Periosteum


Periosteum

Infobox Anatomy
Name = Periosteum
Latin =
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Caption = compact spongy bone


Caption2 = Meninges of the CNS
System =
MeshName =
MeshNumber =
DorlandsPre = p_13
DorlandsSuf = 12628368

Periosteum is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, [Netter, Frank H. (1987). "Musculoskeletal system: anatomy, physiology, and metabolic disorders". Summit, New Jersey: Ciba-Geigy Corporation ISBN 0914168886, p.170] except at the joints of long bones. [At the joints of long bones the bone's outer surface is lined with "articular cartilage", a type of hyaline cartilage.] Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones.

Periosteum consists of the irregular type of dense connective tissue. Periosteum is divided into an outer "fibrous layer" and inner "cambium layer". The fibrous layer contains fibroblasts while the cambium layer contains progenitor cells which develop into osteoblasts. These osteoblasts are responsible for increasing the width of a long bone [The length of a long bone is controlled by the epiphyseal plate] and the overall size of the other bone types. After a bone fracture the progenitor cells develop into osteoblasts and chondroblasts which are essential to the healing process.

As opposed to osseous tissue, periosteum has nociceptors nerve endings, making it very sensitive to manipulation. It also provides nourishment by providing the blood supply. Periosteum is attached to bone by strong collagenous fibers called Sharpey's fibres, which extend to the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae. It also provides an attachment for muscles and tendons.

Periosteum that covers the outer surface of the skull is known as "Pericranium".


=Additional

References

* Brighton, Carl T. and Robert M. Hunt (1997), "Early histologic and ultrastructural changes in microvessels of periosteal callus", "Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma", 11 (4): 244-253

Notes


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • periosteum — 1590s, from Mod.L. periosteum, L. periosteon (c.420), from Gk. periosteon, neut. of periosteos “round the bones,” from peri (see PERI (Cf. peri )) + osteon (see OSSEOUS (Cf. osseous)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Periosteum — Per i*os te*um, n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? round the bones; ? around + ? a bone: cf. L. periosteon.] (Anat.) The membrane of fibrous connective tissue which closely invests all bones except at the articular surfaces. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Periostĕum — (gr.), die Knochenhaut. Periostītis, Knochenhautentzündung; Periostōse, oberflächliche Knochengeschwulst …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Periosteum — Periosteum, griech., die Knochenhaut; Periostosis, Knochengeschwulst …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • periosteum — [per΄ē äs′tē əm] n. pl. periostea [per΄ē äs′tēə] [ModL < L periosteon < Gr < peri , around + osteon, bone: see OSTEO ] the membrane of tough, fibrous connective tissue covering all bones except at the joints periosteal [per΄ē äs′tēəl]… …   English World dictionary

  • periosteum — periosteal, periosteous, adj. periosteally, adv. /per ee os tee euhm/, n., pl. periostea / tee euh/. Anat. the normal investment of bone, consisting of a dense, fibrous outer layer, to which muscles attach, and a more delicate, inner layer… …   Universalium

  • Periosteum — The periosteum is a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints which are covered by a synovial membrane. Peri is a prefix borrowed from the Greek… …   Medical dictionary

  • periosteum — n. a layer of dense connective tissue that covers the surface of a bone except at the articular surfaces. The outer layer of the periosteum is extremely dense and contains a large number of blood vessels. The inner layer is more cellular in… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Periosteum — antkaulis statusas T sritis gyvūnų anatomija, gyvūnų morfologija atitikmenys: lot. Periosteum ryšiai: platesnis terminas – kaulinė dalis …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai

  • Periosteum — antkaulis statusas T sritis gyvūnų raida, augimas, ontogenezė, embriologija atitikmenys: lot. Periosteum ryšiai: platesnis terminas – membraninė osteogenezė siauresnis terminas – kaulo kilmės sluoksnis …   Veterinarinės anatomijos, histologijos ir embriologijos terminai


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