Rubus


Rubus

Taxobox
name = "Rubus"


image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Rubus fruticosus"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Rosales
familia = Rosaceae
genus = "Rubus"
genus_authority = L.
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = See text.

"Rubus" is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The "Rubus" fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets.

The blackberries, as well as various other "Rubus" species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.

The genus "Rubus" is believed to have existed since at least 23.7 to 36.6 million years ago. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-72919/Rosales#595624.hook] ]

Examples of the hundreds, if not thousands, of species of "Rubus" include:

*"Rubus allegheniensis" – Allegheny Blackberry
*"Rubus arcticus" – Arctic Raspberry
*"Rubus armeniacus" – Himalayan Blackberry
*"Rubus caesius" – European Dewberry
*"Rubus canadensis" – Canadian Blackberry
*"Rubus chamaemorus" – Cloudberry
*"Rubus coreanus" - Bokbunja
*"Rubus cuneifolius" – Sand Blackberry
*"Rubus fruticosus" agg. – Blackberry
*"Rubus idaeus" – European Red Raspberry
*"Rubus leucodermis" – Whitebark Raspberry or Western Raspberry
*"Rubus occidentalis" – Black Raspberry
*"Rubus odoratus" – Flowering Raspberry
*"Rubus parviflorus" – Thimbleberry
*"Rubus pensilvanicus" – Pennsylvania Blackberry
*"Rubus phoenicolasius" – Wineberry
*"Rubus saxatilis" – Stone Bramble
*"Rubus spectabilis" – Salmonberry
*"Rubus strigosus" – American Red Raspberry

The genus also includes numerous hybrids, both natural and bred by man, such as the Loganberry ("Rubus × loganobaccus").

:"See also:" List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus

Scientific classification

The genus "Rubus" is a very complex one, particularly the blackberry/dewberry subgenus ("Rubus"), with polyploidy, hybridization, and facultative apomixis apparently all frequently occurring, making species classification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany. Some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other "Rubus" subgenera (such as the raspberries) are generally distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. (In this case, the two-species view is followed here, with "Rubus idaeus" and "R. strigosus" both recognized; if these species are combined, then the older name "R. idaeus" has priority for the broader species.)

Molecular data has backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number, but following morphological data such as the structure of the leaves and stems does not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification. [cite journal | url = http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/86/1/81 | title = Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences | author = Lawrence A. Alice and Christopher S. Campbell | journal = American Journal of Botany | year = 1999 | volume = 86 | pages = 81–97 | doi = 10.2307/2656957 ]

The classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus ("Rubus") in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented, but there are many more species not mentioned here.

References

External links

* [http://bioweb.wku.edu/Rubus/default.asp WKU Rubus website]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Rubus — Pour les articles homonymes, voir ronce …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rubus — Schlitzblättrige Brombeere Systematik Rosiden Eurosiden I Ordnung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Rubus — L. (Brombeer und Himbeerstrauch), Gattung der Rosazeen, meist bestachelte, oft klimmende oder kriechende, laubwechselnde oder immergrüne Stauden oder Sträucher mit abwechselnden, einfachen oder gelappten, meist drei bis fünfzählig oder unpaarig… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rubus — Ru bus, n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of rosaceous plants, including the raspberry and blackberry. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Rubus — (R. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Rosaceae Dryadeae, Ikosandrie, Polygynie L., durch fünftheiligen Kelch, fünfblätterige Corolle, aus einsamigen, den konischen Fruchtboden bedeckenden Beeren zusammen gesetzte Frucht charakterisirt.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Rubus — L., Pflanzengattg. der Rosazeen, zahlreiche Arten, meist Sträucher der nördl. Halbkugel. R. saxatĭlis L. (Stein , Felsenhimbeere), mit sauren Früchten, in Bergwäldern; R. chamaemōrus L. (Sumpfbrombeere, Torf , Zwergmaul , Mult oder Schellbeere)… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Rubus — Rubus, Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Rosaceen; s. Brombeere und Himbeere …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Rubus —   [lateinisch »Brombeere«, »Brombeerstaude«], sehr vielgestaltige und schwer zu gliedernde Gattung der Rosengewächse mit mindestens 250 Arten und zahlreichen sich ungeschlechtlich fortpflanzenden Sippen; hauptsächlich auf der Nordhalbkugel,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Rubus — Pour les articles homonymes, voir ronce. Ronce …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Rubus —   Rubus …   Wikipedia Español


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