The Ibadi movement or Ibadiyya (Arabic: الاباضية al-Ibāḍiyyah) is a form of
Islamdistinct from the Shi'aand Sunnidenominations. It is the dominant form of Islam in Oman. There are also Ibadis in Algeriaas well as Libya. [web cite|url=http://www.uga.edu/islam/ibadis.html|title=IBADI ISLAM: AN INTRODUCTION|author=Valerie J. Hoffman]
Believed to be one of the earliest schools, it is said to have been founded less than 50 years after the death of the prophet
Muhammad. The denomination developed out of the seventh-century Islamic sect known as the Khawarijor Kharijites. Nonetheless, Ibadis see themselves as quite different from the Khawarij.
The school derives its name from
Abdullah ibn Ibadhat-Tamīmī. Followers of this sect, however, claim its true founder was Jabir ibn Zaid al-'Azdi from Nizwa, Oman.
Ibadi communities are generally regarded as conservative, for example Ibadiyya rejects the practice of "
qunoot" or supplications while standing in prayer.
Sunni Muslims traditionally regard the Ibadiyya as a
Kharijitegroup, but Ibadis reject this designation. Ibadis regard other Muslims not as " kafir" "unbelievers" (as most Kharijitegroups did), but as "kuffar an-nima" "those who deny God's grace", though nowadays this attitude has relaxed.
They believe that the attitude of a true believer to others is expressed in three religious obligations:
*"walāyah": friendship and unity with the practicing true believers, and with the Ibadi Imams.
*"barā'ah": dissociation and hostility towards unbelievers and sinners, and those destined for Hell.
*"wuqūf": reservation towards those whose status is unclear.
Unlike the Kharijites, Ibadi have abandoned the practice of not associating with other Muslims. [Mortimer, Edward, Faith and Power, Vintage (1982), p.42]
Doctrinal differences with Sunni Islam
Ibadis also have several doctrinal differences with orthodox Sunni Islam, chief among them:
*Muslims will not see God on the Day of Judgement. This is derived from the Qur'an where Musa (Moses) is told upon asking to see God, "You shall not see me." This is contrary to the mainstream Sunni belief that Muslims will see God with their eyes on the day of Judgment [web cite|url=http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=7&ID=6259&CATE=24|title=Seeing God in dreams, waking, and the afterlife.|author=Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari] . This matches the beliefs of Shia Muslims. Imam Ali "Eyes cannot see Him, but he can be seen by the realities of faith"
*Whosoever enters the Hellfire, will live therein forever. This is contrary to the Sunni belief that those Muslims who enter the Hellfire will live therein for a fixed amount of time, to purify them of their shortcomings, after which they will enter Paradise. Sunnis also believe, however, that unbelievers will be in the Hellfire forever.
*The Qur'an was created by God at a certain point in time. The Sunni community holds that the Qur'an is uncreated, as exemplified by the suffering of Imam
Ahmad ibn Hanbalduring the " Mihna". Much of the Shi'a community also holds that the Qur'an was created, one of many theological beliefs that they share with the Mu'tazilah.
Views on Islamic history and caliphate
Ibadis agree with Sunnis in approving of
Abu Bakrand Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom they regard as the two rightly-guided Caliphs. They regard Uthman ibn Affanas having introduced " bid'ah" "innovations" into Islam, and approve of the revolt which overthrew him. They also approve of the first part of Ali's caliphate, and, like Shi'as, disapprove of Aisha's rebellion against him and also disapprove of Muawiya's revolt. However, they regard Ali's acceptance of arbitration at the Battle of Siffinagainst Muawiya's rebels as un-Islamic and as rendering him unfit for the Imamate, and they condemn Ali for killing the early Kharijites of "an-Nahr" in the Battle of Nahrawan.
In their belief, the fifth legitimate
Caliphwas Abdullah ibn Wahb al-Rasibi. All Caliphs from Muawiya onwards are regarded as tyrants except Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, on whom opinions differ. However, various later Ibadi leaders are recognized as true imams, including Abdullah ibn Yahya al-Kindiof South Arabia and the imams of the Rustamiddynasty in North Africa.
Ibadi Muslims make up a majority (roughly 55%) of the population in Oman [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mu.html#People] . They are also found in
Jabal Nafusain Libya, Mzabin Algeria, East Africa(particularly Zanzibar) and Djerba Island in Tunisia. The early medieval Rustamiddynasty in Algeriawas Ibadi, and refugees from its capital Tahertfounded the North African Ibadi communities which exist today.
* [http://www.uga.edu/islam/ibadis.html Ibadi Islam: an introduction]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/ok5/ibadhiyah/history.html A Concise History of al-Ibadiyyah]
* [http://www.islamfact.com/books-htm/ibadi/content.htm An overview of Ibadism]
* [http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?TaxonomyTypeID=107&TaxonomySubTypeID=-1&TaxonomyThirdLevelID=-1&ArticleID=483 Ibn-Ibad and the Ibadi School of Islamic Law]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ibadi — /i bah dee/, n. Islam. a North African Kharijite. [ < Ar, equiv. to Abd Allah ibn Ibad, 7th century Muslim ascetic + i suffix of appurtenance] * * * … Universalium
Ibadi — /i bah dee/, n. Islam. a North African Kharijite. [ < Ar, equiv. to Abd Allah ibn Ibad, 7th century Muslim ascetic + i suffix of appurtenance] … Useful english dictionary
Hunayn ibn Ishâk al Ibadi — Hunayn ibn Ishaq Hunayn ibn Ishaq (حُنَين بن إسحق) ou Abou Zayd Hunayn ibn Ishaq al Ibadi (809 873) était un médecin, un scientifique syriaque, de religion chrétienne, connu pour ses traductions du grec vers l arabe et l araméen (sa langue… … Wikipédia en Français
Oman — /oh mahn /, n. 1. Sultanate of. Formerly, Muscat and Oman. an independent sultanate in SE Arabia. 2,264,590; ab. 82,800 sq. mi. (212,380 sq. km). Cap.: Muscat. 2. Gulf of, a NW arm of the Arabian Sea, at the entrance to the Persian Gulf. * * *… … Universalium
North Africa — North African. the northern part of Africa, esp. the region north of the tropical rain forest and comprised of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and that part of Egypt west of the Gulf of Suez. * * * Introduction region of Africa comprising … Universalium
Islamic schools and branches — Overview of the major schools and branches of Islam … Wikipedia
Hadith — ( ar. الحديث ArTranslit|al ḥadīth, pl. aḥadīth ; lit . narrative ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way… … Wikipedia
Kharijites — (Arabic unicode|Khawārij خوارج, literally Those who Went Out [ [http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles 201 250/schisms and heterodoxy among mus.htm Schisms and Heterodoxy among the Muslims , hosted on irfi.org] ] ) is a general term embracing… … Wikipedia
Muslim sects — Over the period of time after the death of the last Prophet of Islam, Muhammed, there have arisen many Muslim sects by means of schools of thought, traditions, and related faiths. [ [http://www.islamnewsroom.com/content/view/220/58/ So Many… … Wikipedia
Historia de Omán — Fuerte Nakhal, una de las fortificaciones mejor conservadas de Omán. Hace varios milenios, tribus de origen árabe emigraron hacia el este hasta Omán, coincidiendo con la llegada de varios pueblos de origen iranio. En el siglo VI los árabes… … Wikipedia Español