- Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley
Infobox Military Person
name=The Viscount Wolseley
KP OM GCB GCMG VD PC
lived=1833 - 1913
caption="Field Marshal Lord Wolseley"
Golden Bridge, County Dublin, Ireland
allegiance= flagicon|United Kingdom
serviceyears=1852 - 1900
Second Burmese War
Second Opium War
Red River Rebellion
Third Anglo-Asante War
awards=KP OM GCB GCMG VD
Field MarshalGarnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley KP OM GCB GCMG VD PC ( 4 June 1833– 25 March 1913) was a British army officer. He served in Burma, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny, China, Canada, and widely throughout Africa- including his brilliantly executed Ashanti campaign (1873 - 1874). His reputation for efficiency led to the late 19th-century English phrase "everything's all Sir Garnet", meaning "all is in order."
Education and the Second Burmese War
sonof MajorGarnet Joseph Wolseley of "the King's Own Borderers" ( 25th Foot), Wolseley was born at Golden Bridge, County Dublin, Ireland. Educated in Dublin, he first worked in a surveyor’s office.
He obtained a commission as an ensign in the 12th Foot in March 1852 without purchase, in recognition of his father's service. He then transferred to the 80th Foot, with which he served in the
Second Burmese War. He was severely wounded in the thigh on 19 March 1853 in the attack on Donabyu, was mentioned in despatches, and received the war medal. Promoted to lieutenantand invalided home, Wolseley exchanged into the 90th Light Infantry, then stationed in Dublin.
He accompanied the regiment to
the Crimea, and landed at Balaklavain December 1854. He was selected to be an assistant engineer, and attached to the Royal Engineersduring the Siege of Sevastopol. Wolseley was promoted to captain in January 1855 after less than three years' service, and served throughout the siege, whwere he was wounded at "the Quarries" on June 7th, and again in the trenches on August 30th, losing an eye.
After the fall of
Sevastopol, Wolseley was employed on the quartermaster-general's staff, assisting in the embarkation of the troops and supplies, and was one of the last British soldiers to leave the Crimea in July 1856. For his services he was twice mentioned in dispatches, was noted for a brevet majority, received the war medal with clasp, the 5th class of the French " Légion d'honneur", the 5th class of the Turkish "Mejidie", and the Turkish medal.
Six months after joining the 90th Foot at
Aldershot, he went with it in March 1857 to join the China expedition under Major-General Ashburnham. Captain Wolseley was embarked in the transport "Transit" which was wrecked in the Strait of Banka - the troops were all saved, but with only their personal arms and minimal ammunition. They were taken to Singapore, and from there were dispatched to Calcuttaon account of the Indian Mutiny.
The Indian Rebellion
Capt. Wolseley distinguished himself at the relief of
Lucknowunder Sir Colin Campbell in November of 1857, and in the defence of the Alambagh position under Outram, taking part in the actions of December 22, 1857, of January 12and January 16, and also in the repulse of the grand attack of February 21. That March, he served at the final siegeand capture of Lucknow. He was then appointed deputy-assistant quartermaster-general on the staff of Sir Hope Grant's Oudhdivision, and was engaged in all of the operations of the campaign, including; the actions of Bari, Sarsi, Nawabganj, the capture of Faizabad, the passage of the Gumtiand the action of Sultanpur. In the autumn and winter of 1858 he took part in the Baiswara, trans- Gograand trans- Rapticampaigns ending with the complete suppression of the rebellion. For his services he was frequently mentioned in dispatches, and having received his Crimean majority in March 1858, was, in April of 1859, promoted to be a lieutenant-colonel, and received the Mutiny medal and clasp. Lt.-Col. Wolseley continued to serve on Sir Hope Grant's staff in Oudh, and when Grant was nominated to the command of the British troops in the Anglo-French expedition to China of the year 1860, accompanied him as the deputy-assistant quartermaster-general. He was present at the action at Sin-ho, the capture of Tang-ku, the storming of the Taku Forts, the Occupation of Tientsin, the battle of Pa-to-cheauand the entry into Beijing(during which the destruction of Chinese Imperial Old Summer Palacewas begun). He assisted in the re-embarkation of the troops before the winter set in. He was mentioned, yet again, in dispatches, and for his services did receive the medal and two clasps. On his return home he published the " Narrative of the War with China" in the year 1860.
In November of 1861, Wolseley was one of the special service officers sent to
Canadain connection with the "Trent" incident. When the matter was amicably settled he remained on the headquartersstaff in Canada as assistant-quartermaster-general. In 1862, shortly after the battle of Antietam, Lt.-Col. Wolseley took leave from his military duties and went to investigate the American Civil War. He befriended Southern sympathizers in Maryland, who found him passage into Virginiawith a blockade runneracross the Potomac River. He met with the Generals Robert E. Lee, James Longstreet, and Stonewall Jackson, all of whom impressed him tremendously.
On April 10, 1892, the
New Orleans Picayunepublished his ten-page heroic portrayal of Lieutenant-General Nathan Bedford Forrestwhich recycled much of what was written about Forrest by biographers of the time. This work appeared in the Journal of the Southern Historical Society in the same year, and is commonly cited today, although it is a great example of how Post-Reconstruction biographers of Forrest at the time tried to elevate Forrest's reputation as a citizen-soldier and military genius of classical proportions. Wolseley apologized for Forrest's role at the Fort Pillow Massacrenear Memphis, Tennesseein April, 1864 in which African-American USCTtroops and white officers were slaughtered after Fort Pillowhad been conquered. Wolseley wrote, "I do not think that the fact that one-half of the small garrison of a place taken by assault was either killed or wounded evinced any very unusual bloodthirstiness on the part of the assailants."
In the year 1865, he became a brevet
colonel, was actively employed the following year in connexion with the Fenian raidsfrom the United States, and in the year 1867 was appointed deputy quartermaster-general in Canada. In 1869 his " Soldiers' Pocket Book for Field Service" was published, and has since run through many editions. In the year 1870, he successfully commanded the Red River Expeditionto establish Canadian sovereigntyover the Northwest Territoriesand Manitoba. Manitoba had entered Canadian Confederationas the result of negotiations between Canada and a provisional "Métis" government headed by Louis Riel. The only route to Fort Garry(now Winnipeg), the capitalof Manitoba(then an outpost in the Wilderness), which did not pass through the United States was through a network of rivers and lakes extending for six-hundred miles from Lake Superior, infrequently traversed by non-aboriginals, and where no supplies were obtainable. The admirable arrangements made and the careful organization of the transport reflected great credit to the commander, who upon his return home was made a KCMG and a CB. However, it should be noted that the English speaking troops under Col. Wolseley's command in effect laid a reign of terror on "Metis" families in the Red River, with harassment, beatings, and threats of death perpetuated by the rowdy and sometimes drunken soldiers.
adjutant-generalat the War Officein the year 1871 he worked hard at furthering the Cardwell schemes of army reform, was a member of the localization committee, and a keen advocate of short service, territorial regiments and linked battalions. From this time until he became commander-in-chief, Col. Wolseley was the prime mover in practically all of the steps taken at the War Office for promoting the efficiencyof the army, under the altered conditions of the day.
In the year 1873, he commanded the expedition to
Ashanti, and, having made all his arrangements at the Gold Coast before the arrival of the troops in January of 1874, was able to complete the campaign in two months, and re-embark them for homebefore the unhealthy season began. This was the campaign which made him a household name in England. He fought the battle of Amoafulon January 31of that year, and, after five days' fighting, ending with the battle of Ordahsu, entered Kumasi, which he burned. He received the thanks of both houses of Parliament and a grant of £25,000 was promoted to be a major generalfor distinguished service in the field, received the medal and clasp and was made GCMG and KCB. The freedom of the cityof London was conferred upon him with a sword of honour, and he was made honorary DC.L of Oxford and LL.D of Cambridge universities. On his return home he was appointed inspector-generalof auxiliary forces, but had not held the post for a year when, in consequence of the indigenous unrest in Natal, he was sent to that colonyas governorand general-commanding.
In November of 1876, he accepted a seat on the
council of India, from which in 1878, having been promoted lieutenant-general, he went as high-commissioner to the newly acquired possession of Cyprus, and in the following year to South Africato supersede Lord Chelmsfordin command of the forces in the Zulu War, and as governor of Natal and the Transvaaland the high commissionerof South-East Africa. But, upon his arrival at Durbanin July, he found that the war in Zululandwas practically over, and, after effecting a temporary settlement, he went on to the Transvaal. Having reorganized the administration there and reduced the powerful chief, Sikukuni, to submission, he returned home in May of 1880 and was appointed quartermaster-general to the forces. For his services in South Africa he received the Zulu medalwith clasp, and was made a GCB.
In the year 1882, the Major General was appointed adjutant-general to the forces, and, in August of that year, given command of the British forces in
Egyptunder Muhammad Ali and his successors to suppress the Urabi Revolt. Having seized the Suez Canal, he then disembarked his troops at Ismailiaand, after a very short and brilliant campaign, completely defeated Urabi Pasha at the Battle of Tel el-Kebir, thereby suppressing yet another rebellion. For his services, the Major General received the thanks of Parliament, the medal with clasp, the bronze star, was promoted ("general") for distinguished service in the field, raised to the peerage as Baron Wolseley, of Cairoand of Wolseleyin the County of Stafford, and received from the Khedivethe 1st class of the order of the Osmanieh.
In the year 1884, the now full general, Baron Wolseley was again called away from his duties as adjutant-general, to command the
Nile Expeditionfor the relief of General Gordon and the besieged garrison at Khartoum. The expedition arrived too late; Khartoum had fallen, and Gordon was dead. In the spring of 1885, complications with Imperial Russiaover the Panjdeh Incidentoccurred, and the withdrawal of that particular expedition followed. For his services there, the Baron received two clasps to his Egyptian medal, the thanks of Parliament, and was created Viscount Wolseley, of Wolseley in the County of Stafford, and a Knight of St Patrick.
Lord Wolseley continued at the War Office as adjutant-general to the forces until the year 1890, wherein he was given the command in
Ireland(at that time "de jure" a part of the UKunder the Act of Union which had created the United Kingdom but, by the 1880s, had begun down the path to Irish political independencewith the policies of Premier Gladstone, in particular the First Home Rule Bill). He was promoted to be a field marshalin the year 1894, and was nominated "colonel" of the Royal Horse Guardsin 1895, in which year he was appointed by the Unionist government to succeed the Duke of Cambridge as "commander-in-chief of the forces". This was the position to which his great experience in the field and his previous signal success at the War Office itself had fully entitled him. Field Marshal Viscount Wolseley's powers in that office were, however, limited by a new order in council, and after holding the appointment for over five years, he handed over the command-in-chief to his fellow field marshal, Earl Roberts, at the commencementof the year 1901. The unexpectedly large force required for South Africa, was mainly furnished by means of the system of reserves which Lord Wolseley had originated; but the new conditions at the War Office were not to his liking, and, upon being released from responsibilities he brought the whole subject before the House of Lordsin a speech.
Lord Wolseley was appointed
colonel-in-chiefof the Royal Irish Regimentin the year 1898, and, in 1901, was made goldstick in waiting. He was married, in the year 1867, to Louisa, the daughter of one Mr. A. Erskine, and his only child, Frances, being heiressto the viscountcy under special remainder. Frances Wolseley (1872-1936) founded The College for Lady Gardeners at Glynde and was an author.
The Channel Tunnel
Sir Garnet was deeply opposed to
Sir Edward Watkin's attempt to build a Channel Tunnel. He gave evidence to a parliamentray commission that the construction might be "calamitous for England", he added that "No matter what fortifications and defences were built, there would always be the peril of some continental army seizing the tunnel exit by surprise." Various contrivances to satisfy his objections were put forward including looping the line on a viaduct from the Cliffs of Dover and back into them, so that the connection could be bombarded at will by the Royal Navy. All to no avail, and over 100 years were to pass before a permanent link was made.
A frequent contributor to
periodicals, he also published " The Decline and Fall of Napoleon" (1895), " The Life of John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough to the Accession of Queen Anne" (1894), and " The Story of a Soldier's Life" (1903), giving, in the last-named work, an account of his career down to the close of the Ashanti War.
He died on
March 26, 1913, at Mentone on the French Riviera.
In recognition of his success, an expression arose (see Eric Partridge, "A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English," 1961): "all Sir Garnet" meaning; that everything is in good order. Garnet Wolseley was also the inspiration behind the celebrated
Gilbert and Sullivancharacter "Major-General Stanley" (from The Pirates of Penzance), who was " ... the very model of a modern Major-General ...".
Wolseley Barracks, at
London, Ontario, is a Canadian military base(now officially known as ASU London), established in the year 1886. The site of " Wolseley Hall", the first building constructed by a Canadian Governmentspecifically to house an element of the newly created, in 1883, Permanent Force. "Wolseley Barracks" has been continuously occupied by the Canadian armysince its creation, and has always housed some element of " The Royal Canadian Regiment". At present, Wolseley Hall is occupied by "The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum" and "the Regiment's" 4th Battalion, among other tenants. "Wolseley" is also the name of a Senior Boys house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School, where, just like Welbeck college, all houses are named after prominent military figures. Wolseley Avenueis a streetin Montreal West, a part of Montrealwhich was laid out in the early years of the twentieth century.
Wolseley is a residential area in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, located in the west central part of the city. Wolseley Avenue is the main street through the area.
Wolseley is a small village in the Western Cape in South Africa, named after Garnet Wolseley.
Wolseley is a street in Belfast, Northern Ireland.
* [http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=7780 Biography at the "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online"]
"All Sir Garnet; a life of Field-Marshal Lord Wolseley" by Joseph H Lehmann; London, J. Cape, 1964.
"Sir Garnet Wolseley : Victorian Hero" by Halik Kochanski; London, Hambledon Press, 1999.
*Erik Ringmar, [http://ringmar.net/europeanfury/ "Fury of the Europeans: Liberal Barbarism and the Destruction of the Emperor's Summer Palace"]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Garnet Wolseley, 1. Viscount Wolseley — Garnet Joseph Wolseley Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1. Viscount Wolseley of Cairo, KP, OM, GCB, GCMG, VD, PC (* 4. Juni 1833 in Golden Bridge House bei Dublin; † 25. März 1913 in Menton in Frankreich … Deutsch Wikipedia
Wolseley, Garnet, 1st Viscount — ▪ British field marshal in full Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley of Wolseley, Baron Wolseley of Cairo and of Wolseley born June 4, 1833, Golden Bridge, County Dublin, Ire. died March 26, 1913, Mentone, France British field marshal … Universalium
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Wolseley — /woolz lee/, n. Garnet Joseph 1st Viscount, 1833 1913, British field marshal … Useful english dictionary
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Wolseley — biographical name 1st Viscount 1833 1913 Garnet Joseph Wolseley British field marshal … New Collegiate Dictionary
Уолсли Гарнет Джозеф, 1-й виконт — (Wolseley, Garnet Joseph, 1st Viscount) (1833 1913), брит, фельдмаршал. Проходил службу в Бирме, Китае и Канаде, участвовал в Крымской войне и в подавлении Индийского народного восстания. Претворял в жизнь воен. реформу Эдуарда Кардуэлла, занимая … Всемирная история
Вулзли, Гарнет — Гарнет Джозеф Вулзли (Уолсли), 1 й виконт Вулзли (Уолсли) Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley … Википедия
Egypt — /ee jipt/, n. 1. Arab Republic of. a republic in NE Africa. 64,791,891; 386,198 sq. mi. (1,000,252 sq. km). Cap.: Cairo. Arabic, Misr. Formerly (1958 71), United Arab Republic. 2. an ancient kingdom in NE Africa: divided into the Nile Delta… … Universalium