List of state leaders in 1998


List of state leaders in 1998

Africa

*Algeria -
**President - Liamine Zéroual, President of Algeria (1994-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Ahmed Ouyahia, Prime Minister of Algeria (1995-1998)
**#Smail Hamdani, Prime Minister of Algeria (1998-1999)
*Angola -
**President - José Eduardo dos Santos, President of Angola (1979-present)
**Prime Minister - Fernando José de França Dias Van-Dúnem, Prime Minister of Angola (1996-1999)
*Benin - Mathieu Kérékou, President of Benin (1996-2006)
*Botswana -
*#Quett Masire, President of Botswana (1980-1998)
*#Festus Mogae, President of Botswana (1998-2008)
*Burkina Faso -
**President - Blaise Compaoré, President of Burkina Faso (1987-present)
**Prime Minister - Kadré Désiré Ouedraogo, Prime Minister of Burkina Faso (1996-2000)
*Burundi -
**President - Pierre Buyoya, President of Burundi (1996-2003)
**Prime Minister - Pascal-Firmin Ndimira. Prime Minister of Burundi (1996-1998)
*Cameroon -
**President - Paul Biya, President of Cameroon (1982-present)
**Prime Minister - Peter Mafany Musonge, Prime Minister of Cameroon (1996-2004)
*Cape Verde -
**President - António Mascarenhas Monteiro, President of Cape Verde (1991-2001)
**Prime Minister - Carlos Veiga, Prime Minister of Cape Verde (1991-2000)
*Central African Republic -
**President - Ange-Félix Patassé, President of the Central African Republic (1993-2003)
**Prime Minister - Michel Gbezera-Bria, Prime Minister of the Central African Republic (1997-1999)
*Chad -
**President - Idriss Déby, President of Chad (1990-present)
**Prime Minister - Nassour Guelendouksia Ouaido, Prime Minister of Chad (1997-1999)
*Comoros -
**President -
**#Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim, President of Comoros (1996-1998)
**#Tadjidine Ben Said Massounde, interim President of Comoros (1998-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Nourdine Bourhane, Prime Minister of Comoros (1997-1998)
**#Abbas Djoussouf, Prime Minister of Comoros (1998-1999)
*Democratic Republic of the Congo - Laurent-Désiré Kabila, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1997-2001)
*Republic of the Congo - Denis Sassou Nguesso, President of the Republic of the Congo (1997-present)
*Côte d'Ivoire -
**President - Henri Konan Bédié, President of Côte d'Ivoire (1993-1999)
**Prime Minister - Daniel Kablan Duncan, Prime Minister of Côte d'Ivoire (1993-1999)
*Djibouti -
**President - Hassan Gouled Aptidon, President of Djibouti (1977-1999)
**Prime Minister - Barkat Gourad Hamadou, Prime Minister of Djibouti (1978-2001)
*Equatorial Guinea -
**President - Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, President of Equatorial Guinea (1979-present)
**Prime Minister - Ángel Serafín Seriche Dougan, Prime Minister of Equatorial Guinea (1996-2001)
*Eritrea - Isaias Afewerki, President of Eritrea (1993-present)
*Ethiopia -
**President - Negasso Gidada, President of Ethiopia (1995-2001)
**Prime Minister - Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of Ethiopia (1995-present)
*Gabon -
**President - Omar Bongo, President of Gabon (1967-present)
**Prime Minister - Paulin Obame-Nguema, Prime Minister of Gabon (1994-1999)
*The Gambia - Yahya Jammeh, President of The Gambia (1994-present)
*Guinea -
**President - Lansana Conté, President of Guinea (1984-present)
**Prime Minister - Sidya Touré, Prime Minister of Guinea (1996-1999)
*"'Guinea-Bissau -
**President - João Bernardo Vieira, President of Guinea-Bissau (1984-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Carlos Correia, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau (1997-1998)
**#Francisco Fadul, Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau (1998-2000)
*Kenya - Daniel arap Moi, President of Kenya (1978-2002)
*Lesotho -
**Monarch - Letsie III, King of Lesotho (1996-present)
**Prime Minister -
**#Ntsu Mokhehle, Prime Minister of Lesotho (1994-1998)
**#Pakalitha Mosisili, Prime Minister of Lesotho (1998-present)
*Liberia - Charles Taylor, President of Liberia (1997-2003)
*Libya -
**"De facto" Head of State - Muammar al-Gaddafi, Guide of the Revolution (1969–present)
**Nominal Head of State - Zentani Muhammad az-Zentani, General Secretary of the General People's Congress (1992–present)
**Head of Government - Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush, General Secretary of the General People's Committee (1997-2000)
*Madagascar -
**President - Didier Ratsiraka, President of Madagascar (1997-2002)
**Prime Minister -
**#Pascal Rakotomavo, Prime Minister of Madagascar (1997-1998)
**#Tantely Andrianarivo, Prime Minister of Madagascar (1998-2002)
*Malawi - Bakili Muluzi, President of Malawi (1994-2004)
*Mali -
**President - Alpha Oumar Konaré, President of Mali (1992-2002)
**Prime Minister - Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta, Prime Minister of Mali (1994-2000)
*Mauritania -
**President - Maaouya Ould Sid'Ahmed Taya, President of Mauritania (1984-2005)
**Prime Minister -
**#Mohamed Lemine Ould Guig, Prime Minister of Mauritania (1997-1998)
**#Cheikh El Avia Ould Mohamed Khouna, Prime Minister of Mauritania (1998-2003)
*Mauritius -
**President - Cassam Uteem, President of Mauritius (1992-2002)
**Prime Minister - Navin Ramgoolam, Prime Minister of Mauritius (1995-2000)
*Morocco -
**Monarch - Hassan II, King of Morocco (19611999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Abdellatif Filali, Prime Minister of Morocco (19941998)
**#Abderrahmane Youssoufi, Prime Minister of Morocco (19982002)
*Mozambique -
**President - Joaquim Chissano, President of Mozambique (19862005)
**Prime Minister - Pascoal Mocumbi, Prime Minister of Mozambique (19942004)
*Namibia -
**President - Sam Nujoma, President of Namibia (1990-2005)
**Prime Minister - Hage Geingob, Prime Minister of Namibia (1990-2002)
*Niger -
**President - Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara, President of Niger (19961999)
**Prime Minister - Ibrahim Hassane Mayaki, Prime Minister of Niger (1997-2000)
*Nigeria -
**President -
**#Sani Abacha, Chairmen of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria (1993-1998)
**#Abdulsalami Abubakar, Chairmen of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria (1998-1999)
*Rwanda -
**President - Pasteur Bizimungu, President of Rwanda (1994-2000)
**Prime Minister - Pierre-Célestin Rwigema, Prime Minister of Rwanda (1995-2000)
*São Tomé and Príncipe -
**President - Miguel Trovoada, President of São Tomé and Príncipe (1995-2001)
**Prime Minister -Raul Bragança Neto, Prime Minister of São Tomé and Príncipe (1996-1999)
**Príncipe - Damião Vaz d'Almeida, President of the Regional Government of Principe (19952002)
*Senegal -
**President - Abdou Diouf, President of Senegal (1981-2000)
**Prime Minister -
**#Habib Thiam, Prime Minister of Senegal (1991-1998)
**#Mamadou Lamine Loum, Prime Minister of Senegal (1998-2000)
*Seychelles - France-Albert René, President of Seychelles (1977-2004)
*Sierra Leone -
*#Johnny Paul Koroma, Chairman of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (19971998)
*#Ahmad Tejan Kabbah, President of Sierra Leone (19982007)
*Somalia - No central government
**Somaliland - Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, President of Somaliland (19932002)
**Puntland - Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, President of Puntland (1998-2002)
*South Africa - Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa (1994-1999)
*Sudan - Omar al-Bashir, President of Sudan (1989–present)
*Swaziland -
**Monarch - Mswati III, King of Swaziland (1986-present)
**Prime Minister - Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini, Prime Minister of Swaziland (1996-2003)
*Tanzania -
**President - Benjamin Mkapa, President of Tanzania (1995-2005)
**Prime Minister - Frederick Sumaye, Prime Minister of Tanzania (1995-2005)
**Zanzibar -
***President - Salmin Amour, President of Zanzibar (1990-2000)
***Chief Minister - Mohamed Gharib Bilali, Chief Minister of Zanzibar (1995-2000)
*Togo -
**President - Gnassingbé Eyadéma, President of Togo (1967-2005)
**Prime Minister - Kwassi Klutse, Prime Minister of Togo (1996-1999)
*Tunisia -
**President - Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, President of Tunisia (1987–present)
**Prime Minister - Hamed Karoui, Prime Minister of Tunisia (19891999)
*Uganda -
**President - Yoweri Museveni, President of Uganda (1986-present)
**Prime Minister - Kintu Musoke, Prime Minister of Uganda (1994-1999)
*Western Sahara (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) -
**President - Mohamed Abdelaziz, President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (1976–present)
**Prime Minister - Mahfoud Ali Beiba, Prime Minister of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (19951999)
*Zambia - Frederick Chiluba, President of Zambia (1991-2002)
*Zimbabwe - Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe (1987-present)

Asia

*Afghanistan -
**(Taliban) -
***De Facto Head of State - Mohammed Omar, Commander of the Faithful (1996-2001)
***De Facto Prime Minister - Mohammad Rabbani, Head of the Supreme Council (1996-2001)
**(United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) - Burhanuddin Rabbani, President of Afghanistan (1992-2001)
*Bangladesh -
**President - Shahabuddin Ahmed, President of Bangladesh (19962001)
**Prime Minister - Sheikh Hasina, Prime Minister of Bangladesh (19962001)
*Bhutan -
**Monarch - Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan (1972-2006)
**Prime Minister - Lyonpo Jigme Thinley, Prime Minister of Bhutan (1998-1999)
*Brunei - Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei (1967-present)
*Cambodia -
**Monarch - Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia (1993-2004)
**Prime Minister - Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia (1985–present)
*People's Republic of China -
**Communist Party Leader- Jiang Zemin, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (1989-2002)
**President - Jiang Zemin, President of the People's Republic of China (1993-2003)
**Premier -
**#Li Peng, Premier of the People's Republic of China (1987-1998)
**#Zhu Rongji, Premier of the People's Republic of China (1998-2003)
**Hong Kong - Tung Chee Hwa, Chief Executive of Hong Kong (1997-2005)
*India -
**President - K. R. Narayanan, President of India (1997-2002)
**Prime Minister -
**#Inder Kumar Gujral, Prime Minister of India (1997-1998)
**#Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Prime Minister of India (1998-2004)
*Indonesia -
*#Suharto, President of Indonesia (19671998)
*#Jusuf Habibie, President of Indonesia (19981999)
*Japan -
**Monarch - Akihito, Emperor of Japan (1989-present)
**Prime Minister -
**#Ryutaro Hashimoto, Prime Minister of Japan (1996-1998)
**#Keizo Obuchi, Prime Minister of Japan (1998-2000)
*Kazakhstan -
**President - Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan (1990–present)
**Prime Minister - Nurlan Balgimbayev, Prime Minister of Kazakhstan (19971999)
*North Korea -
**De facto Ruler - Kim Jong-il, Chairman of the National Defense Commission (1993-present)
**Head of State - Kim Yong-nam, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly (1998-present)
**Premier - Hong Song Nam, Premier of North Korea (1997-2003)
*South Korea -
**President -
**#Kim Young-sam, President of South Korea (1993-1998)
**#Kim Dae Jung, President of South Korea (1998-2003)
**Prime Minister -
**#Goh Kun, Prime Minister of South Korea (1997-1998)
**#Kim Jong-pil, Prime Minister of South Korea (1998-2000)
*Kyrgyzstan -
**President - Askar Akayev, President of Kyrgyzstan (19902005)
**Prime Minister -
**#Apas Jumagulov, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (19931998)
**#Kubanychbek Jumaliyev, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998)
**#Boris Silayev, acting Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (1998)
**#Jumabek Ibraimov, Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (19981999)
*Laos -
**President -
**#Nouhak Phoumsavanh, President of Laos (1992-1998)
**#Khamtai Siphandon, President of Laos (1998-2006)
**Prime Minister -
**#Khamtai Siphandon, Prime Minister of Laos (1991-1998)
**#Sisavath Keobounphanh, Prime Minister of Laos (1998-2001)
*Malaysia -
**Monarch - Tuanku Jaafar, Yang di-Pertuan Agong (1994-1999)
**Prime Minister - Mahathir bin Mohamad, Prime Minister of Malaysia (1981-2003)
*Maldives - Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, President of the Maldives (1978–present)
*Mongolia -
**President - Natsagiin Bagabandi, President of Mongolia (1997-2005)
**Prime Minister -
**#Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan, Prime Minister of Mongolia (1996-1998)
**#Janlavyn Narantsatsralt, Prime Minister of Mongolia (1998-1999)
*Myanmar -
**Chairman - Than Shwe, Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (1992–present)
**Prime Minister - Than Shwe, Prime Minister of Myanmar (1992-2003)
*Nepal -
**Monarch - Birendra, King of Nepal (1972-2001)
**Prime Minister -
**#Surya Bahadur Thapa, Prime Minister of Nepal (1997-1998)
**#Girija Prasad Koirala, Prime Minister of Nepal (1998-1999)
*Pakistan -
**President -
**#Wasim Sajjad, President of Pakistan (1997-1998)
**#Muhammad Rafiq Tarar, President of Pakistan (1998-2001)
**Prime Minister - Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan (1997-1999)
*Philippines -
*#Fidel V. Ramos, President of the Philippines (1992-1998)
*#Joseph Estrada, President of the Philippines (1998-2001)
*Singapore -
**President - Ong Teng Cheong, President of Singapore (1993-1999)
**Prime Minister - Goh Chok Tong, Prime Minister of Singapore (1990-2004)
*Sri Lanka -
**President - Chandrika Kumaratunga, President of Sri Lanka (1994-2005)
**Prime Minister - Sirimavo Bandaranaike, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka (1994-2000)
*Taiwan (Republic of China) -
**President - Lee Teng-hui, President of the Republic of China (1988-2000)
**Premier - Vincent Siew, Premier of the Republic of China (1997-2000)
*Tajikistan -
**President - Emomali Rahmonov, President of Tajikistan (1992–present)
**Prime Minister - Yahyo Azimov, Prime Minister of Tajikistan (1996-1999)
*Thailand -
**Monarch - Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand (1946–present)
**Prime Minister - Chuan Leekpai, Prime Minister of Thailand (1997-2001)
*Turkmenistan - Saparmurat Niyazov, President of Turkmenistan (19912006)
*Uzbekistan -
**President - Islom Karimov, President of Uzbekistan (1991–present)
**Prime Minister - O‘tkir Sultonov, Prime Minister of Uzbekistan (19952003)
*Vietnam -
**Communist Party Leader - Lê Khả Phiêu, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam (1997-2001)
**President - Trần Đức Lương, President of Vietnam (1997-2006)
**Prime Minister - Phan Văn Khải, Prime Minister of Vietnam (1997-2006)

Australia and Oceania

*Australia -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia (1952-present)
**Governor-General - William Deane, Governor-General of Australia (1996-2001)
**Prime Minister - John Howard, Prime Minister of Australia (1996-2007)
*Fiji -
**President - Kamisese Mara, President of Fiji (1993-2000)
**Prime Minister - Sitiveni Rabuka, Prime Minister of Fiji (1992-1999)
*Kiribati - Teburoro Tito, President of Kiribati (19942003)
*Marshall Islands - Imata Kabua, President of the Marshall Islands (19972000)
*Federated States of Micronesia - Jacob Nena, President of the Federated States of Micronesia (19971999)
*Nauru -
*#Kinza Clodumar, President of Nauru (1997-1998)
*#Bernard Dowiyogo, President of Nauru (1998-1999)
*New Zealand -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of New Zealand (1952-present)
**Governor-General - Michael Hardie Boys, Governor-General of New Zealand (1996-2001)
**Prime Minister - Jenny Shipley, Prime Minister of New Zealand, (1997-1999)
*Palau - Kuniwo Nakamura, President of Palau (1993-2001)
*Solomon Islands -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of the Solomon Islands (1978–present)
**Governor-General - Moses Pitakaka, Governor-General of the Solomon Islands (19941999)
**Prime Minister - Bartholomew Ulufa'alu, Prime Minister of the Solomon Islands (19972000)
*Tonga -
**Monarch - Taufa'ahau Tupou IV, King of Tonga (19652006)
**Prime Minister - Baron Vaea of Houma, Prime Minister of Tonga, (19912000)
*Tuvalu -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Tuvalu (1978-present)
**Governor-General -
**#Tulaga Manuella, Governor General of Tuvalu (1994-1998)
**#Tomasi Puapua, Governor General of Tuvalu (1998-2003)
**Prime Minister - Bikenibeu Paeniu, Prime Minister of Tuvalu (1996-1999)
*Vanuatu -
**President - Jean Marie Leye Lenelgau, President of Vanuatu (19941999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Serge Vohor, Prime minister of Vanuatu (19961998)
**#Donald Kalpokas, Prime minister of Vanuatu (19981999)

Europe

*Albania -
**President - Rexhep Meidani, President of Albania (1997-2002)
**Prime Minister -
**#Fatos Nano, Prime Minister of Albania (1997-1998)
**#Pandeli Majko, Prime Minister of Albania (1998-1999)
*Andorra -
**Co-Princes -
***Jacques Chirac, President of France (1995-2007)
***Joan Martí Alanis, Bishop of Urgell (1971-2003)
**Prime Minister - Marc Forné Molné, Prime Minister of Andorra (1994-2005)
*Armenia -
**President -
**#Levon Ter-Petrossian, President of Armenia (19911998)
**#Robert Kocharyan, President of Armenia (19982008)
**Prime Minister -
**#Robert Kocharyan, Prime Minister of Armenia (19971998)
**#Armen Darbinyan, Prime Minister of Armenia (19981999)
*Austria -
**President - Thomas Klestil, President of Austria (19922004)
**Chancellor - Viktor Klima, Chancellor of Austria (19972000)
*Azerbaijan -
**President - Heydar Aliyev, President of Azerbaijan (1993-2003)
**Prime Minister - Artur Rasizade, Prime Minister of Azerbaijan (1996-2003)
*Belarus -
**President - Alexander Lukashenko, President of Belarus (1994–present)
**Prime Minister - Syargey Ling, Prime Minister of Belarus (1997-2000)
*Belgium -
**Monarch - Albert II, King of the Belgians (1993-present)
**Prime Minister - Jean-Luc Dehaene, Prime Minister of Belgium (1992-1999)
*Bosnia and Herzegovina -
**Chairman of the Presidency -
**#Alija Izetbegović, Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996-1998)
**#Živko Radišić, Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1998-1999)
**Co-prime Ministers -
***Boro Bosic, Prime Minister of Bosnia-Hercegovina (1997-1999)
***Haris Silajdzic, Prime Minister of Bosnia-Hercegovina (1997-2000)
**High Representative - Carlos Westendorp, High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1997-1999)
*Bulgaria -
**President - Petar Stoyanov, President of Bulgaria (1997-2002)
**Prime Minister - Ivan Kostov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria (1997-2001)
*Croatia -
**President - Franjo Tuđman, President of Croatia (1990-1999)
**Prime Minister - Zlatko Mateša, Prime Minister of Croatia (1995-2000)
*Cyprus -
**President - Glafkos Klerides, President of Cyprus (1993-2003)
**Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus -
***President - Rauf Denktaş, President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1975-2005)
***Prime Minister - Derviş Eroğlu, Prime Minister of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (1996-2004)
*Czech Republic -
**President - Václav Havel, President of the Czech Republic (19932003)
**Prime Minister -
**#Josef Tošovský, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (19971998)
**#Miloš Zeman, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (19982002)
*Denmark -
**Monarch - Margrethe II, Queen of Denmark (1972-present)
**Prime Minister - Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, Prime Minister of Denmark (1993-2001)
*Estonia -
**President - Lennart Meri, President of Estonia (1992-2001)
**Prime Minister - Mart Siimann, Prime Minister of Estonia (1997-1999)
*Finland -
**President - Martti Ahtisaari, President of Finland, (1994-2000)
**Prime Minister - Paavo Lipponen, Prime Minister of Finland, (1995-2003)
*France -
**President - Jacques Chirac, President of France (1995-2007)
**Prime Minister - Lionel Jospin, Prime Minister of France (1997-2002)
*Georgia -
**President - Eduard Shevardnadze, President of Georgia (19922003)
**Prime Minister -
**#Niko Lekishvili, Prime Minister of Georgia (19951998)
**#Vazha Lortkipanidze, Prime Minister of Georgia (19982000)
**Abkhazia -
***President - Vladislav Ardzinba, President of Abkhazia (19942005)
***Prime Minister - Sergei Bagapsh, Prime Minister of Abkhazia (19971999)
*Germany -
**President - Roman Herzog, President of Germany (1994-1999)
**Chancellor -
**#Helmut Kohl, Chancellor of Germany (1982-1998)
**#Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany (1998-2005)
*Greece -
**President- Costis Stephanopoulos, President of Greece (1995-2005)
**Prime Minister - Costas Simitis, Prime Minister of Greece (1996-2004)
*Hungary -
**President - Árpád Göncz, President of Hungary (1990-2000)
**Prime Minister -
**#Gyula Horn, Prime Minister of Hungary (1994-1998)
**#Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary (1998-2002)
*Iceland -
**President - Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, President of Iceland (1996-present)
**Prime Minister - Davíð Oddsson, Prime Minister of Iceland (1991-2004)
*Ireland -
**President - Mary McAleese, President of Ireland (1997-present)
**Prime Minister - Bertie Ahern, Taoiseach (1997-2008)
*Italy -
**President - Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, President of the Italian Republic (1992-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Romano Prodi, Prime Minister of Italy (1996-1998)
**#Massimo D'Alema, Prime Minister of Italy (1998-2000)
*Latvia -
**President - Guntis Ulmanis, President of Latvia (1993-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Guntars Krasts, Prime Minister of Latvia (1997-1998)
**#Vilis Krištopans, Prime Minister of Latvia (1998-1999)
*Liechtenstein -
**Monarch - Hans-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein (1989-present)
**Head of Government - Mario Frick, Head of Government (1993-2001)
*Lithuania -
**President -
**#Algirdas Brazauskas, President of Lithuania (1992-1998)
**#Valdas Adamkus, President of Lithuania (1998-2003)
**Prime Minister - Gediminas Vagnorius, Prime Minister of Lithuania (1996-1999)
*Luxembourg -
**Monarch - Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (1964-2000)
**Prime Minister - Jean-Claude Juncker, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (1995-present)
*Republic of Macedonia -
**President - Kiro Gligorov, President of the Republic of Macedonia (1995-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Branko Crvenkovski, Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia (19921998)
**#Lyubcho Georgievski, Prime Minister of the Republic of Macedonia (19982002)
*Malta -
**President - Ugo Mifsud Bonnici, President of Malta (1994-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Alfred Sant, Prime Minister of Malta (1996-1998)
**#Eddie Fenech Adami, Prime Minister of Malta (1998-2004)
*Moldova -
**President - Petru Lucinschi, President of Moldova (1996-2001)
**Prime Minister - Ion Ciubuc, Prime Minister of Moldova (19971999)
**Transnistria - Igor Smirnov, President of Transnistria (1991-present)
*Monaco -
**Monarch - Rainier III, Prince of Monaco (1949-2005)
**Head of Government - Michel Leveque, Minister of State of Monaco (1997-2000)
*The Netherlands -
**Monarch - Beatrix, Queen of the Netherlands (1980-present)
**Prime Minister - Wim Kok, Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1994-2002)
*Norway -
**Monarch - Harald V, King of Norway (1991-present)
**Prime Minister - Kjell Magne Bondevik, Prime Minister of Norway (1997-2000)
*Poland -
**President - Aleksander Kwaśniewski, President of Poland (1995-2005)
**Prime Minister - Jerzy Buzek, Prime Minister of Poland (1997-2001)
*Portugal -
**President - Jorge Sampaio, President of Portugal (1996-2006)
**Prime Minister - António Guterres, Prime Minister of Portugal (1995-2002)
*Romania -
**President - Emil Constantinescu, President of Romania (1996-2000)
**Prime Minister -
**#Victor Ciorbea, Prime Minister of Romania (19961998)
**#Radu Vasile, Prime Minister of Romania (19981999)
*Russia -
**President - Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia (1991-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Viktor Chernomyrdin, Prime Minister of Russia (1992-1998)
**#Sergei Kiriyenko, Prime Minister of Russia (1998)
**#Viktor Chernomyrdin, acting Prime Minister of Russia (1998)
**#Yevgeny Primakov, Prime Minister of Russia (1998-1999)
*San Marino -
*#Luigi Mazza and Marino Zanotti, Captains Regent (1997-1998)
*#Alberto Cecchetti and Loris Francini, Captains Regent (1998)
*#Pietro Berti and Paolo Bollini, Captains Regent (1998-1999)
*Slovakia -
**President -
**#Michal Kováč, President of Slovakia (1993-1998)
**#Vladimír Mečiar and Ivan Gašparovič, acting President of Slovakia (1998)
**#Mikuláš Dzurinda and Jozef Migaš, acting President of Slovakia (1998-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Vladimír Mečiar, Prime Minister of Slovakia (1994-1998)
**#Mikuláš Dzurinda, Prime Minister of Slovakia (1998-2006)
*Slovenia -
**President - Milan Kučan, President of Slovenia (1991-2002)
**Prime Minister - Janez Drnovšek, Prime Minister of Slovenia (1992-2000)
*Spain -
**Monarch - Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (1975–present)
**Prime Minister - José María Aznar, Prime Minister of Spain (19962004)
*Sweden -
**Monarch - Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (1973-present)
**Prime Minister - Göran Persson, Prime Minister of Sweden (1996-2006)
*Switzerland -
**Swiss Federal Council: Jean-Pascal Delamuraz (1983-1998), Arnold Koller (1986-1999), Flavio Cotti (President of the Swiss Confederation) (1986-1999), Adolf Ogi (1987-2000), Kaspar Villiger (1989-2003), Ruth Dreifuss (1993-2002), Moritz Leuenberger (1995-present), Pascal Couchepin (1998-present))
*Turkey -
**President - Süleyman Demirel, President of Turkey (1993-2000)
**Prime Minister - Mesut Yılmaz, Prime Minister of Turkey (1997-1999)
*Ukraine -
**President - Leonid Kuchma, President of Ukraine (1994-2005)
**Prime Minister - Valeriy Pustovoitenko, Prime Minister of Ukraine (1997-1999)
*United Kingdom -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom (1952-present)
**Prime Minister - Tony Blair, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (1997-2007)
*Vatican City -
**Pope - John Paul II, Bishop of Rome (1978-2005)
**Secretary of State - Angelo Sodano, Cardinal Secretary of State (1991-2006)
*Yugoslavia -
**President - Slobodan Milošević, President of Yugoslavia (1997-2000)
**Prime Minister -
**#Radoje Kontić, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (1993-1998)
**#Momir Bulatović, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia (1998-2000)

Middle East

*Bahrain -
**Monarch - Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifah, Emir of Bahrain (19601999)
**Prime Minister - Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah, Prime Minister of Bahrain (1970–present)
*Egypt -
**President - Hosni Mubarak, President of Egypt (1981–present)
**Prime Minister - Kamal Ganzouri, Prime Minister of Egypt (1996-1999)
*Iran -
**Supreme Leader - Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran (1989–present)
**President - Mohammad Khatami, President of Iran (1997-2005)
*Iraq -
**President - Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq (1979-2003)
**Prime Minister - Saddam Hussein, Prime Minister of Iraq, (1994-2003)
*Israel -
**President - Ezer Weizman, President of Israel (1993-2000)
**Prime Minister - Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister of Israel (1996-1999)
*Jordan -
**Monarch - Hussein, King of Jordan (1952-1999)
**Prime Minister -
**#Abdelsalam al-Majali, Prime Minister of Jordan (1997-1998)
**#Fayez al-Tarawneh, Prime Minister of Jordan (1998-1999)
*Kuwait -
**Monarch - Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait (1977-2006)
**Prime Minister - Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah, Prime Minister of Kuwait (1978-2003)
*Lebanon -
**President -
**#Elias Hrawi, President of Lebanon (19891998)
**#Émile Lahoud, President of Lebanon (1998–present)
**Prime Minister -
**#Rafik Hariri, Prime Minister of Lebanon (1992-1998)
**#Selim al-Hoss, Prime Minister of Lebanon (1998-2000)
*Oman - Qaboos, Sultan of Oman (1970–present)
*Palestinian National Authority - Yasser Arafat, President of the Palestinian National Authority (1994-2004)
*Qatar -
**Monarch - Hamad bin Khalifa, Emir of Qatar (1995–present)
**Prime Minister - Abdullah bin Khalifah Al Thani, Prime Minister of Qatar (19962007)
*Saudi Arabia - Fahd, King of Saudi Arabia (1982-2005)
*Syria -
**President - Hafez al-Assad, President of Syria (1971-2000)
**Prime Minister - Mahmoud Zuabi, Prime Minister of Syria (1987-2000)
*United Arab Emirates -
**President - Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates (1971-2004)
**Prime Minister - Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates (1990-2006)
*Yemen -
**President - Ali Abdullah Saleh, President of Yemen (1990–present)
**Prime Minister -
**#Faraj Said Bin Ghanem, Prime Minister of Yemen (1997-1998)
**#Abdul Karim al-Iryani, Prime Minister of Yemen (1998-2001)

North America

*Antigua and Barbuda -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Antigua and Barbuda (1981–present)
**Governor-General - James Carlisle, Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda (19932007)
**Prime Minister - Lester Bird, Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda (19942004)
*Bahamas -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of the Bahamas (1973–present)
**Governor-General - Orville Alton Turnquest, Governor-General of the Bahamas (19952001)
**Prime Minister - Hubert Ingraham, Prime Minister of the Bahamas (19922002)
*Barbados -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Barbados (1966–present)
**Governor-General - Clifford Husbands, Governor-General of Barbados (1996–present)
**Prime Minister - Owen Arthur, Prime Minister of Barbados (19942008)
*Belize -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Belize (1981–present)
**Governor-General - Colville Young, Governor-General of Belize (1993–present)
**Prime Minister -
**#Manuel Esquivel, Prime Minister of Belize (19931998)
**#Said Musa, Prime Minister of Belize (19982008)
*Canada -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada (1952-present)
**Governor-General - Roméo LeBlanc, Governor General of Canada (1995-1999)
**Prime Minister - Jean Chrétien, Prime Minister of Canada (1993-2003)
*Costa Rica -
*#José María Figueres, President of Costa Rica (19941998)
*#Miguel Ángel Rodríguez, President of Costa Rica (19982002)
*Cuba - Fidel Castro, President of Cuba (1976-2008)
*Dominica -
**President -
**#Crispin Sorhaindo, President of Dominica (19931998)
**#Vernon Shaw, President of Dominica (19982003)
**Prime Minister - Edison James, Prime Minister of Dominica (19952000)
*Dominican Republic - Leonel Fernández, President of the Dominican Republic (19962000)
*El Salvador - Armando Calderón Sol, President of El Salvador (1994-1999)
*Grenada -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Grenada (1974–present)
**Governor-General - Daniel Williams, Governor-General of Grenada (1996–present)
**Prime Minister - Keith Mitchell, Prime Minister of Grenada (19952008)
*Guatemala - Álvaro Arzú, President of Guatemala (1996-2000)
*Haiti - René Préval, President of Haiti (1996-2001)
*Honduras -
*#Carlos Roberto Reina, President of Honduras (1994-1998)
*#Carlos Roberto Flores, President of Honduras (1998-2002)
*Jamaica -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Jamaica (1962–present)
**Governor-General - Howard Cooke, Governor-General of Jamaica (1991-2006)
**Prime Minister - P. J. Patterson, Prime Minister of Jamaica (1992-2006)
*Mexico - Ernesto Zedillo, President of Mexico (1994-2000)
*Nicaragua - Arnoldo Alemán, President of Nicaragua (1997-2002)
*Panama - Ernesto Pérez Balladares, President of Panama (1994-1999)
*Saint Kitts and Nevis -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983–present)
**Governor-General - Cuthbert Sebastian, Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis (1996–present)
**Prime Minister - Denzil Douglas, Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis (1995–present)
*Saint Lucia -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, Queen of Saint Lucia (1979–present)
**Governor-General - Pearlette Louisy, Governor-General of Saint Lucia (1997–present)
**Prime Minister - Kenny Anthony, Prime Minister of Saint Lucia (1997-2006)
*Saint Vincent and the Grenadines -
**Monarch - Elizabeth II, |Queen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979–present)
**Governor-General - Charles Antrobus, Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1996-2002)
**Prime Minister - James Fitz-Allen Mitchell, Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1984-2000)
*Trinidad and Tobago -
**President - A. N. R. Robinson, President of Trinidad and Tobago (1997-2003)
**Prime Minister - Basdeo Panday, Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago (1995-2001)
*United States - Bill Clinton, President of the United States (1993-2001)

outh America

*Argentina - Carlos Menem, President of Argentina (1989-1999)
*Bolivia - Hugo Banzer, President of Bolivia (1997-2001)
*Brazil - Fernando Henrique Cardoso, President of Brazil (1995-2003)
*Chile - Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, President of Chile (1994-2000)
*Colombia -
*#Ernesto Samper, President of Colombia (1994-1998)
*#Andrés Pastrana Arango, President of Colombia (1998-2002)
*Ecuador -
*#Fabián Alarcón, President of Ecuador (1997-1998)
*#Jamil Mahuad, President of Ecuador (1998-2000)
*Guyana -
** President - Janet Jagan, President of Guyana (1997-1999)
** Prime Minister - Sam Hinds, Prime Minister of Guyana (1997-1999)
*Paraguay -
*#Juan Carlos Wasmosy, President of Paraguay (1993-1998)
*#Raúl Cubas Grau, President of Paraguay (1998-1999)
*Peru -
**President - Alberto Fujimori, President of Peru (1990-2000)
**Prime Minister -
**#Alberto Pandolfi, Prime Minister of Peru (1996-1998)
**#Javier Valle Riestra, Prime Minister of Peru (1998)
**#Alberto Pandolfi, Prime Minister of Peru (1998-1999)
*Suriname - Jules Wijdenbosch, President of Suriname (1996-2000)
*Uruguay - Julio María Sanguinetti Coirolo, President of Uruguay (1995-2000)
*Venezuela - Rafael Caldera, President of Venezuela (1994-1999)

References

* [http://www.rulers.org/ Rulers]


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