Brocard points


Brocard points

Brocard points are special points within a triangle. They are named after Henri Brocard (1845 – 1922), a French mathematician.

Definition

In a triangle "ABC" with sides "a", "b", and "c", where the vertices are labeled "A", "B" and "C" in counterclockwise order, there is exactly one point "P" such that the line segments "AP", "BP", and "CP" form the same angle, ω, with the respective sides "c", "a", and "b", namely that

: angle PAB = angle PBC = angle PCA.,

Point "P" is called the first Brocard point of the triangle "ABC", and the angle "ω" is called the Brocard angle of the triangle. The following applies to this angle:

:cotomega = cot alpha + cot eta + cot gamma.,

There is also a second Brocard point, Q, in triangle "ABC" such that line segments "AQ", "BQ", and "CQ" form equal angles with sides "b", "c", and "a" respectively. In other words, the equations angle QCB = angle QBA = angle QAC apply. Remarkably, this second Brocard point has the same Brocard angle as the first Brocard point. In other words angle angle PBC = angle PCA = angle PAB is the same as angle QCB = angle QBA = angle QAC.

The two Brocard points are closely related to one another; In fact, the difference between the first and the second depends on the order in which the angles of triangle "ABC" are taken. So for example, the first Brocard point of triangle "ABC" is the same as the second Brocard point of triangle "ACB".

The two Brocard points of a triangle "ABC" are isogonal conjugates of each other.

Construction

The most elegant construction of the Brocard points goes as follows. In the following example the first Brocard point is presented, but the construction for the second Brocard point is very similar.

Form a circle through points A and B, tangent to edge BC of the triangle (the center of this circle is at the point where the perpendicular bisector of AB meets the line through point B that is perpendicular to BC). Symmetrically, form a circle through points B and C, tangent to edge AC, and a circle through points A and C, tangent to edge AB. These three circles have a common point, the first Brocard point of triangle "ABC". See also Tangent lines to circles.

The three circles just constructed are also designated as epicycles of triangle "ABC". The second Brocard point is constructed in similar fashion.

Trilinears and the Brocard midpoint

Homogeneous trilinear coordinates for the first and second Brocard points are "c"/"b" : "a"/"c" : "b"/"a", and "b"/"c" : "c"/"a" : "a"/"b", respectively. They are an example of a bicentric pair of points, but not triangle centers. Their midpoint, called the Brocard midpoint, has trilinears

:sin("A" + ω) : sin("B" + ω) : sin("C" + ω) [Entry X(39) in the [http://faculty.evansville.edu/ck6/encyclopedia/ETC.html Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers] ]

and is a triangle center. The third Brocard point, given by trilinears "a"−3 :" "b−3 : "c"−3, or, equivalently, by

:csc("A" − ω) : csc("B" − ω) : csc("C" − ω), [Entry X(76) in the [http://faculty.evansville.edu/ck6/encyclopedia/ETC.html Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers] ]

is the Brocard midpoint of the anticomplementary triangle and is also the isotomic conjugate of the symmedian point.

Notes

References

*citation
last1 = Akopyan | first1 = A. V.
last2 = Zaslavsky | first2 = A. A.
title = Geometry of Conics
publisher = American Mathematical Society
series = Mathematical World | volume = 26
year = 2007 | isbn = 978-08218-4323-9
pages = 48–52
.
*citation
first = Ross | last = Honsberger
contribution = Chapter 10. The Brocard Points
title = Episodes in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Euclidean Geometry
publisher = The Mathematical Association of America | location = Washington, D.C. | year = 1995
.

External links

* [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ThirdBrocardPoint.html Third Brocard Point] at MathWorld
* [http://forumgeom.fau.edu/FG2003volume3/FG200303.pdf Bicentric Pairs of Points and Related Triangle Centers]
* [http://faculty.evansville.edu/ck6/encyclopedia/BicentricPairs.html Bicentric Pairs of Points]
* [http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BicentricPoints.html Bicentric Points] at MathWorld


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