road. It is located on the western slopes of the glaciated Conwy valley, below the ridge of Cefn Cyfarwydd, the village having been largely built in a semi-circle at the point where the river Crafnantflows from its hanging valleyto join the river Conwy. The river Crafnant still provides power for the woollen mill, and in the past provided power for a number of other industries based along its banks, such as a forge which provided quarry tools.
Most of the village lies within the
Snowdonia National Park, the boundary running down the main street of the village.
Apart from its reputation as a good starting point for walks, Trefriw is today mostly known for its
woollenmills, and for the nearby chalybeatespa, first known to have been used by the Romans and further developed in about 1700. Its waters were one of very few throughout Europe to have been classified as a medicine due to their high iron content.
A [http://www.rhylphotosoc.co.uk/GALLERIES/digital/Trefriw gallery of photos of Trefriw] is available from the [http://www.rhylphotosoc.co.uk/ Rhyl Photographic Society] .
A [http://www.trefriw.postcardnostalgia.co.uk/ 200 postcard collection] of Trefriw can be viewed online or is available for Historic Societies.
Trefriw is no stranger to history. A major
Roman road( Sarn Helen) ran southwards through Trefriw from the fort at Caerhun (between Trefriw and Conwy) to the fort at Tomen-y-mur (near Trawsfynydd), and beyond, ultimately reaching "Moridunum" at Carmarthen. It is likely that there were in fact two roads passing through the Trefriw area, a valley route, and a higher mountain route which went on to link to the smaller forts at Caer Llugwy (near Capel Curig) and Pen-y-Gwryd, near Snowdon. The actual lines of these roads through Trefriw can only be conjecture today, but the whole route is discussed in depth in the book "Sarn Helen" by J. Cantrell & A. Rylance (Cicerone Press, 1992).
The Middle Ages
Llywelyn Fawr(Llywelyn the Great) chose Trefriw as the site for a hunting lodge in the 12th century. Given that that he had a number of strongholds in north-west Wales, it is not possible to know how much time he spent in the village, although it is reported that he preferred his lodge at Trefriw to his Palace at Aber. There are no remains to be seen today but it is now believed that it was on the site of the Ebenezer Chapel on the main hill. Llywelyn married Siwan or Joan, the youngest daughter of King John of Englandin 1204 or 1205, when she was only about 13. Despite her relative youth, she in time grew weary of the trek up the steep hill to the church at Llanrhychwyn(regarded by many as being the oldest in Wales), and as a result, in about 1230 Llywelyn endowed a church on the site where St Mary's, Trefriw now stands.
Llanrhychwyn (which takes its name from Rhochwyn, son of
Helig ap Glannog) is now a small hamlet. In Llywelyn's time, however, and up to the early 19th century, it was larger than Trefriw itself, which consisted of "a few houses here and there". In "Hanes Trefriw" Morris Jones writes in Welsh that Llywelyn "built a church for [his wife's] use, and for the use of the inhabitants, for their kindness towards him, and that he donated a number of farms from the parish of Llanrhychwyn, naming them as the parish of Tref Rhiw Las. It got this name from the slope on which it stood".
At the lower (northern) end of the village is located "Ffrwd Gwenwyn y Meirch" - "("poison the horses stream")". It is said that the stream was poisoned by Llywelyn, resulting in the deaths of many horses, at a time when he was at war with the English.
Red Book of Hergest(1375-1425) refers to "Kymwt Treffryw", the Commote("Cwmwd" in Welsh) of Trefriw.
It seems probable that Trefriw has links with the
Gunpowder Plotof 1605. Thomas Wiliems, who was probably born in the village, and a nephew of Sir John Wynnof Gwydir, went to Brasenose College, Oxford, and returned to work as a physician. He was an authority on vegetarianism, and also published a Welsh/Latin dictionary. In 1573 he became Curate of Trefriw. He is reputed to have been a papist (he was certainly charged on that score at Bangor in 1607) and as such would probably have known of the plot to blow up Parliament. According to some sources it was he who, in warning his relative John Wynn not to go to the State Opening, was responsible to either a smaller or greater extent for the suspicions which ultimately caught Guy Fawkes. This story is the basis for a short historical novel written for children by Gweneth Lilly, entitled "Treason at Trefriw" (Gomer Press, 1993).
The 19th Century
In 1817 a free school was founded (and subsequently financially supported) in Trefriw by Lord Willoughby de Eresby, for the benefit of poor children of the village, and those from the adjoining parishes.
The earliest mill (a
pandy, or fulling mill) dates back to the 15th century. In 1820 a new pandy was built, this still carrying the faded name "Vale of Conwy Woollen Mill". By early in the 19th century the village had a water-powered fulling mill (replacing the former cottage industrywhich dated back centuries), but serious development of the industry began only after it was bought by Thomas Williams in 1859. The current woollen mill is still owned by the descendants of Thomas Williams. The current roadside mill building, sited below the original buildings, was built in the 1970s.
David Cox Jnr. (1809-85) painted " [http://www.gtj.org.uk/item.php?lang=en&id=10808&t=1 Trefriw near Llanrwst, with mill] '.
South of Trefriw were two
toll houses, Ty'n Twll and Hen Dyrpeg, which served the road layout as it originally used to be, namely the Ty Hyll - Llanrwst road meeting those from Trefriw and Llanrhychwyn part way up the hillside behind Gwydir. Gwydir Gate, still standing today on the B5106, became the toll house when that section of road was built as a replacement. These toll houses were built on roads used by traffic heading for the quays at Trefriw.
In the 19th century Trefriw was Wales' largest inland port, the river Conwy being tidal up to neighbouring
Llanrwst. Given the fact that, at one time, Llanrwst was one of the ten largest towns in Wales, it can be seen that the Conwy Valley had great historical significance.
It was reported in 1833 that fairs were held annually on May 12th, September 3rd, and November 7th. [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CAE/Trefriw/]
The parish of Trefriw was owned for a long period by the Gwydir Estate (although under continuous mortgage), but in 1895-6 most of Llanrhychwyn and Trefriw were sold off by the ruling Barons Willoughby de Eresby and the Earls of Ancaster.
At the start of the 19th century, boats of around 5 tons could only reach Trefiw quay at or near high tides. It is not known when the first quay was built, but a Storehouse existed there in 1754. The quay, which belonged to the Gwydir Estate and was ruled by a resident harbourmaster, was later extended (the present structure dates from about 1811-12), and became of great significance to Trefriw, its growth, and subsequent history. Subsequent rock blasting in the 19th century downstream at
Tal-y-cafn, and dredging, enabled river boats of 50 tons and sea-going ships of 100 tons to reach Trefriw. The quays were sited opposite the "Bellevue Hotel", now the "Princes Arms Hotel", and remains can still be seen, best viewed from the walks on 'the Cob'.
From the quay was shipped out grain, wool, hide, oak, timber and metals from the mines of the
Gwydir Forest. A considerable amount of slatewas also shipped, this coming not just from Trefriw Quarry (SH 70639) but from as far away as Cwm Penmachno and the slopes to the north of Blaenau Ffestiniogwhere [http://www.mine-explorer.co.uk/mines/Rhiw-bach_531/Rhiw-bach.asp Rhiw Bach Quarry] and Blaen-y-cwm Quarry were major suppliers. However, wharfage prices were high at Trefriw (being non-Gwydir), and even before the opening of the [http://www.penmorfa.com/Rhiwbach/TRAMWAY.HTM Rhiw Bach Tramway] in 1863 (which linked to the Ffestiniog Railwayat Blaenau Ffestiniog) it was decided that it was preferable (though less easy) to cart slate via Cwm Teigl down to the [http://www.frheritage.org.uk/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?Philistines quays] on the river Dwyryd, below Maentwrog. As a consequence slate shipments from Trefriw quay fell dramatically. (Between 1818 and 1835 slate had accounted for 70% of Trfriw's total exports; between 1857 and 1877 this fell to 20%.) However, not all the trade from the quay was material heading down-river - commodities such as food, wine (ordered by the region's gentry), coal and fertilizers (especially lime) were brought in.
Bangor University Archives holds some "Trefriw Port Books", which provide details of vessels, tonnages, masters, origins, destinations, cargoes by weight and fees. Two original manuscript volumes range in date from 1826 April 3 - 1835 December 26 and 1835-47. [http://www.archivesnetworkwales.info/cgi-bin/anw/name_search?id=7259&acc_type=1]
In the early 19th century up to 450 vessels traded from the quay, to places such as Liverpool and Dublin. Trade totalled 1,548 tons in 1818, and peaked in 1862 at a total of 16,532 tons, after which the railways contributed to the decline of trade via the quays. In 1854 the main quay acquired a weighing machine and a crane, and there was a small shipyard in the village.
[http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/item1/9477 A photo of the slate quay] .
Sulphur was also shipped from the Cae Coch Sulphur Mine [http://www.subbrit.org.uk/sb-sites/sites/c/cae_coch_sulphur_mine/index.shtml] , prior to the construction of the railway line. The mine is also discussed in detail in volume 7 of "The Mines of The Gwydir Forest", by John Bennett & Robert W. Vernon (Gwydir Mines Publications, 1997). The other six volumes, whilst dealing with the mines beyond Trefriw itself, are also of interest in that these mines also provided much trade for the ships.
There were smaller quays further down the river, with the Gwydir Estate owning Coed Gwydir (for stone) and Cae Coch (sulphur). Below this, other non-Gwydir quays were at The Abbey (Maenan), Porth Llwyd (Dolgarrog) and Tal-y-cafn, but Trefriw saw the most trade, by far.
Cae Robin Rock CannonTrefriw boasted a
rock cannon, originally sited in the open on the hill overlooking Llanrwst, but today it is surrounded by the forest of Coed Creigiau. Comprising 13 holes, each about 80 cm apart, its use in 1863 was reported in the local paper where it is recorded that "Rock and metal cannons were fired in such profusion that about 8cwt of gunpowder was consumed." [Carnarvon and Denbigh Herald, March 14th, 1863] This was to celebrate the marriage of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales to Princess Alexandra of Denmark on March 10th, 1863.
In 1833 the old Roman mineral water caves (believed to have been discovered by soldiers of the XXth Roman Legion) were excavated in an attempt to attract people to them. In 1863 Lord Willoughby de Eresby built a small bath-house, replaced a decade later by the current building. Large numbers of people came, no doubt aided by national advertising, and the declaration by Dr. Hayward, a fashionable medical specialist from
Liverpool, that this was "Probably the best spa in the United Kingdom". Baddeley's guidebook notes contains the quote - "inconceivably nasty and correspondingly efficaceous".
Today the Spa is open as a tourist attraction [http://www.4snowdoniaholidays.co.uk/spa.htm]
The Victorian/Edwardian heyday
The village was at its heyday in the early part of the 20th century, visitors arriving by both train and steamer. Many visitors to the Spa arrived by train to
Llanrwststation, which opened in the 1860s. From here transport was provided, over Gower's bridge, named after the Revd John Gower, rector of Trefriw, who came to Trefriw in 1869 (from Queen's College, Birmingham), and who lived in the grand rectory, built in 1842, and located up School Bank Hill. There was a toll of 1d for pedestrians and 2d for cyclists, this money being used to finance the building of the road. The original toll bridgehad about 10 wooden piers, and was wide enough to take a horse and carriage. It was demolished in the 1940s after the Council, having bought the road, agreed to spend £1,500 on the present suspension bridge. The original toll house, "Gower's House", was also demolished, but remains of its site can still be seen.
Gower built the road and the bridge to
North Llanrwst railway stationafter the plan to run the railway line down the western (Trefriw) side of the valley was dropped. The line was authorised in 1860 and opened in 1863. The station was originally known as "Llanrwst & Trefriw", and for over 100 years was Llanrwst's only station.
Until 1939 the quay was used by
paddle steamers which brought tourists up the river from Conwy, hugely swelling the village's population by day. A regular service for passengers was started in 1847 by the St. George Steam Packet Company. "St. Winifred" was the first paddle steamer, joined in c. 1880 by the "St. George", before being replaced a decade later by the "New St. George" (although a poster of the time refers to a "Prince George") . Around 1900 "Queen of the Conwy" arrived, to be followed in 1903 by the "Trefriw Belle", the only screw steamer, and in 1907 by the "King George", another paddler. In all, therefore, the start of the 20th century saw some five steamers plying the route, and carrying a total of over 1,000 passengers. Fare were 1/6 (7½p) single or 2/6 return (12½p). The journey from Conwy took 90 minutes, and passengers would be given this same amount of time in the village before embarking on the return trip.
The steamers were laid up in
World War II, and this spelled the end of the cruises, other than a brief couple of seasons in the 1950s when motor boats were used - at 5/- (25p) return. The steamers were beached upstream of Conway bridges, and eventually scrapped. Their passage up the river had necessitated regular river-dredging, which has no longer been continued.
[http://www.gtj.org.uk/en/blowup1/23869 Photo of a paddle steamer at the quay]
The village once boasted a 9-hole golf course, this lying on land between Cowlyd Road and Crafnant Road, on the slopes uphill of the cemetery. It was laid out in 1893 on land owned by Lord Ancaster (who owned much land in the area) by Thomas Dutton (of the "Belle View Hotel"), who naturally gave discounts to hotel residents. An advertisement of 1903 quotes prices of 2/- (10p) a day or 5/- (25p) a week. In 1894 Fred Collins, the professional golfer from Llandudno, who later laid out
Prestatyngolf course [http://www.prestatyngolfclub.co.uk/history.htm] , made his first public appearance here. The course was never really successful, and after closure (by 1918) the clubhouse was transferred to the quay.
Trefriw Recreation Ground was opened in 1889 and in time came to boast
croquetlawns, tennis courts, a bowling green and a paddling pool (filled in after it kept flooding). Trefriw annually hosted the North Wales Croquet Championship, and a tennis tournament. There also used to be an annual carnival, and sheepdog trials (in the 1920s).
The 20th century onwards
In the 20th century the village was set to be further boosted by the building of a railway from Conwy (plans exist dated 1908), the line coming via Rowen and Tal-y-bont. This was around the time of the growth of
Dolgarrogas an electricity generating centre, and the [http://www.frheritage.org.uk/cgi-bin/wiki.pl?North_Wales_Power_And_Traction_Co._Ltd North Wales Power & Traction Co. Ltd] , a company which went on to have controlling shares in many of the region's narrow gauge railways, intending to electrify them.
Floods have always been part of Trefriw's history, being located on the edge of the flood plain of Afon Conwy. On various occasions in the 20th century defences have been built and improved, including the partial diverting of the Afon Crafnant, which itself carries a lot of water from the Crafnant catchment area.
Trefriw recently made national news when, in February 2004, following a period of prolonged rain in the mountain catchment areas of the river Conwy and its tributaries, the village was largely cut off by floods for three days, and some properties on the lower High Street were flooded by three feet of water. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/north_west/3458833.stm] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/north_west/3528409.stm] The following January saw a repeat occurrence, sections of the cob again being breached. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/3457149.stm] This second occasion failed to make national news due to simultaneous flooding in other parts of Britain, notably Carlisle.
The Environment Agency are currently undergoing a detailed mapping of the valley, and at some point in the future parts of the cob (the riverside dike) will be realigned and moved further back in order to give a wider "channel".
As a result of the floods, Trefriw was one of the locations visited by
Prince Charlesin July 2004 as part of his annual summer tour of Wales. [http://newswww.bbc.net.uk/1/hi/wales/3884691.stm] .
A modern tourist destination
Trefriw's heyday as a tourist destination may have passed, but today it is still a popular
tourist destination. By car it is only a 10 minute drive to Betws-y-coed, and within 30 minutes drivers can reach either the coast or the mountains. The village is set in a landscape of hills, forests and lakes. Today the village has two pubs and a hotel and there is other B&B accommodation locally. Many visitors come to walk in the area, and Llyn Geirionyddand Llyn Crafnantcan be easily reached on foot. The latter is very popular, and many would agree that "the (view along Llyn Crafnant) is one of the most breathtaking views in all Snowdonia". (Forest Park guide, 2002). There is a series of walking trails in the area "(see the "Trefriw Trails" link below)" but many also start here for longer walks into the Gwydir Forest, or the Carneddaumountains, the latter via Llyn Cowlydwhich, although less scenic than Crafnant and Geirionydd, has a wild appeal of its own. Many visitors came to the village to visit the [http://www.t-w-m.co.uk Trefriw Woollen Mills] and [http://www.4snowdoniaholidays.co.uk/spa.htm Trefriw Wells Spa] "(see above for the histories of these)"
Nearby, on the road to the neighbouring town of
Llanrwstlies Gwydir Castle, which is set within a Grade Ilisted, 10 acre garden. Built by the Wynn family c. 1500 (see John Wynn, 1st Baronet), Gwydir is an example of a Tudor courtyard house, incorporating re-used medieval material from the dissolved Abbey of Maenan. Further additions date from c. 1600 and c. 1826. The important 1640s panelled dining room has now been reinstated, following its repatriation from the New York Metropolitan Museum. (see external link below)
Many cyclists come to the area to ride the "Marin Trail", a competition standard route in
Gwydir Forest. [http://www.cycle1st.co.uk/reviews/marintrail.htm Review] .
Moel Maelogan wind farm, commissioned in 2003, and located on the top of the ridge on the other side of the valley, is visible to varying degrees from the village.
Buildings of note
St Mary's Church
None of the original church built by Llywelyn in the 13th century remains, except possibly for part of the wall of the south aisle, the result of heavy remodelling in the 15th and 16th centuries, and again in the 19th century. A 17th-century altar remains in the church, although the one used is a larger Victorian example. The carved hexagonal pulpit dates from 1633, and the church possesses a “Breeches” Bible of 1589, (another term for the
Geneva Bibleof 1560). There is also a silver chalice inscribed “the cuppe of Trefriw, 1701”, and registers date from 1594.
First Independent Chapel
Cwmanog is a 17th-century farmhouse which, as the home of Jane Thomas, became the first meeting place of local Nonconformists. They then built a chapel, apparently made to look like a normal house in order to avoid offence to non-Independents. The current building was erected in 1862, but was replaced as a place of worship in 1881 by the Ebenezer chapel. The building then became a venue for concerts, shows, and lectures, and is today's Village Hall. Ebenezer Chapel
The Ebenezer Chapel (at the bottom of Crafnant Road) was designed by a Liverpool architect, and built in 1881 by William Evans, of Betws-y-coed, at a cost of £1,646. The Peniel Chapels
The old Peniel chapel (up School Bank Road) was built in Victorian times but closed in August 1910 when it became too small for its congregation. The new Peniel Chapel seated 550 people, with an attached schoolroom capable of holding 225 more. It was designed by a company from
Shrewsbury, and is somewhat reminiscent of a late-Gothic style. Its organ was water-powered.
The original Catholic church was replaced by a modern Catholic church on much the same site on Top Road. This is now a private residence.
Pubs and hotels
The Princes Arms Hotel started life as the "Belle View Hotel", which was built about 1846. Run in its early days by James Long, in its heyday it was run by the Dutton family (in conjunction with the "Castle Hotel", Conwy). Trade was very brisk in the era of the steamers, and many passengers called in for a meal, where David Francis, the blind harpist, often played. In 1968 the Hotel became the "Prince's Hotel", and thence the "Prince's Arms Hotel".In 1930 The Belle View Spa rooms were opened, so that tourists could sample the Spa waters in the village itself, the Spa being a mile to the north.
The Ship public house "(Y Llong)" recalls the village's trading history.
The Fairy Falls public house was originally named the "Geirionnydd Vaults", becoming the "Geirionnydd Hotel" around the turn of the 20th century. The erection of the adjacent motel-style lodge increased accommodation considerably. The pub is reputedly haunted by two ghosts, named John Lucas and Lucy, who have been seen by the current landlord. ["Y Cymro", 29 June 2007]
The village once had other public houses - The Union Inn - run by Catherine Owen. This was opposite the present Post Office, and can be distinguished by the blank "window" on the front of the building, which once carried the pub name, which referred to the Llanrwst Union, a union of parishes created under the
Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Today the property is called "Maesteg".
The Anchor was located on the main street, near the village school.
Other notable buildings & locations
The oldest existing house in Trefriw is reputed to be "Gwyndy Cottage", parts of which date back to the 16th century.
"Tan yr Yw" "(Under the Yew)" was the home of Dafydd Jones, an 18th-century poet and printer "(See "Famous Inhabitants")". The yew referred to is the one in the churchyard opposite, and the house is now a Grade II
"Tyddyn Wilym" was the home of Gwilym Cowlyd, the bard, born in 1828. Gwilym believed that the house was also the former birthplace of Dr Thomas Wiliems, who allegedly played a part in foiling the Gunpowder Plot. "(See "Famous Inhabitants")".
In his book "Hanes Trefriw" (1879), Morris Jones writes brief chapters on the following properties, which he considers of significance, either historical, or through connection with their inhabitants - "(y) Tŷ Newydd", "(y) Pandy", "(y) Tŷ Isaf", "Tan yr Yw", "Bryn Pyll", "(y) Tŷ Uchaf", "Gwiga" (the only thatched property), "(y) Pandy Uchaf", "Bron Derw" and "Crafnant House".
The village school was built in 1842 by Lord Willoughby d'Eresby, who owned land and mines in the nearby
Glanrafon stores was build at the end of the 19th century, replacing some former cottages. The top floors once operated as the Glanrafon Private Hotel and Boarding House.
The car park opposite the woollen mills, along with the Recreation grounds, were given as a gift to the villagers. This car park is called "The Singrug", derived from "Eisingrug" ("eisin" + "crug" meaning heap/pile of husks). This name is far from unique in Wales, and refers to the fact that
winnowingmust at one time have been undertaken here.
hops & commerce
Trefriw today has just two shops - Glanrafon stores/cafe, and Marilyn's the butchers/grocers.However, in its heyday, with some 1,000 visitors arriving daily, there were naturally many more. These were virtually all located on the main street, and a number of properties can today clearly be seen to have been former shops.
Trefriw's most famous shop was perhaps that run by Richard Thomas Ellis. Located in what is currently the Post Office, this emporium sold almost everything, including even
dynamite. Ellis also arranged funerals. An advert of 1889 advertised "A splendid assortment of useful presents for visitors".
Other shops which have long disappeared include: a post office (by Chandlers yard), a shoe shop (currently the butchers), two butcher's shops (one at "Bryn Neuadd", which has also been a craft shop, the other opposite the mill), a cycle shop (lower main street), a bank (the middle shop in Glanrafon parade), a cake shop/bakers (opposite the current Post Office), a cobblers and confectionery shop (where the woollen mill is now), a sweet shop (opposite the school), a craft shop (opposite the Fairy Falls), a chemist, a taxi/garage business (later Chandlers boatyard), "Neuadd" cafe (next to the village hall), a chip shop (near "The Ship" pub) and a grocers (behind the current Post Office). There was formerly a large abattoir behind the public toilets.
Name Origins & Population
The name 'Trefriw' is variously attributed to 'tref' + 'rhiw' (farm/homestead + hill) or to 'tref' + 'briw' (a wound, i.e. a reference to the healing waters of the Spa). Given the nature of Welsh
consonant mutation, both of these are feasible -Tref + riw (soft mutation of rhiw, as the second part of a compound word) or Tre' + friw (mutation of briw).
The information board in the village opts for the meaning deriving from the healing waters. However, D. Geraint Lewis, who has done much research into place names, concludes that the meaning is "homestead on the hill". ["Y Llyfr Enwau / A Checklist of Welsh Place Names", Gomer (2007), ISBN 1 84323 735 0]
The following explanation is also given on [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/cfwm/cf107.htm#fn_72 this external site] :
"Trefriw means the town of the slope or hillside, and stands for "Tref y Riw", not "tref y Rhiw", which would have yielded "Treffriw", for there is a tendency in Gwynedd to make the mutation after the definite article conform to the general rule, and to say "y law", 'the hand,' and "y raw", 'the spade,' instead of what would be in books - "y llaw" and "y rhaw"."
The word 'tref' historically meant 'farm/homestead'. Today it means 'town'. The definition of the word 'town' has altered over the centuries. Certainly Trefriw, in its heyday, was undeniably a town. Today it would be described as a large village.
Over the centuries the spelling of the name Trefriw has seen numerous versions. As has been mentioned above, "Hanes Trefriw" records that Llywelyn named the new parish "Tref Rhiw Las". A document of 1254AD refers to the place as "Treffruu". [http://www.gwp.enta.net/walhist.html] , and a number of documents from the 16th century refer to "Treverewe", "Treffrewe", "Treverow" and "Treffrew" (as well as to "Trefriw"), with "Trefriew" appearing on a document of 1795 [http://www.e-gymraeg.co.uk/enwaulleoedd/amr/cronfa_en.aspx] .
By 1801 the village had a population of 301, according to the "Topographical Dictionary of the Dominion of Wales" (1811). By 1851 the population had risen to 428. The 1991 Census records a population of 1,286, 54.9% of whom could speak Welsh. The 2001 Census records an increased population as 1,338, there being some 565 residences within the Ward, and reports that exactly half of the population is Welsh speaking.
* Thomas Wiliems (1545 or 1546 – 1620?). Referred to above in connection with the Gunpowder Plot. [http://yba.llgc.org.uk/AnaServer?ybawbo+1883203+aview.anv+v=av&l=c Full biography] .
* Evan Evans ("Ieuan Glan Geirionydd") was born at Trefriw in 1795, the son of a former shipwright. He was of Nonconformist parentage, and his parents are credited with founding the Calvanistic Methodist movement in the area. He started life as a schoolmaster, but he attracted attention by his successes in poetry at various
Eisteddfodau, his early imagination being charmed by the picturesque surroundings of his home area. He subsequently decided to move into the church, and was ordained in 1826. He was a hymn writer, but suffered from bad health - possibly a reason why his hymns, most in the form of prayers, are considered rather sad and deep. He held successively the curacies of Christletonand Ince, in Cheshire. Ill-health compelled him to leave Ince, and he spent some time in retirement among his beloved hills in Trefriw. When he had partially recovered, he was appointed to the curacy of Rhyl. He died on 21 January 1855, and is buried in the village cemetery. His poetical works were published under the title of "Geirionydd".
* Dafydd Jones (1703-1785) was a poet who wrote most of his works between 1750 and 1780. He lived at "Tan yr yw" in the village, as referred to above, and sometimes wrote under the name of Dewi Fardd. He progressed from publishing his own work to setting up on his own as a printer - some say that this was the first printing press in Wales. Some sources refer to Dafydd Jones as the Anglicised form "David Jones". The very first Welsh language publication of a purely political nature was a translation by him of a pamphlet on the American dispute.
* Gwilym Cowlyd, a native of Trefriw, was one of the most colourful figures in Welsh culture, and one who was very fond of the Cerdd Dant Festival. William John Roberts (1828-1904) was his real name, and the one he used in his day job as a printer and bookseller. However, he had a bee in his bonnet when it came to the National
Eisteddfodand he would assume the bardic name of Gwilym Cowlyd when levelling severe criticism at the Gorsedd for being too Anglicised. Eventually, in 1865, he founded a separate festival to rival the big National Eisteddfod. He called it Arwest Glan Geirionydd (‘Music Festival on the Banks of the Lake Geirionydd’), and the meeting point was the Taliesin Memorial which now overlooks the lake.
* Mary Owen was born at Trefriw in 1803, and lived to the age of 108. She moved away to live at "Fron Olew", Mynydd Llwydiarth,
Pentraeth, overlooking Red Wharf Bay on Anglesey. By May 1911 she broke the record to become the oldest person to live in Wales, indeed in Britain. She died in 1911 and was buried in the graveyard at Pentraeth.
* In 1831 James Hughes was born in the village. Proficient on the harp, violin and flute, he became a harp-maker of renown. He died in Manchester in 1878 and is buried in the village churchyard.
* T.R. Williams y Ffatri was famous throughout the land as a festival conductor. He composed tunes and anthems, and four of them are in the Independent Hymnbook. He was organist in the Ebeneser Church and a deacon for 15 years. He died in 1922 and there is a stained-glass window there to commemorate him.
* William Jones, poet, was born in Trefriw 1896. He studied at the University College of North Wales and became a Congregational minister before changing denomination and joining the Calvinistic Methodists. He lived and worked in
Tremadog. He published two collections of poetry, "Adar Rhiannon a Cherddi Eraill" in 1947 and "Sonedau a Thelynegion" in 1950. As a poet and a person, he has been compared to R. Williams-Parry, who was a great friend of his. He died in 1961.
* Pierino Algieri, the renowned local photographer, was born in Trefriw in 1955. [http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/features/tm_objectid=16293637&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=searching-for-the-perfect-landscape-name_page.html Biography] .
Kate Roberts, the authoress, was first cousin to Hugh Griffith Roberts, who came from Trefriw.
* Richard Owen Roberts, the father of Gwilym Roberts the story-teller, was born in Llanrhychwyn. [http://www.museumwales.ac.uk/en/folktales/storytellers/?id=3 More information] .
* Dylan Cernyw, Welsh harpist and three-time Eisteddfod winner (1989, 1991 & 1994), is currently tenant of the "Fairy Falls" pub. [http://www.dylancernyw.com/index.htm Biography] .
* Although not a resident,
Alfred Bestall, author and illustrator of the Rupert Bearstories, holidayed in Trefriw in 1912 and 1913. It was at this time that he first visited Beddgelert, where he subsequently bought a house, and which provided much of the inspiration for his illustrations.
The Healthiest Place in Wales?
In his book "Hanes Trefriw" (1879), Morris Jones writes: "(translated from the Welsh)"
Further credence was given to this belief when it became known that Mary Owen, Britain's oldest woman (see above), was born in Trefriw.
Trefriw's links with fairies are noted in the name of the main waterfalls in the village - The Fairy Falls, which is also the name of one of the pubs (previously called "The Geirionydd").
In 1880 Wirt Sikes published his book " [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/cfwm/cf107.htm#fn_72 British Goblins - Welsh Folk-lore, Fairy Mythology, Legends and Traditions] ", from which comes the following passage:
In 1879 Morris Jones wrote "Hanes Trefriw, fel y bu ac fel y mae, Disgrifiad Cryno o'r Aral a'r Trigolion" (A history of Trefriw, then and now, a short description of the area and its inhabitants). Published by W.J. Roberts, Heol Watling, Llanrwst. This book is in Welsh.
In 1993 Gomer Press published published a short historical novel for children by Gweneth Lilly, entitled "Treason at Trefriw". "(see the reference above)"
On a less factual note, Trefriw was the birthplace of
Brother Cadfael, the fictional detective in a series of murder mysteries by the late Edith Pargeterwriting under the name "Ellis Peters". His full name was Cadfael ap (son of) Meilyr ap Dafydd and he was born around 1080 to a villein (serf) family. The stories are set between about 1135 and about 1145, during the civil war between the forces of King Stephen and Empress Maud.
The house called "Y Wern" (at the foot of Llanrhychwyn hill) features in the Welsh novel "Os Dianc Rhai" (by Martin Davis, published by Y Lolfa, 2003). This story is set in the mid-1930s and the Second World War.
In the Record Books
In 2006 Trefriw won the award for North Wales
Calor Village of the Year.
The World's Largest Garden Hedge Maze is currently nearing completion at "Garden Art". Covering over two acres, this beats the current record previously held by the Marquis of Bath at
Longleat. The maze was designed by Giovanni Angelo Jacovelli with assistance from respected Australian artist Bob Haberfield. [http://www.gardenartdirect.co.uk/maze.asp]
Trefriw is in the record books for a record
boomerangthrow. Englishman Andrew Furniss set the British MTA Unlimited record with 75.41 secs. in the Trefriw Festival (UK, August 2001). [http://www.ifba-online.com/smf/Records_files/sheet001.htm] [http://www.boomerangshop.co.uk/records.html] .
Trefriw is the home of [http://www.thegardeningwebsite.co.uk/products.php?productId=874 Roualeyn Nurseries] , which specializes in fuchsias. The nurseries are habitual winners of awards at shows such as
Chelsea Flower Show. Roualeyn was once the home of John Payne Davies, an artist and member of the Royal Cambrian Academy.
[http://www.trefriw.co.uk/ Crafnant Guesthouse] was the winner of the "Best Wildlife Garden in Snowdonia" competition, 2004.
Over the years, the following quotes have been made about Trefriw:
"The Conwy Valley & the lands of history", by K. Mortimer Hart(published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1987)
"The Conwy Valley – Its Long History", by Michael Senior(published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1984)
"The Crossing of the Conwy", by Michael Senior(published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 1991)
"Gwydir Slate Quarries", by M.C. Williams & M.J.T. Lewis(published by Snowdonia National Park Study Centre, 1989)
"Hanes Trefriw", by Morris Jones(published by W.J. Roberts, 1879)
"Walks in the Conwy Valley", by Christopher Draper(published by Gwasg Carreg Gwalch, 2002)
"Sarn Helen", by J. Cantrell & A. Rylance (Cicerone Press, 1992)
"The Mines of The Gwydir Forest" Parts 1 - 7, by John Bennett & Robert W. Vernon (published by Gwydir Mines Publications, 1989-97)
"The Rock Cannon of Gwynedd", by Griff R Jones (2002)
"The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland" (1868)
"A Topographical Dictionary of Wales" by Samuel Lewis (1833)
* [http://www.trefriw.org/ The Trefriw Village website]
* [http://www.postcard-nostalgia.co.uk/ Postcard-Nostalgia.co.uk]
* [http://www.4snowdoniaholidays.co.uk/ Trefriw Tourist Association website]
* [http://www.trefriwtrails.org.uk/ Trefriw Trails]
* [http://www.princes-arms.co.uk/ Princes Arms Hotel]
* [http://www.the-old-ship.co.uk/ The Old Ship / Yr Hen Long]
* [http://www.4snowdoniaholidays.co.uk/fairy_falls.htm Fairy Falls Hotel]
* [http://www.gwydir-castle.co.uk/ Gwydir Castle]
* [http://www.4snowdoniaholidays.co.uk/spa.htm Trefriw Wells Spa]
* [http://www.t-w-m.co.uk/ Trefriw Woollen Mills]
* [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/CAE/Trefriw/index.html GENUKI Geneaology site : Trefriw]
* [http://www.penmorfa.com/Rhiwbach/ Rhiwbach Quarry and the Rhiwbach Tramway]
* [http://www.geograph.org.uk/search.php?i=3483174 www.geograph.co.uk : photos of Trefriw and surrounding area]
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