Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire


Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire

Infobox UK place
country = England
official_name = Stamford Bridge
latitude = 53.989000
longitude = -0.912544
population = 3,394 (2001 census)
civil_parish = Stamford Bridge
unitary_england = East Riding of Yorkshire
lieutenancy_england = East Riding of Yorkshire
region = Yorkshire and the Humber
constituency_westminster = East Yorkshire
post_town = YORK
postcode_district = YO41
postcode_area = YO
dial_code = 01759
os_grid_reference = SE710550

Stamford Bridge is a village and civil parish on the River Derwent in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, approximately Convert|7|mi|km|lk=on east of York.

Location and history

The village sits astride an ancient 'ford' crossing point of the River Derwent.

The Romans were here and their settlement initially consisted of a military fort established c.70AD and later developed into a large linear civilian settlement focussed on a bridge crossing of the river one mile south of the present town. Iter I of the Antonine Itinerary lists "Derventio" as being seven Roman miles from Eboracum (York) which matches the distance from York. In relation to known discoveries under the town of Malton, antiquaries always assumed that Malton should be called Derventio. The remains at Stamford Bridge were not known to them, lying undiscovered under arable and pasture fields until quite recently. In consideration of this archaeological evidence, and in absence of any other possible contenders, Stamford Bridge should be considered to be Roman Derventio.

The Battle of Stamford Bridge on September 25 1066 marked the end of the Viking era in Britain.

The settlement was called Pons Belli by the Normans, meaning battle bridge. Rents of freeholders and cottagers were recorded in 1368 and there was a common oven recorded the same year.

The A166 east-west road crossing the river at Stamford Bridge is one of the main roads from York to the East Riding and the coast. The road bridge in the village was closed on 5 March 2007, for just over 11 weeks, so that essential repairs could be carried out, in light of the enormous volume of traffic that uses it, exceptional for such an old bridge (dating from 1727). The bridge re-opened on 22 May.

In 1882 the population was 449; in the 2001 UK census the parish population was 3,394.cite web
url = http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=791046&c=Stamford+Bridge&d=16&e=15&g=391140&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1211319655907&enc=1&dsFamilyId=779
title = 2001 Census: Key Statistics: Parish Headcounts: Area: Stamford Bridge CP (Parish)
accessdate = 2008-05-20
work = Neighbourhood Statistics
publisher = Office for National Statistics
]

The village suffered from record floods in November 2000 which seriously flooded 30 businesses and homes. Flood defences have now been installed, costing £3.7 million.

The history of Stamford Bridge is covered in British History Online:Catton Kexby, Scoreby, and Stamford Bridge West, [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=23020#s1] and Catton High and Low Catton and Stamford Bridge East [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=23019&strquery=http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=23019&s]

Natural history

Flooding

The River Derwent divides Stamford Bridge into two. It rises in the North Yorkshire Moors and flows south west rather than taking a direct route to the North Sea. It eventually joins the River Ouse north of the village of Long Drax, before flowing ultimately into the Humber Estuary.

During 4th/5th March 1999, exceptional levels of rainfall were experienced in the Derwent catchment area, reaching Convert|125|mm|in|lk=on inside a 24 hour period. The situation was worsened by melting snow which had earlier accumulated on the North York Moors.

The conditions deteriorated and by Sunday 7 March large areas of Stamford Bridge were under water and a final flooding depth of approximately Convert|1.5|m|ft|lk=on was recorded by Monday 8 March.

At the height of the flooding the River Derwent reach the peak of 5m above its normal level, the highest level ever recorded exceeding the previous highest in 1931 by Convert|0.5|m|in|lk=off.

However, the following year a new record flood level was set. In October 2000 the Derwent again burst its banks and peaked slightly above the 1999 flood level.

Work started in Autumn 2003 to build new flood defences for Stamford Bridge. And in the Autumn of 2004, work on the defences were finished. [cite book | last = A Guide to Stamford Bridge Flood Defence Scheme| first = | authorlink = | author = Environment Agency | title = Helping Protect You and Your Property| year = 2007? | publisher = Environment Agency | id = ]

The flood defences were breached, and much of the village square was under water, on the morning of 26 June 2007, in the wake of exceptional rainfall over the previous 24 hours.

Landmarks

Stamford Bridge has several notable landmarks:

* the Corn Mill

* the Bridge over the River Derwent

* the Viaduct.

* the Derwent Plastics factory, on the west side of the river, was established in 1934 when a former brewery was converted into a workshop.

* memorial commemorating the Battle of Stamford Bridge has been built at the edge of new housing estate overlooking the field where the battle is thought to have taken place.

The Mill

The current Corn Mill was built in 1591 and is thought to have been the third mill to have been built on the site with the same foundations. Research indicates that mills certainly existed at Stamford Bridge circa 1130-5 and “seven mills on one pond in the Derwent” were recorded in 1258.

The current mill was possibly expanded in 1847-50 when nearly £1,000 was spent on it. Subsequently there were two water wheels and seven pairs of grinding stones. The mill ceased operation in 1964 and was converted into a restaurant in 1967.

More recently the Cornmill was converted into twelve apartments but some of the original equipment remains in place today. The two-bed apartments [http://www.art-from-the-start.co.uk/designportfolio_1.asp] were built in 2005 by Everdale Homes and have interior design by local company Art from the Start.

The Cornmill remains the most visible landmark in Stamford Bridge.

The Bridge

There has been a river crossing since at least Roman times. The river 250 metres upstream of the current bridge was passable except at times of flood via a natural rock ford. There was a bridge at or near the village in the 11th century as one is referred to in accounts of the battle of 1066, noted in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Manuscript 'C'. Archaeological research has shown that there was a bridge crossing of the River Derwent one mile south of the present village which linked the east and west bank of the Roman settlement of Derventio.

In the medieval period a new bridge made of timber supported on three stone piers was erected. Records show that this was repaired in the 13th and 16th centuries. A map from 1724 shows this bridge to have been 70 metres upstream from the current bridge.

In the 18th century the weir and the by-pass canal and lock, known as the New Cut, were built and the medieval bridge was replaced with the current structure.

The present bridge was designed by Wiliam Etty under an Act of 1725 and completed in 1727.The bridge was strengthened in the 1960s and at the same time the adjacent pedestrian bridge was erected. [cite book | last = A166 Stamford Bridge Major Maintenance Works - public news leaflet sent to homes in Stamford Bridge| first = | authorlink = | author = East Riding of Yorkshire Council & Interserve| title = History of the Bridge| month = April | year = 2007 | publisher = East Riding of Yorkshire Council & Interserve| id = ]

The bridge is a Grade II listed monument.

The Viaduct

Opened on October 3, 1847, the viaduct originally carried the York to Beverley railway line across the Derwent. It consists of red brick arches on either side of a single wider wrought-iron span that crosses the river. The last train ran across the viaduct on November 27, 1965. Now disused the condition of the viaduct deteriorated to the point that East Yorkshire Borough Council announced their intention to demolish it in 1991. The plans were ultimately shelved after bitter protests from rail campaigners. The viaduct has since been repaired and made safe and now forms part of a public cycle route.

Education

The village school was first built in Main Street in 1795 as a result of a legacy left by Christopher Wharton. Education was provided free for 12 poor boys and 6 poor girls who had to provide one shilling a year for kindling. Pay scholars were also taught and by 1822 the school population numbered 30. 1874 saw compulsory education and in 1911 the East Riding County Council took over and built a school on the present Church Road site.

This original building was modernised and extended in 1968 and because of the rapid development of the village a further extension was added in 1978. In April 1983 a new infants building, in Godwinsway, Stamford Bridge, was added to the school. Built for 120 infant children it makes the school a split site establishment, but adds greatly to the educational provision for the children. In 2000 this building was also extended.

Commerce

Even though the journey from York to the North Sea coast is just an hour, Stamford Bridge remains a popular stopping point for travellers on the A166. Most stops are for refreshment, usually required due to the long queues to get over the one lane bridge, at one of the establishments located around The Square.

The facilities located in central Stamford Bridge include;

*a bank, a Post Office and solicitors

*an estate agent

*a convenience store, a newsagent, a butcher/baker and a pharmacist

*caravan park, nursing home, and funeral director;

*four pubs, The Three Cups and The Swordsman (which both provide food), the Stamford and Bay Horse.

*fast food which is served by a pizza/kebab shop, a fish and chip shop and a Chinese take-away and a sandwich shop.

*a hotel and cafe, The Riverside Cafe.

*hardware/gardening store

*modern purpose built veterinary clinic, a dental practice and a doctor's surgery

*two car repair garages

*one of the best specialist whisky departments in the country which boasts a selection of over 600 whiskies in stock at all times.

*an electrical store (Rutherfords) which is East Yorkshire's oldest and most extensive Panasonic dealer and has sold Panasonic goods since the early 1970s. The shop also sells many appliances by other well known companies such as Bosch and Hotpoint.

*a local potter also has a shop in the village square where you can purchase some of his hand created wares.

*a hair dressing salon and a beauty/therapy salon

However recently Stamford Bridge has lost the services of a petrol filling station and a ladies clothing shop.

Trivia

Stamford Bridge is also
* the veterinary home of television vet Matt Brash with his newly opened surgery next to the bridge. Matt Brash stars in the Yorkshire Television programme "Zoo Vet at Large" which is shown world wide on channels such as Sky Travel and the Danish channel Viasat.
* the former home of the current England football team's goalkeeper Paul Robinson.
* the birthplace of former Manchester United goalkeeper Nick Culkin.
* the name of Chelsea Football Club's home stadium.

Photos

References

External links

* [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=23019/ British History On-line: Stamford Bridge]
* [http://www.romanmap.com/htm/nomina/Malton.htm Derventione]
* [http://www.roman-britain.org/places/buttercrambe_moor.htm Roman Camp]
* [http://www.ukweatherwise.co.uk/w_station.aspx?pubcode=SB See the weather forecast for Stamford bridge]
* [http://tourguide.panoptics.co.uk/view.php?tid=26&fullscreen=true A 360o picture of Stamford Bridge and the memorial for the battle of Stamford Bridge]


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