Infobox comics organization
caption=Nick Fury and S.H.I.E.L.D. logo
Strange Tales" #135 (Aug. 1965)
Stan Leeand Jack Kirby
type=Government intelligence agency
List of S.H.I.E.L.D. members
S.H.I.E.L.D. is a fictional,
comic-book espionageand law-enforcementagency in the Marvel Comicsuniverse. Created by Stan Leeand Jack Kirbyin " Strange Tales" #135 (Aug. 1965), it often deals with superhumanthreats.
The acronym originally stood for Supreme Headquarters, International Espionage, Law-Enforcement Division. It was changed in 1991 to Strategic Hazard Intervention, Espionage Logistics Directorate. In the 2008
Marvel Studiosfilms "Iron Man" and "The Incredible Hulk", the acronym stood for Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement, and Logistics Division.
S.H.I.E.L.D.'s introduction in the newly launched "Strange Tales" feature "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D." occurred during a trend for action series about secret international intelligence agencies with catchy acronyms, such as television's "
The Man from U.N.C.L.E." and James Bond's SPECTRE. Colonel Fury (initially the lead character of Marvel Comics' World War IIseries " Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos") was reimagined as a slightly older character with an eyepatch(which he lacked in his wartime adventures) and appointed head of the organization. Some characters from the "Sgt. Fury" series reappeared as agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., most notably Timothy "Dum-Dum" Dugan, Fury's bowler hat-wearing aide-de-camp.
Its most persistent enemy is
HYDRA, a criminal organization founded (after some retcon) by Baron Wolfgang von Strucker. Despite that name's capitalization per Marvel's official spelling, HYDRA is not an acronym but a reference to the mythical monster, symbolizing the organization's claim of growing stronger the more it is wounded.
Jack Kirbyand Frank Giacoia.] S.H.I.E.L.D. was presented as an extant, full-blown entity in its first appearance and much retconover the years filled-in its labyrinthine organizational history. Stan Lee wrote each story, abetted by artist Jack Kirby's co-plotting or full plotting, through "Strange Tales" #152 (Jan. 1967), except for an issue each scripted by Kirby himself (#148) and by Dennis O'Neil(#149). Following an issue scripted by Roy Thomas(#153), and one co-written by Thomas and new series artist Jim Sterankocame the sole-writer debut of soon-to-become industry legend Steranko — who had begun on the feature as a penciller- inkerof Kirby layouts in #151 (Dec. 1966), taken over the every-other-issue "Nick Fury" cover art with #153 two months later, and full writing with #155 (April 1967).
Steranko quickly established the feature as one of comics history's most groundbreaking, innovative and acclaimed. [
Ron Goulart, in "Comix: A History of Comic Books in America" (Bonanza Books, New York, 1971; Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 75-169-104), wrote, " [E] ven the dullest of readers could sense that something new was happening. ... Which each passing issue Steranko's efforts became more and more innovative. Entire pages would be devoted to photocollages of drawings [that] ignored panel boundaries and instead worked together on planes of depth. The first pages ... became incredible production numbers similar in design to the San Francisco rock concert posterof the period". Larry Hamain his introduction to the trade paperback collection "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.: Who Is Scorpio?" (Marvel Enterprises, 2001; ISBN 0-7851-0766-5), said Steranko "combined the figurative dynamism of Jack Kirby with modern design concepts. The graphic influences of Peter Max, Op Art and Andy Warholwere embedded into the design of the pages — and the pages were designed as a whole, not just as a series of panels. All this, executed in a crisp, hard-edged style, seething with drama and anatomical tension". The series won 1967 and 1968 Alley Awards, and was inducted in the latter year to the awards' Hall of Fame. Steranko himself was inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2006.] The 12-page feature ran through "Strange Tales" #168 (sharing that "split book" with the occult feature " Doctor Strange" each issue), after which it was spun off onto its own series of the same title, running 15 issues (June 1968 - Nov. 1969), followed by three all-reprint issues beginning a year later (Nov. 1970 - March 1971). Steranko wrote and drew issues #1-3 and #5, and drew the covers of #1-7.
New S.H.I.E.L.D. stories would not appear for nearly two decades after the first solo title. A six-issue
miniseries, "Nick Fury vs. S.H.I.E.L.D." (June-Nov. 1988) was followed by "Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D." vol. 2. This second series lasted 47 issues (Sept. 1989 - May 1993); its pivotal story arc was "the Deltite Affair", in which many S.H.I.E.L.D. agents were replaced with Life Model Decoyandroids in a takeover attempt.
A year after that series ended, the one-shot "Fury" (May 1994)
retconnedthe events of those previous two series, recasting them as a series of staged events designed to distract Fury from the resurrection plans of HYDRA head von Strucker. The following year, writer Howard Chaykinand penciler Corky Lehmkuhlproduced the four-issue miniseries "Fury of S.H.I.E.L.D." (April-July 1995). Various publications have additionally focused on Nick Fury's solo adventures, such as the graphic novels and one-shots "Wolverine - Nick Fury: The Scorpio Connection" (1989), "Wolverine/Nick Fury: Scorpio Rising" (Oct. 1994), "Fury/Black Widow: Death Duty" and " Captain America/Nick Fury: Blood Truce" (both Feb. 1995), and "Captain America/Nick Fury: The Otherworld War" (Oct. 2001)
S.H.I.E.L.D. was created by Nicholas Joseph Fury after the end of World War II, but Fury abandoned the idea and left the draft that he created for the agency locked away, feeling the U.S. government wouldn't approve the formation of such an agency. At some unspecified point around this time, however, a
United Nations-based international group dusted off the idea without Fury's knowledge. His recruitment to the post of executive director (the agency's second) marked his first knowledge of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s existence.Usually led by Nick Furyas executive director(although he reports to a twelve-member council, whose identities even he does not know), this organization often operates as much as a covert agency as a quasi-military one, initially depicted as affiliated with the United Statesgovernment. Later, S.H.I.E.L.D. was depicted as under the jurisdiction of the United Nations, with vast technological resources at its disposal, with U.N. General Assembly Resolutions and legislation passed in signatory nations aiding many of their operations. [" Amazing Fantasy" vol. 2, #7 (June 2005)] cite book | last = Sanderson | first = Peter | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = The Marvel Comics Guide to New York City | publisher = Pocket Books| date = 2007 | location = New York City | pages = 62-63 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 1-14653-141-6] (However, S.H.I.E.L.D. has been inconsistently portrayed as under U.S., rather than U.N., control, possibly by writers unaware of the agency's fictional history. For instance, in " Astonishing X-Men" #3, Nick Fury explains S.H.I.E.L.D.'s inaction during an incident of genocide by stating that it did not occur on American soil. [" Astonishing X-Men" vol. 3, #3 (September 2004)] )
During the time that Godzilla roamed the United States, S.H.I.E.L.D. formed a subunit, the "
Godzilla Squad" to hunt the creature down, until it disappeared into the Atlantic sea. This unit, led by Dum Dum Dugan, employed such weapons as a giant robot called Red Roninand a smaller version of the Helicarrier, known as The Behemoth.
One of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s unique technological innovations, the LMD (
Life Model Decoy) — an extremely lifelike androidused to replace people in imminent danger of being killed — was the basis for two major upheavals. First, the supervillain Scorpio stole that technology and used it to create the second team of villains called the Zodiac. Later, some LMDs known as the Deltites achieved sentience and infiltrated S.H.I.E.L.D., replacing key members, until Fury defeated them. This led to the disbanding of the original organization and its replacement by a new taskforce with the same acronym.
In the wake of a disastrous unauthorized mission in
Latveria, in the multi-title story arc "Nick Fury's Secret War", Fury effectively resigned as executive director, with international warrants out for his arrest. His first successor was not one of his closer associates but a relatively unknown newcomer to the S.H.I.E.L.D. hierarchy, Maria Hill. A transcript of a conversation between Hill and the President of the United States["Secret War" #5 (Dec. 2005)] revealed she was chosen for the post by United Nationsconsensus to keep Fury loyalists out of the job and to keep relations with the superhero community to a minimum. The President also expected Hill — an American — to be loyal first to U.S., despite S.H.I.E.L.D. being a U.N.-chartered organization.
The passage of the United States' Superhuman Registration Act and the subsequent superhero "Civil War" created an additional political and ethical irritant between S.H.I.E.L.D. and the superhuman community, with ["Civil War" #1-7 (July 2006 - Jan. 2007), and related series] S.H.I.E.L.D. tasked to lead enforcement and to take on registered superheroes as operatives.
Toward the end of that conflict, Hill concluded she had been made director with the intent that she fail at the job, and she proposes to Tony Stark that he assume the post himself, with her as deputy. Stark accepts the appointment as director upon the conclusion of the superhuman Civil War, and undertakes a series of initiatives, including the construction of a new gold-and-red Helicarrier in the motif of his
Iron Mandesigns, the introduction of a daycare center in the Helicarrier, and an employee suggestion-box. While accused of treating S.H.I.E.L.D. as a Stark Industries subsidiary, he succeeded in streamlining the organization and raising morale. ["Iron Man" vol. 4, #15 (April 2007)] S.H.I.E.L.D. fought a wave of global superhuman terrorism and was manipulated into two international incidents that almost saw Director Stark arrested, until they revealed the Mandarin to be behind it and stopped him from committing genocide with an Extremis pathogen.
At the start of the "
Secret Invasion" by the extraterrestrial shape-shifting race the Skrulls, the Helicarrier was disabled by a Skrull virus and left floating and disabled in the Bermuda Triangle. ["Secret Invasion" #1 (June 2008)] The Skrulls by this point had already replaced a large number of S.H.I.E.L.D. agents, including the high-ranking Timothy "Dum-Dum" Dugan.
Organizational structure and procedure
Over the decades, varying writers have depicted S.H.I.E.L.D.'s organizational structure in several different ways. "
The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe" (first edition) describes an eight-level ranking structure, although providing almost no detail on other aspects of the Directorate's internal makeup.
Most of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s agents are normal humans. Years ago the organization attempted to set up a team of superhuman agents, composed of Marvel Man (the future Quasar),
Texas Twister, Blue Streak and the Vamp but the last two were secretly agents of the criminal organization called The Corporation, and the team broke apart before it had its first official mission. A second team organized years later also lasted only a short while.
S.H.I.E.L.D. does employ some superhumans, including in its Psi-Division, composed of telepathic agents who deal with like menaces. S.H.I.E.L.D. also obtains help from independent heroes when their special abilities are needed. It has also accepted some superheroes and
supervillains as members, but no longer in a separate unit. (See "Membership".)
Its headquarters is the
Helicarrier, a massive flying aircraft carrierkept airborne at all times and, among other things, containing a squadron of jet fighters and housing an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). In addition, S.H.I.E.L.D. maintains strong ties to the superherocommunity, especially Captain America, the Avengers, and the Fantastic Four, and often calls upon that community for aid on particular missions.
In the 2000s, depictions of S.H.I.E.L.D. imply a hierarchy of security clearance levels used either in place of, or alongside, the previously described rank structure. The security-clearance hierarchy operates on a scale ranging from "Level One", the lowest, to "Level Ten", described by Maria Hill, executive director at the time, as the highest security clearance anyone of any government can have. Hill's own clearance, cited in the series "New Avengers" was Level Nine.
The first story arc in the series "New Avengers" (2005- ), "Breakout", revealed an additional ranking, "Champion Status", that effectively removes them from the traditional S.H.I.E.L.D. hierarchy and, as
Captain Americacomments, gives status-holder such as himself the right to assemble any team to carry out any mission he believes necessary. In addition Nick Fury is the only "33rd-degree" S.H.I.E.L.D officer, meaning he is the only member of S.H.I.E.L.D, present or past, to know the full existence of 28 emergency, covert, back-up bases scattered across the globe.
S.H.I.E.L.D. has used a wide variety of advanced vehicles, weapons and other equipment.
The S.H.I.E.L.D. Flying Car is the standard issue S.H.I.E.L.D. vehicle.
Nick Fury has often carried his personal .15 caliber handgun, a needle gun which fires explosives.
The S.H.I.E.L.D. regulation issue weapons are a plasma beam handgun, and a .30 caliber rapid fire automatic machine pistol.
Throughout its existence, S.H.I.E.L.D. has been most prominently led by Nick Fury, with
Maria Hillsucceeding him in mid-2000s stories. She voluntarily stepped down in a 2007 story, becoming deputy director to Tony Stark. Other historically prominent members, who have appeared from the earliest stories to the modern day, include Timothy "Dum Dum" Dugan and Gabriel "Gabe" Jones, both veterans of Fury's World War II Howling Commandos, though their youthful longevity has not, unlike Fury's, been explained in Marvel continuity; Contessa Valentina Allegra di Fontaine ; [As spelled officially by Marvel Comics on [http://www.marvel.com/universe/S.H.I.E.L.D. its S.H.I.E.L.D. page] , although misspelled with a male name and spelled with different Italian article as "Valentina Allegro de Fontaine" in her name's first two mentions, in "Strange Tales" #159, "Spy School", 10, panel 6, and "Strange Tales" #162, "So Evil, the Night" p.3, panel 6.] Clay Quartermain; Jasper Sitwell; and Sharon Carter(Agent 13), all introduced in the 1960s; and Jimmy Woo, introduced in the 1950s comic " Yellow Claw" and reintroduced in the ' 60s.
Prior to the events of the Civil War, Captain America estimated there to be 3,000 agents on active duty. [New Avengers #21]
Bases of operation
Although the various
Helicarriers built over the years have long been considered S.H.I.E.L.D.'s primary home base, the Directorate also maintains a number of land bases throughout the world, most notably "SHIELD Central" in New York City. While some of these bases are publicly accessible on a limited basis, most are not publicly disclosed for reasons of planetary security. There are several fully equipped S.H.I.E.L.D. fall-out shelters scattered around the world, their existence known only to Nick Fury. During the events of Civil War, Nick Fury was hiding in an American based shelter. He also divulged the location of one to Captain America, so the Resistance to the Superhuman Registration Act could use it as a safe house.
"Marvel Zombies 3", to be written by
Fred Van Lente, will introduce a sister agency known as A.R.M.O.R. (Alter-Reality Monitoring and Operational Response), which Van Lente stated "has existed with them this whole time, but it's been so incredibly secret that no one at Marvel knew about it" [ [http://forum.newsarama.com/showthread.php?t=158856 WW PHILLY: FRED VAN LENTE ON MARVEL ZOMBIES 3 by Vaneta Rogers] . Newsarama.com.]
"Astonishing X-Men" vol.3, #6 (Dec. 2004), written by
Joss Whedon, introduced the governmental organization S.W.O.R.D. (Sentient World Observation and Response Department), which works with S.H.I.E.L.D. but specializes in
extraterrestrial threats. Dialogue in the stories depicting both organizations has been ambiguous on whether S.W.O.R.D. is a branch of S.H.I.E.L.D. or a sister agency.
Agent Abigail Brand, the S.W.O.R.D. agent the X-Men encountered, has green hair, a trait typical of agents of S.H.I.E.L.D.'s archenemy,
HYDRA. This unusual characteristic did not go unremarked; Wolverine referred to her as "Hydra-Hair" in "Astonishing X-Men" vol.3, #6.
A similar group as S.W.O.R.D., likewise affiliated with the U.N., is Starcore, which has worked with S.H.I.E.L.D. on several projects of joint interest, including establishing and maintaining a crewed facility on Earth's
S.T.R.I.K.E. (Special Tactical Response for International Key Emergencies) was a sister agency to S.H.I.E.L.D., based in the
United Kingdom. Disbanded after being infiltrated and taken over by a criminal organization, one of its members was the future X-Man Psylocke. It was introduced in Marvel UK's " Captain Britain" #17.
European subdivision of S.H.I.E.L.D., called Euromind, was introduced in the Marvel Italiaseries Europa.
Depictions in translation
S.H.I.E.L.D. stories have been translated into several other languages, including French, Finnish and Italian. Occasionally, these translations will show S.H.I.E.L.D. with an altered name.
In the case of selected French editions, the name of the agency was depicted as S.E.R.V.O., which sounds like "brain" ("cerveau") in French.
In Finnish the name that applies to S.H.I.E.L.D. in mainstream Marvel continuity is Y.P.K.V.V. (Ylimmäisen Päämajan Kansainvälisen Vakoilun Vastustamisjaos), a direct translation of the original English. In translations of the
Ultimate Marvelcomics, the name is K.I.L.P.I., with "kilpi" being the translation for the word (as opposed to the acronym) "shield".
In Greek, the organisation name is Α.Σ.Π.Ι.Δ.Α. (pronounced ASPIDA, meaning "shield" in Greek). The initials stand for Supreme Military and Political Foundation of International Counter-espionage (Ανώτατο Στρατιωτικό Πολιτικό Ίδρυμα Διεθνούς Αντικατασκοπέιας)
In Portuguese, the name S.H.I.E.L.D. remains, but it is translated as "Superintendência Humana de Intervenção, Espionagem, Logística e Dissuasão", i. e., Human Superintendence for Intervention, Espionage, Logistics and Dissuasion.
In Dutch the name S.C.H.I.L.D. (schild = shield) has been used by the publisher Williams, but was dropped by Junior Press in favour of S.H.I.E.L.D.
In Spanish, initial publisher Vértice translated S.H.I.E.L.D. as "Escudo" (always without a determinant), but never showed the meaning. Later publisher Planeta DeAgostini used the name S.H.I.E.L.D., but translating the acronym as "Organización Internacional para la Ejecución y el Cumplimiento de la Ley" (international organisation for implementation and fulfillment of law). It has been suggestedFact|date=February 2007, as a joke, that the acronym does not correspond to the meaning because the acronym itself is undercover. Now, Panini translates the acronym as "Servicio Homologado de Inteligencia, Espionaje, Logística y Defensa" (accredited service of intelligence, espionage, logistics, and defense).
In Danish, S.H.I.E.L.D. was originally known as S.K.J.O.L.D., "Skjold" being the Danish word for a shield, though the meaning of the abbreviation would differ.
Shield was mentioned briefly in the alternate universe series Mutant X as an anti mutant group. SHIELD stood for Save Humanity by Intervention in the Evolution of Life-form Deviants
Introduced in Marvel's line of novels in the mid 1990s,
S.A.F.E.(Strategic Action For Emergencies) is the United States' answer to S.H.I.E.L.D. It first appeared in "Spider-Man & the Incredible Hulk: Rampage" (Doom's Day Book 1), and may not be part of comics canon, although the novels it appears in have been referred to several times in Marvel's Handbooks. Whereas S.H.I.E.L.D. is a U.N.-chartered organization dealing with international incidents, S.A.F.E. is tasked with similar duties inside America's borders. It is run by Colonel Sean Morgan. A prominently featured agent is Joshua Ballard, who, among other things, survived an encounter with Doctor Doom and later Baron Zemo.
In the novel "Secret of the Sinister Six", S.A.F.E. agent Clyde Fury (no relation to Nick Fury) distinguishes between espionage agencies (such as S.H.I.E.L.D.) and strategic action specialists such as S.A.F.E.
H.A.T.E. stands for the Highest Anti Terrorism Effort. It is a parody of S.H.I.E.L.D. created for
Marvel Comic's 12 issue series Nextwaveby comics author Warren Ellis. The leader of H.A.T.E., General Dirk Angeris a parody of Nick Fury. This series depicts H.A.T.E. and Dirk Anger in the trademark Warren Ellis style as being a secretive organization with suspect motives led by the madman, Anger, who has self control and sexual issues.
S.H.I.E.L.D. in the
Ultimate Marvelparallel universe was first led by General "Thunderbolt" Ross. During the Gulf War, the Weapon X Project, headed by Colonel John Wraith, was sanctioned by S.H.I.E.L.D. and resulted in the creation of Wolverine.
After Ross' apparent death, Nick Fury was then selected as the organization's
executive director. His first actions were to shut down Weapon X and resurrect the Super Soldier program, commissioning Dr. Bruce Banner to try to recreate the formula that made Captain America. This failed and resulted in the creation of the Hulk when Banner injected his serum into himself. It was later revealed that the chemical called Oz, which turned Norman Osborn into the Green Goblin, was also created in hopes of recreating the Super Soldier formula. Spider-Man was also a product of the Oz formula. As well, the creation of the Sandman and Electro are due to Hammer Industries attempting to recreate the Super Soldier formula for S.H.I.E.L.D.
S.H.I.E.L.D. later created its own superhero team, the
Ultimates. Later still, it brought the X-Men and Spider-Man under S.H.I.E.L.D. jurisdiction. As of "Ultimate X-Men" #65 (Jan. 2006), S.H.I.E.L.D. severed ties with the X-Men.
In the Ultimate Marvel universe, S.H.I.E.L.D. is controlled entirely by the United States. It maintains ties to a sister organization in Europe, the European Defense Initiative as well as the English operated S.T.R.I.K.E.
As of the events of
Ultimate Power, S.H.I.E.L.D. is under the directorship of Carol Danvers, as Nick Fury was stranded in the Supreme PowerUniverse.
*S.T.R.I.K.E., the British extension of S.H.I.E.L.D.
In other media
* S.H.I.E.L.D.'s first television appearance was in the "
Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends" episode "Mission: Save the Guardstar."
* In 1998 there was a "" TV movie starring
* S.H.I.E.L.D. appeared in the animated movies "
Ultimate Avengers" and " Ultimate Avengers 2: Rise of the Panther", which are based on the comic book"The Ultimates" in the Ultimate Marvel Universe.
* S.H.I.E.L.D. appeared in the
PlayStation 2video game "The Punisher".
* S.H.I.E.L.D. has a prominent role in "". Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D. is a team bonus if you have Captain America, Nick Fury, Spider-Woman, and Wolverine on your team.
* S.H.I.E.L.D. appeared a number of times in 1990s Marvel animated series. ' featured Nick Fury and "Agent 1" (possibly Sharon Carter); ' included Gabriel Jones as a member of the
Hulkbusters; and the second season of "Iron Man" had Stark working with Nick Fury and Dum Dum Dugan.
* S.H.I.E.L.D. and Nick Fury made several appearances in the "" animated series.
Marvel Studio films
*In the 2008 "
Iron Man" film, the Strategic Homeland Intervention, Enforcement, and Logistics Division is introduced as a U.S. government agency. Agent Phil Coulson repeatedly attempts to talk to Tony Starkabout Stark's escape from Afghanistan. Later on, Pepper Pottsinforms Agent Coulson of Obadiah Stane's armor. Coulson and several other agents attempt to arrest Stane, but are defeated. Coulson later comes up with a cover story for Stark, one which Stark refuses to use. After the credits, SHIELD Director Nick Fury( Samuel L Jackson) appears, informing Stark of the Avenger Initiative.
*In the 2008 "
Incredible Hulk" film, S.H.I.E.L.D. again appears. During the opening credits of the movie, Nick Fury's name appears briefly on a government document, and General Thunderbolt Rossuses SHIELD to help him track Bruce Banner's e-mails. And at the end of the film Tony Starkfinds General Thunderbolt Rossin a bar and mentions that he's forming a team, implying the Avengers.
The Simpsons" parodied S.H.I.E.L.D. with Krusty, Agent of K.L.O.W.N. in " Simpsons Comics" #3 (March 1994).
* "The Tick" animated series featured a character named "Jim Rage, Agent of S.H.A.V.E." in an episode about a homicidal mustache. Similarly, the Tick comic series, Karma Tornado features a gruff government official named Nick Fitt who wears a
nicotinepatch over his eye and several more all over his body while smoking two to five cigarettes at once.
* The "
Darkwing Duck" animated series parodied S.H.I.E.L.D. with S.H.U.S.H..
* The "
Kim Possible" animated series features a S.H.I.E.L.D.-like organization, Global Justice (GJ), whose agents wear clothing similar to that of S.H.I.E.L.D., fly around in aircraft similar to S.H.I.E.L.D. Quinjets and are headed by Dr. Betty Director, who has an eye patch similar to that of Nick Fury's. In the OVA "", a diagram of a future Kim Possible shows her as being head of Global Justice, with the same type of eye patch as that of Dr. Director.
* In the
Adult Swimanimated series, " Venture Brothers", Brock Samsonworks for a government organization known as " O.S.I.". While Brock's work as the Venture family bodyguard is generally plainclothes, he and other operatives can be seen in flashbacks in an O.S.I. uniform that is based directly on S.H.I.E.L.D.'s black bodysuit with white boots, gloves, and shoulder-holsters. Brock has commented that O.S.I. has had discipline problems since the organization loosened the dress code, referring to other operatives, who themselves were parodies of G.I. Joecharacters.Fact|date=October 2008
* [http://www.comics.org/ The Grand Comics Database]
* [http://www.marvunapp.com/list/appshield.htm Appendix to the Handbook of the Marvel Universe: S.H.I.E.L.D.]
* [http://www.marveldirectory.com/individuals/n/nickfury.htm Marvel Directory: Nick Fury]
* [http://www.toonopedia.com/shield.htm Don Markstein's Toonopedia: Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.]
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