Pope Paul IV


Pope Paul IV

Infobox pope|English name=Paul IV|Latin name=Paul PP. IV


birth_name=Giovanni Pietro Carafa
term_start=May 23, 1555|term_end=August 18, 1559
predecessor=Marcellus II|successor=Pius IV
birth_date=birth date|1476|6|28|mf=y|birthplace=Capriglia Irpina, Italy
dead=dead|death_date=death date and age|1559|8|18|1476|6|28|deathplace=Rome, Italy|other=Paul

Pope Paul IV (June 28, 1476 – August 18, 1559), né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from May 23, 1555 until his death.

Biography

Giovanni Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples. His father Giovanni Antonio Carafa died in West Flanders in 1516 and his mother Vittoria Camponeschi was the daughter of Pietro Lalle Camponeschi, 5th Conte di Montorio, a Neapolitan nobleman, and wife Dona Maria de Noronha, a Portuguese noblewoman of the House of Pereira "Senhores dos Lagares de El-Rei" and "Senhores de Paiva, Baltar e Cabeceiras de Basto". His title in the Prophecy of St. Malachy is "Of the Faith of Peter." He was mentored by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa, his relative, who resigned the see of Chieti (Latin "Theate") in his favor. Under the direction of Pope Leo X, he was ambassador to England and then papal nuncio in Spain, where he conceived a violent detestation of Spanish rule that affected the policies of his later papacy.

However, in 1524, Pope Clement VII allowed Carafa to resign his benefices and join the ascetic order of Saint Cajetan, popularly called the Theatines, after Cardinal Carafa, bishop of "Theate." Following the sack of Rome in 1527, the order moved to Venice. But Carafa was recalled to Rome by the reform-minded Pope Paul III (1534–49), to sit on a committee of reform of the papal court, an appointment that forecast an end to a humanist papacy, and a revival of scholasticism, for Carafa was a thorough disciple of Thomas Aquinas. In December 1536 he was made a cardinal and then Archbishop of Naples. He reorganized the Inquisition in Italy.

He was a surprise choice as pope to succeed Pope Marcellus II (1555); his rigid, severe and unbending character combined with his age and patriotism meant he would have declined the honor. He accepted apparently because Emperor Charles V was opposed to his accession. As pope his nationalism was a driving force; he used the office to preserve some liberties in the face of four-fold foreign occupation. The Habsburgs disliked Paul IV and he allied with France, possibly against the true interests of the Papacy. He also alienated Protestants in England and rejected the claim of Elizabeth I of England to the Crown. The strengthening of the Inquisition continued and Paul IV's rectitude meant that few could consider themselves safe by virtue of position in his drive to reform the Church; even cardinals he disliked could be imprisoned.

Paul IV believed in extra ecclesiam nulla salus. In 1555 he issued a canon (papal law), "Cum nimis absurdum," by which the Roman Ghetto was created. Jews were then forced to live in seclusion in a specified area of the rione Sant'Angelo, locked in at night, and he decreed that Jews should wear a distinctive sign, yellow hats for men and veils or shawls for women. The following Popes would have enforced the creation of other ghettos in most Italian towns. Under conservative pressure from Pope Pius IX (1846–78), the Roman ghetto was the last ghetto to be abolished in Western Europe.

Paul IV was violently opposed to the liberal Giovanni Cardinal Morone whom he strongly suspected of being a hidden Protestant, so much that he had him imprisoned. In order to prevent Morone from succeeding him and imposing what he believed to be his Protestant beliefs on the Church, Pope Paul IV codified the Catholic Law excluding heretics and non-Catholics from receiving or legitimately becoming Pope, in the bull "Cum ex apostolatus officio".

Paul IV introduced the Index Librorum Prohibitorum or "Index of Prohibited Books" to Venice, then an independent and prosperous trading state, in order to crack down on the growing threat of Protestanism and the newly introduced printing press. Under his authority, all books written by Protestants were banned, together with Italian and German translations of the Latin Bible.

As was usual with Renaissance popes, Paul IV sought to advance the fortunes of his family as well as that of the papacy. As Cardinal-nephew, Carlo Carafa became his uncle's chief adviser and the prime mover in their plans to ally with the French to expel the Spanish from Italy. Carlo's older brother Giovanni was made commander of the papal forces and Duke of Paliano after the pro-Spanish Colonna were deprived of that town in 1556. Another nephew, Antonio, was given command of the Papal guard and made Marquis of Montebello. Their conduct became notorious in Rome. However at the conclusion of the disastrous war with Philip II of Spain and after many scandals, in 1559 the Pope publicly disgraced his nephews and banished them from Rome.

He was buried in St. Peter's Basilica but was later transferred to Santa Maria sopra Minerva.

###@@@KEY@@@###


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pope Paul I —     Pope Paul I     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paul I     (757 67)     Date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 28 June, 767. He was a brother of Stephen II. They had been educated for the priesthood at the Lateran palace. Stephen entrusted his… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Paul — has been the name of six Roman Catholic Popes: *Pope Paul I (757–767) *Pope Paul II (1464–1471) *Pope Paul III (1534 1549) *Pope Paul IV (1555 1559) *Pope Paul V (1605 1621) *Pope Paul VI (1963 1978) See also: Pope John Paul I and Pope John Paul… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Paul V —     Pope Paul V     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paul V     (CAMILLO BORGHESE).     Born at Rome, 17 Sept., 1550; elected 16 May, 1605; died 28 Jan., 1621. Although proud to call himself, as we read on the façade of St. Peter s and on his… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Paul IV —     Pope Paul IV     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paul IV     (GIOVANNI PIETRO CARAFFA ).     Born near Benevento, 28 June, 1476; elected 23 May, 1555; died 18 Aug., 1559. The Caraffa were one of the most illustrious of the noble families of… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Paul II —     Pope Paul II     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Paul II     (PIETRO BARBO)     Born at Venice, 1417; elected 30 August, 1464; died 26 July, 1471; son of Niccolo Barbo and Polixena Condulmer, sister of Eugene IV. Although he studied for a… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Pope Paul VI — Infobox pope English name=Paul VI birth name=Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini term start=June 21, 1963 term end=August 6, 1978 predecessor=John XXIII successor=John Paul I birth date=birth date|1897|9|26|mf=y birthplace=Concesio,… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Paul II — Infobox Pope English name=Paul II birth name=Pietro Barbo term start=August 30, 1464 term end=July 26, 1471 predecessor=Pius II successor=Sixtus IV birth date=birth date|1417|2|23|mf=y birthplace=Venice, Italy dead=dead|death date=death date and… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Paul V — Infobox Pope|English name=Paul V|Latin name=Paolo PP. V birth name=Camillo Borghese term start=May 16, 1605|term end=January 28, 1621 predecessor=Leo XI|successor=Gregory XV birth date=birth date|1552|9|17|mf=y|birthplace=Rome, Italy… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Paul I — Infobox Pope English name=Paul I May 29, 757 term end=June 28, 767 predecessor=Stephen II successor=Stephen III birth date=??? birthplace=Rome, Italy dead=dead|death date=death date|767|6|28|mf=y deathplace=? other=Paul infobox popestyles papal… …   Wikipedia

  • Pope Paul — See Paul VI …   Ballentine's law dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.