- Judeo-Arabic languages
fam5=South Central Semitic
lc2=yhd|ld2=Judeo-Iraqi Arabic|ll2=Judeo-Iraqi Arabic
lc3=aju|ld3=Judeo-Moroccan Arabic|ll3=Judeo-Moroccan Arabic
lc4=yud|ld4=Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic|ll4=Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic
lc5=ajt|ld5=Judeo-Tunisian Arabic|ll5=Judeo-Tunisian Arabic
lc6=jye|ld6=Judeo-Yemeni Arabic|ll6=Judeo-Yemeni Arabic
The Judæo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by
Jews living or formerly living in the Arab world; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabicwritten in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. Just as with the rest of the Arab world, Arabic-speaking Jews had different dialects depending on where they lived. This phenomenon may be compared to cases such as different forms of Yiddish(Judæo-German) such as Western Yiddishand Eastern Yiddish, or forms of Ladino (Judæo-Spanish) in areas such as the Balkans, Thessaloníki/ Istanbul, Morocco, etc.
The Arabic spoken by Jewish communities in the Arab world differed from the Arabic of their Muslim neighbours, as well as from the Arabic spoken by Christians. These differences were partly due to the incorporation of some words from Hebrew and other languages and partly geographically, in a way that may reflect a history of migration. For example, the Judeo-Arabic of Egypt, including in the
Cairocommunity, resembled the dialect of AlexandriaVerify source|date=August 2008, which shares the first person singular imperfective initial Nun with Maghrebi Arabic dialects (Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian) rather than the initial Alifof other Egyptian ArabicvernacularsClarifyme|date=August 2008. Similarly the Jewish Iraqi Arabic of Baghdad was found reminiscent of the dialect of Mosul, which in some ways resembles Syrian Arabicrather than Baghdad Arabicor Gulf Arabic. For example, "I said" is "qeltu" in the speech of Baghdadi Jews and Christians, as well as in Mosul and Syria, as against Muslim Baghdadi "gilit". Many Jews in Arab countries were bilingual in Judeo-Arabic and the dialect of the Arab Muslim majority.
Jews in Arab countries wrote—sometimes in their dialects, sometimes in a more classical style—in a mildly adapted Hebrew script (rather than using Arabic script), often including
consonantdots from the Arabic alphabetto accommodate phonemes that did not exist in the Hebrew alphabet.
Some of the most important books of medieval Jewish thought were originally written in medieval Judæo-Arabic, as well as certain halakhic works and biblical commentaries. Only later were they translated into
medieval Hebrewso that they could be read by the Ashkenazi Jewsof Europe. These include:
Saadia Gaon's " Emunoth ve-Deoth", his "Tafsir" (biblical commentary and translation), and his " siddur" (the explanatory content; not the prayers themselves)
Solomon ibn Gabirol's "Tikkun Middot ha-Nefesh"
Bahya ibn Pakuda's " Chovot ha-Levavot"
Judah Halevi's " Kuzari"
Maimonides' "Commentary on the Mishnah", "Sefer ha-Mitzvot", " Guide to the Perplexed", and many of his letters and shorter essays.
Most communities also had a traditional translation of the Bible into Judeo-Arabic, known as a "sharħ" (meaning). The term "sharħ" sometimes came to mean "Judeo-Arabic" as such, in the same way that "Targum" was sometimes used to mean Aramaic.
In the years following the
1948 Arab-Israeli War, most Mizrahiand SephardiJews in Arab countries became Jewish refugees, fleeing mainly to Franceand Israel. Their dialects of Arabic did not thrive in either country, and most of their descendants now speak French or Modern Hebrew; as a result, the Judæo-Arabic dialects are now considered endangered languages.
Baghdad Arabic (Jewish)
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yhd Ethnologue entry for Judeo-Iraqi Arabic]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=aju Ethnologue entry for Judeo-Moroccan Arabic]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=yud Ethnologue entry for Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=ajt Ethnologue entry for Judeo-Tunisian Arabic]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=jye Ethnologue entry for Judeo-Yemeni Arabic]
* Blau, Joshua, "The Emergence and Linguistic Background of Judaeo-Arabic": OUP, last edition 1999
* Heath, Jeffrey, "Jewish and Muslim dialects of Moroccan Arabic" (Routledge Curzon Arabic linguistics series): London, New York, 2002.
* [http://www.uwm.edu/~corre/judeo-arabic2.html Alan Corré's Judeo-Arabic Literature site]
* [http://shekel.jct.ac.il/~green/judeo-arabic.html Judeo-Arabic Literature]
* [http://thejewsoflebanon.org/ The Jews of Lebanon]
* [http://reka.iba.org.il/ Reka] Israeli radio network offering a daily fifteen-minute program in Moroccan Judeo-Arabic (Arbiya l'Mugrabiya) with internet broadcast
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Arabic languages — Infobox Language family name=Arabic region=Arabia, Arab world familycolor=Afro Asiatic fam2=Semitic fam3=West fam4=Central child1=Ancient North Arabian child2=Arabic languageThe Arabic language family consists of *The Arabic macrolanguage (ISO… … Wikipedia
JUDEO-ARABIC LITERATURE — JUDEO ARABIC LITERATURE, written in Arabic by Jews for Jews. It is written in an idiom which is linguistically closer to the spoken form of Arabic than is the idiom used in Muslim literature. It may plausibly be assumed that, prior to the rise of … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Judeo-Arabic — ISO 639 3 Code : jrb ISO 639 2/B Code : jrb ISO 639 2/T Code : jrb ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Macrolanguage Language Type : Living Individual languages : Identifier : ajt Name: Judeo Tunisian Arabic Individual languages : Identifier : aju Name: Jud … Names of Languages ISO 639-3
JUDEO-ARABIC — The Jewish population of North Africa is divided by language into Arabic and Berber speaking communities, and groups speaking ladino (Judeo Spanish). Arabic speaking communities include descendants of the megorashim (expellees from spain ) who… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Judeo-Berber language — Judeo Berber is a term used primarily for the Berber varieties traditionally spoken by the Jewish communities of certain parts of central and southern Morocco. While mutually comprehensible with the Tamazight spoken by most inhabitants of the… … Wikipedia
Arabic language — Arabic redirects here. For other uses, see Arabic (disambiguation). For the literary standard, see Modern Standard Arabic. For vernaculars, see varieties of Arabic. For others, see Arabic languages. Arabic العربية/عربي/عربى al ʿarabiyyah/ʿarabī … Wikipedia
ARABIC LANGUAGE — ARABIC LANGUAGE. According to the generally accepted division of the semitic languages , Arabic (also called, more appropriately, North Arabic) belongs to the southwest Semitic branch, although some scholars affiliate it with central Semitic. The … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Languages of Portugal — Languages of country = Portugal official =Portuguese unofficial = main = minority = foreign = English (32%) French (24%) Spanish (9%) sign = Portuguese Sign Language keyboard = Portuguese QWERTY keyboard source = [http://ec.europa.eu/public… … Wikipedia
Judeo-Moroccan — Infobox Language name=Judeo Moroccan Arabic states=Israel, Morocco speakers=258,925 familycolor=Afro Asiatic fam2=Semitic fam3=West Semitic fam4=Central Semitic fam5=South Central Semitic fam6=Arabic script=Hebrew alphabet iso3=ajuJudeo Moroccan… … Wikipedia
Languages of Iberia — Iberian languages is a generic term for the languages currently or formerly spoken in the Iberian peninsula. Historic languages Pre Roman languages The following languages were spoken in the Iberian peninsula before the Roman occupation. *… … Wikipedia