Ex-Nazi Party members


Ex-Nazi Party members

In the context of this article, the term ex-Nazi, or more correctly ex-Nazi Party member refers either to those few who were once Nazis and resigned from the party (the NSDAP), or more often to those who belonged to the party at the time when it was declared illegal and was disbanded upon the victory of the Allies. Many of the latter group had to go through a process of denazification and some were subjected to the Nuremberg process, while others managed to escape trial, in particular through the ODESSA organization. In the mid-1950s, most condemned during these trials were amnestied and subsequently released. This article is not about the ideology of the individuals listed, simply about their past membership in the NSDAP. In this sense, an "ex-Nazi" may have continued to be a convinced Nazi, just as a Communist may have remained so after his party was disbanded and forbidden to operate in Germany or, conversely, the person may have been a member of the party for expedient reasons and never held the ideology.

Famous Nazi hunters such as Simon Wiesenthal have tried to bring all accused of crimes to justice. However, only a few of them, famous figures such as Adolf Eichmann (judged and hanged in Ramla in 1962), have been found. Many others (Josef Mengele, Aribert Heim, Walter Rauff, etc.) escaped justice, finding refuge in Franquist Spain (e.g. Otto Skorzeny), South America (especially Juan Peron's Argentina, Chile, Alfredo Stroessner's Paraguay, Brazil, etc.) and also in some Arab states. Some former Nazis even managed to obtain very important positions in West Germany after the war (e.g. Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Chancellor of West Germany from 1966 to 1969, Hans Globke, who was Konrad Adenauer's national security adviser in 1960, etc.). Furthermore, a number of former Nazis were recruited by the CIA after the war (e.g. Otto Albrecht von Bolsching, Eichmann's superior in the Reich's Jewish Affairs department. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1792559,00.html Why Israel's capture of Eichmann caused panic at the CIA] , "The Guardian", June 8, 2006 ] ), as part of the Gehlen Organization predecessor of the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND). Many Nazi scientists were also recruited by the US under the code-named Operation Paperclip.

The Eastern bloc was equally keen to employ ex-Nazis notwithstanding the official anti-fascist rhetoric: the Soviet Union produced their first atomic bomb courtesy of German scientists captured in 1945. The National Democratic Party of Germany acted as an organisation for former members of the NSDAP and the Wehrmacht. It was part of the ruling National Front of Democratic Germany, but in practice it was subject to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED). Similar to the FRG, some of the GDR's (East Germany) major officials, such as Erich Apel (Chairman of the GDR State Planning Commission and Deputy Prime Minister until 1964), Horst Kaminsky (President of the State Bank of the GDR during the Honecker years), likewise had Nazi backgrounds. It is documented during the late Walter Ulbricht years in the late 1960s, six SED sitting Politburo members and at least four SED Politburo candidates had previous NSDAP memberships [http://www.osa.ceu.hu/files/holdings/300/8/3/text/25-3-89.shtml Former National Socialists Still Active in East Germany] , "Radio Free Europe", 1967-3-15] . The Stasi, the GDR's intelligence service, had employed several chief informers and agents who were former SS and Gestapo operatives [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,1760980,00.html Book Claims Stasi Employed Nazis as Spies] , "Deutsche Welle, 31.10.2005 ] .

Nazis judged during the Nuremberg Trials

Nazis judged during the Doctors' Trial (1946–47)

This list includes only, for obvious reasons, those who were not executed after the trial.

*Hermann Becker-Freyseng. "Stabsarzt" in the "Luftwaffe" (Captain, Medical Service of the Air Force); and Chief of the Department for Aviation Medicine of the Chief of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe. 20 years imprisonment commuted to ten years.
*Wilhelm Beiglböck (1905–1963). NSDAP and SA member, Nazi medical researcher responsible for seawater experiments in Dachau concentration camp. 15 years imprisonment commuted to ten years. Became the chief physician of the Hospital of Buxtehude from 1952 to his death in 1963.
*Kurt Blome. Charged of euthanasia and human experimentation. Acquitted and exfiltrated through Operation Paperclip ("see below"), and subsequently hired in 1951 by the US Army Chemical Corps to work on chemical warfare.
*Fritz Fischer (1912–). Condemned to life imprisonment on charges of human experimentation, was subsequently released in 1954 and then worked, until retiring, for Boehringer-Ingelheim pharmaceutical company.
*Karl Genzken (1885–1957). Chief of the medical office of the SS, charged of human experimentation, condemned in 1947 to life imprisonment, released in 1954.
*Siegfried Handloser (1895–1954) . Chief of the German Armed Forces Medical Service, condemned to life sentence in 1947, released in 1954, and died shortly afterwards of a cancer.
*Herta Oberheuser (1911–1978). Doctor at Ravensbrück concentration camp, sentenced to 20 years imprisonment for human experimentation. Released in 1952, became a family doctor before being recognized by a Ravensbrück survivor in 1956, and subsequently losing her medical licence two years afterwards.
*Helmut Poppendick (1902–1994). Chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police, sentenced to 10 years imprisonment for human experiments carried on in Ravensbrück. Released in 1951.
*Gerhard Rose. "Generalarzt" of the Luftwaffe (Brigadier General, Medical Service of the Air Force); Vice President, Chief of the Department for Tropical Medicine, and Professor of the Robert Koch Institute; and Hygienic Adviser for Tropical Medicine to the Chief of the Medical Service of the Luftwaffe. Judged guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, sentenced to life imprisonment, later commuted to 20 years.
*Paul Rostock (1892–1956). Chief of the Office for Medical Science and Research ("Amtschef der Dienststelle Medizinische Wissenschaft und Forschung") under Third Reich Commissioner Karl Brandt and a Full Professor, Medical Doctorate, Medical Superintendent of the University of Berlin Surgical Clinic. Charged of human experimentation during the Doctors' Trial, acquitted. Then worked as medical supervisor of Versorgungs Hospital in Bayreuth, from 1953 to his death at age 64 in Bad Tölz.

Subsequent Nuremberg Trials

*Erhard Milch (1892–1972). "Generalfeldmarschall", worked under Albert Speer. Life sentence during the Milch Trial, released in 1954 and then lived until his death in Düsseldorf.
*Franz Schlegelberger (1876–1970). State Secretary in the German Reich Ministry of Justice (RMJ) and served awhile as Justice Minister during the Third Reich. He was the highest-ranking defendant at the Judges' Trial. Received life sentence for conspiracy to perpetrate war crimes and crimes against humanity. Released in 1950 owing to incapacity. For years afterward, he drew a monthly pension of DM 2,894 (for comparison, the average monthly income in Germany at that time was DM 535) and lived in Flensburg. Ernst Lauz and Curt Rothenberg also received pensions after their release in the mid-1950s. 16 German jurists and lawyers were then judged, all convicted, and most released in the mid-1950s.
*Friedrich Flick (1883–1972). Judged in the Flick trial, sentenced to 7 years. Pardoned and released by John J. McCloy.
*Otto Steinbrinck (1888–1949). Sentenced to six years imprisonment during the Flick Trial, died in custody before the wave of general amnesty in the mid-1950s.
*Wilhelm List (1891–1971). Field marshall. Sentenced to life imprisonment for war crimes and crimes against humanity during the Hostages Trial. Released in 1952 because of poor health.
*Maximilian von Weichs (1881–1954). General Field Marshall. Accused of war crimes, he escaped judgment at the Hostages Trial because of his health. He died at Burg Rötsberg near Bonn.
*Lothar Rendulic (1887–1971). Austrian Colonel General of the Wehrmacht. Sentenced to 20 years imprisonment during the Hostages Trial, released in 1951 and subsequently started writing.
*Werner Lorenz (1891–1974). Sentenced to 20 years imprisonment at the RuSHA Trial, released in 1955.
*Otto Hofmann (1896–1982). Sentenced to 25 years imprisonment on charges of war crimes at the RuSHA trial, released in 1954.
*Franz Six (1909–1965). Sentenced to 20 years imprisonment at the "Einsatzgruppen Trial", released in 1952.
*Alfried Krupp (1907–1967). Sentenced to 12 years plus forfeiture of property at the Krupp Trial, his sentence was finally overturned by John J. McCloy, High Commissioner of the American Zone of Occupation; "released in January 1951 and all his property restored to him".
*Ernst von Weizsäcker (1882–1951). Ambassador to the Vatican. Sentenced to 7 years imprisonment at the Ministries Trial, released in October 1950, taking advantage of one of the first amnesty.
*Ernst Wilhelm Bohle (1903–1960). Leader of the Foreign Organisation of the NSDAP. Sentenced to 5 years imprisonment at the Ministries Trial, pardoned in 1949 by John J. McCloy. Merchant after the war, he gave impulse to the refoundation of an organisation for the development of German interstate commerce with South Africa. Through some stages, to whom belonged so called "Südafrikanische Studiengesellschaften" (English: South-African Study Societies) in Hamburg, Stuttgart, Munich and Düsseldorf since the beginning of 1950 (the Düsseldorf Circle was led by Third Reich's Press Chief Otto Dietrich) the Deutsch-Südafrikanischen Gesellschaft (DSAG) arose again in 1965.
*Otto Dietrich (1897–1952). Press Chief of the Third Reich. 7 years imprisonment, released in 1951.
*Hans Lammers (1879–1962). Head of the Reich Chancellery. Sentenced to 20 years during the Ministries Trial, released in 1952.
*Wilhelm Stuckart (1902–1953). Secretary of State in the Interior Minister. Freed after the Ministries Trial after being sentenced three years, which he had already served. Died in 1953 of a car crash. Some have speculated that he was assassinated by Nazi hunters.
*Richard Walther Darré (1895–1953). Minister for Food and Agriculture (1933–42). Sentenced to 7 years during the Ministries Trial, released in 1950, died three years later of cancer of the liver.
*Otto Meissner (1880–1953). Head of the Presidential Chancellery. Acquitted during the Ministries' Trial.
*Gottlob Berger (1896–1975). Chief of Staff of the SS. Co-author of Heinrich Himmler's pamphlet, "Der Untermensch". Sentenced to 25 years during the Ministries' Trial, released in 1951.
*Walter Schellenberg (1910–1952). Head of Foreign Intelligence. Sentenced to 7 years during the Ministries' Trial. Released in 1951, lived hereafter in Verbania (Italy).
*Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (1887–1977). Finance Minister. Sentenced to 10 years at the Ministries' Trial. Released in 1951. Then wrote his memoirs and books on economic policy, before quietly dying in Essen, aged 89.
*Paul Pleiger (1889–1985). Head of the Hermann-Göring-Werke (confiscated steel plants employing slave laborers). Sentenced to 15 years at the Ministries' Trial. Released in 1951.

Prominent ex-NSDAP Members

The following is a list of influential people who were NSDAP members.

Austria

* Kurt Waldheim (1918-2007), Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1972 to 1981, President of Austria from 1986 to 1992.
* Heinrich Harrer (1912-2006), Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer and author; nominal member of the SS before the war. In India on a mountaineering expedition at the start of the war and interned by the British.

East Germany

* Wilhelm Adam (1893-1978), participated in the Beerhall Putsch and became SA Oberscharführer, later rose to the rank of major. Captured in 1943 at Stalingrad. In 1948 returned to the Soviet Occupational Zone and co-founded the NDPD and became Volkskammer member. Instrumental in early days of GDR military, first in Kasernierte Volkspolizei ("Barracked People's Police", a military police force, KVP) with the rank of colonel, then commander of NVA (National People's Army) – Officers' College.
*Robert D. Wildau (1920 - 2000), One of Hitlers most trusted advisors at the rank of Cololnel who died of a drug overdose.
* Heinz Barth (1920-2007), lived under a false identity in East Germany. Finally judged in 1983 for his involvement in the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre. Released in 1997, died in August 2007.
* Josef Settnik, Gestapo operative based at Auschwitz. Became a Stasi spy among GDR church circles in 1964.
* Hans Sommer, SS Untersturmführer instrumental in the bombing of seven synagogues in Paris in October 1941. Later posted as spy for the GDR's Stasi surveilling right-wing politicians in West Germany (under the disguise of working for the Gehlen Organisation) and later in Italy.
* Willy Läritz, Gestapo member from Leipzig. Became senior interrogator with the Stasi.
* Rudolf Arzinger, Professor for International Law at the Karl-Marx University (present day Leipzig University) in Leipzig.
* Helmut Faulstich, Director of the Central Institute for Nuclear Research in Rossendorf.
* Egbert von Frankenberg and Proschlitz, military-political commentator at the East German national radio and Chairman of the Circle of former officers.
* Ernst Melsheimer, a district court judge in the Volksgerichtshof. Became the GDR's Generalstaatsanwalt (chief public prosecutor).
* Herbert Kröger, a high-ranking SS officer. Become the Director of the Institute for International Relations at the Academy for Judicial Sciences in Potsdam-Batelsberg.
* Erich Apel, helped organize slave labor to produce V2 rockets for Wernher von Braun (see below). Became the GDR's Chairman of the State Planning Commission with the rank of Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Deputy Prime Minister). Died in 1964 over disagreements with Walter Ulbricht over state economic planning directions. Death officially listed as suicide.
* Manfred Ewald, President of the German Gymnasts' and Sports' Club. One time SED Politburo member.
* Horst Heinze, Secretary for Work Productivity and Wages at the Executive Board of the Trade Unions. One time SED Politburo member.
* Hans Jackel, Director of the Mathematics' Institute at the Machine Construction School in Karl-Marx-Stadt (now Chemnitz). One time SED Politburo member.
* Heinz Matthes, Minister and Chairman of the Workers' and Farmers' Inspectorate. One time SED Politburo member.
* Erich Rubensam, Director of the Institute for Field and Plant Development in Müncheberg. One time SED Politburo member.
* Herbert Weiz, State Secretary for Research and Technology. One time SED Politburo member.
* Horst Kaminsky, President of Staatsbank der DDR (State Bank of the GDR), 1974-1990.

West Germany

* Gunter d'Alquen (1910–1998). Chief editor of the SS weekly "Das Schwarze Korps" and commander of the SS-Standarte Kurt Eggers. Fined DM 60.000 in 1955 by a Denazification court, deprived of civil rights for three years, and debarred from drawing an allowance or pension from public funds. After further investigations, fined again DM 28.000 in 1958.
* Max Amann (1891–1957). Obergruppenführer and publisher of the Franz Eher Nachfolger, the central publishing house of the NSDAP. Sentenced to 10 years in labour camp in 1948, released in 1953.
* Benno von Arent (1898–1956). Oberführer, died in Bonn in 1956.
* Artur Axmann (1913–1996). Official in the Hitler Youth. Worked post-war as a sales representative.
* Richard Baer (1911–1963). Sturmbannführer, commander of the Auschwitz I concentration camp. Lived under the pseudonym of Karl Neumann after the war, before being discovered in 1960 and arrested.
* Alfred Baeumler (1887–1968). Nazi philosopher, one of the proponent of a biological and racist interpretation of Nietzsche (which the later had recused in advance, by cutting away with his editor when he turned anti-Semitic, etc.).
* Werner Best (1903–1989).
*Horst Ehmke (born 1927), later SPD politician and Minister under Willy Brandt
*Erhard Eppler (born 1926), SPD politician
* Martin Fellenz, former member of the SS, member of the FDP liberal party after the war, arrested in June 1960.
* Reinhard von Brysonstofen former member of the state secret police Gestapo, change his name to Bryson and left Germany after the war, for the USA.
* Eugen Fischer (1874–1967), appointed by Hitler rector of the University of Berlin, and one of the leading theorists of scientific racism
* Fritz Fischer, (1908-1999) historian
* Friedrich Flick (1883–1972), industrial leader and billionaire.
* Hans Globke (1898–1973), who worked with Adolf Eichmann in the Jewish Affairs Department drafting the Nuremberg laws, became director of the German Chancellery from 1953 to 1963 and then Konrad Adenauer's national security adviser [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/06/AR2006060601555_pf.html CIA Ties With Ex-Nazis Shown] , "The Washington Post", June 7, 2006 ] [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1792559,00.html Why Israel's capture of Eichmann caused panic at the CIA] , "The Guardian", June 8, 2006 ]
*Dieter Hildebrandt (born 1927), cabaret artist
* Hans Sommer, SS Untersturmführer instrumental in the bombing of seven synagogues in Paris in October 1941. Subsequently worked for the Gehlen Organisation and West Germany and subsequently Italy, but in reality as an agent for the GDR's Stasi.
* Martin Heidegger, philosopher.
* Herbert von Karajan, (1908-1989) conductor, joined the NSDAP in 1933 in Salzburg, Austria, five years before the Anschluss.
* Kurt Georg Kiesinger,(1904-1988} NSDAP later CDU and Chancellor of Germany.
* Helmut Knochen, (1910-2003), SS Standartenführer (equivalent of colonel) in France (1942-44) under Carl Oberg's authority (SS and Police Leader). Sentenced to death In France before to get presidential pardon in 1958. He was released by Pdt De Gaulle on Nov. 28 1962, retired in Baden-Baden where he lived free until his death.
* Klaus Konrad (1914–2006), took part in the 1943 San Polo massacre in Italy, in which Eugenio Calò, a Partisan, died. Became a SPD deputy in the Bundestag from 1967 to 1972 (see de:Klaus Konrad). [ AGI, "La strage nazista di San Polo - il tribunale militare di la spezia assolve Handsk", 27 February 2007 [http://www.agi.it/cronaca/notizie/200702262031-cro-rt11236-art.html] it icon ]
* Horst Kopkow, (1910-1996) SS Major protected by MI5 and MI6
* Walter Kopp, Wehrmacht Lieutenant Colonel, chief of one stay-behind networks code-named Kibitz-15 after the war. He was described by his own North-American handlers as an "unreconstructed Nazi," in CIA documents released in June 2006 [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1792559,00.html Why Israel's capture of Eichmann caused panic at the CIA] , "The Guardian", June 8, 2006 ] .
* Alfred Krupp, (1907-1967). NSDAP and SS sponsorship, industrialist involved in weapons; steel; and slave labor. Sentenced to 12 years and loss of all his property; pardoned by North American High Commissioner John J. McCloy in 1953 & all of Krupp's property restored to him.
* Gustav Krupp (1870–1950) ran the German Friedrich Krupp AG heavy industry conglomerate from 1909 until 1941. Indicted for prosecution at the 1945 Nuremberg trials, the charges were dropped because of his failing health.
* Heinz Lammerding, (1905-1971) commander of the 2nd SS Division Das Reich involved in the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre.
* Fritz Lenz (1887–1976), founder of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics and one of the leading theorists of eugenics and of scientific racism.
*Siegfried Lenz (born 1926), author
* Theodor Maunz, specialist of public law, then minister of Education and Culture in Bavaria.
* Carl Oberg, (1897, 1965) SS and Police Leader (equivalent of general) he headed all German police units in France since 1942 to 1944. Like his mate Helmut Knochen, sentenced to death before getting presidential pardon (1958) ; released by Pdt De Gaulle on Nov. 1962, he retired free in Germany until his death in 1965.
* Theodor Oberländer, (1905-1998) NSDAP member, SA-Obersturmbannführer, later became Refugee Minister under Konrad Adenauer.
* Heinz Reinefarth (1903-1979) an SS Brigadeführer who became mayor of Westerland in December 1951
* Franz Schönhuber (1923–2005). Waffen-SS, later chairman of the right-wing Die Republikaner party which he co-founded in 1983.
* Carl Schmitt (1888–1985), Nazi jurist and philosopher.
* Hanns-Martin Schleyer,(1915-1977) SS, later employer representative, kidnapped and murdered by Red Army Faction.
* Albert Speer (1905–1981), Hitler's chief architect, sentenced to 20 years in prison at Nuremberg, became a noted author on Third Reich history.
* Elisabeth Schwarzkopf, NSDAP member, soprano singer.
* Fritz Thyssen, (1873-1951) NSDAP member since 1931, steel industrialist.
* Erich von dem Bach (1899–1972). Obergruppenführer, commander of troops fighting the Warsaw Uprising. Imprisoned after the war, but never judged for his role in the Eastern Front.
* Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (1896–1969), director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, he carried out experiments on human beings in concentration camps. Awarded in 1951 the prestigious professorship of human genetics at the University of Münster, where he established one of the largest centers of genetics research in West Germany.

United Kingdom

*Mychailo Fostun, former member of the 14th SS Division Galicia (rank Corporal) and guard at the Trawniki camp, and general secretary of the Association of Ukrainian Former Combatants in Great Britain (old comrades group of the 14th SS Division Galicia) [ Daniel Foggo, [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=MOBXDYD1KGBIPQFIQMGCFFWAVCBQUIV0?xml=/news/2003/01/26/nazi26.xml London man denies role in SS massacres] , "The Telegraph", 25 January 2003 en icon] .
*See also Rimini List [ Daniel Foggo, [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=%2Fnews%2F2003%2F06%2F22%2Fnhs22.xml Police to use NHS records to find Nazi war criminals] , "The Telegraph", 22 June 2003 en icon] .
*William Payne

Nazis or/and Nazi collaborators who worked for the UK secret services after the war

*Klaus Barbie (1913–1991), the "Butcher of Lyon", "Hauptsturmführer" and Gestapo official. Recruited by the US Counter Intelligence Corps in 1947, he also worked for British intelligence. Participated in Luis García Meza Tejada's 1980 "Cocaine Coup" in Bolivia. Sentenced in France to life imprisonment in 1987 for crimes against humanity.
*Horst Kopkow-{1910-1996} SS Major who after World War II worked for MI6

Middle East

*Alois Brunner. {b.1912}. Head of Drancy internment camp near Paris, worked for the Gehlen Org before escaping to Syria through a ratline organised by Catholic bishop Alois Hudal. Thought to be living in Syria, he has been condemned in 2001 by a French court, in absentia, to a life sentence for crimes against humanity.

South America

*Ludolf von Alvensleben (1901–1970). SS-Gruppenführer and Major General of the Police (1943). Fled to Argentina after the war.
*Adolf Eichmann (1906–1962). "Obersturmbannführer" in charge of deportation of the Jews in Nazi Europe. Kidnapped in 1960 by the Israeli MOSSAD in Buenos Aires and moved to Israel, he was judged and hanged in Jerusalem.
*Josef Mengele (1911–1979). SS officer in Auschwitz, nicknamed "Angel of Death". Escaped to Argentina under Juan Peron's rule in 1949, then to Altos, Paraguay in 1959. Chased by Nazi hunters, he flew away to Brazilian town Embu, near São Paulo. He died of a stroke in Bertioga.
*Walter Rauff (1906–1984). SS-Standartenführer and member of the RSHA. Worked for Chilean intelligence. Arrested in 1962, but freed by the Chilean Supreme Court five months later. Died in Chile in 1984 of lung cancer. His funerals were the occasion of a Nazi celebration.
*Paul Schäfer (founder of Colonia Dignidad in Chilendash see below.)
*Walter Schreiber (1893–?) (See below)
*Franz Stangl (1908–1971). Head of Treblinka extermination camp. Escaped to Italy with Gustav Wagner, then Syria through a ratline organised by Catholic bishop Alois Hudal. Moved to Brazil in 1951. Tracked down by Simon Wiesenthal in 1967, he was finally extradited to Germany where he died in prison.
*Carl Værnet (1893–1965). Danish SS, member of the DNSAP, the Danish Nazi party, and doctor at Buchenwald concentration camp. Fled to Brazil and then Argentina after the war.
* Gustav Wagner (1911–1980). Deputy commandant of Sobibór extermination camp in Poland. Escaped with Franz Stangl to Italy, where he transited through a ratline organised by Catholic bishop Alois Hudal. Flew to Brazil, where the Brazilian Supreme Court rejected an extradition request in 1979. According to his lawyer, he committed suicide the next year.

USSR

* Hugo Schmeisser. In October 1945 Hugo Schmeisser was forced to work for the Red Army and instructed to continue development of new weapons.
* Hermann Weber [http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermann_Weber_%28Konstrukteur%29 DE] , [http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%93%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BD_%D0%92%D0%B5%D0%B1%D0%B5%D1%80 RU]
* Hundreds of scientists.

United States of America

Over 1,500 German and other foreign scientists, technicians, and engineers were brought to the United States under Project Paperclip and similar programs [http://www.archives.gov/iwg/declassified-records/rg-330-defense-secretary/ Foreign Scientist Case Files 1945–1958] , on the US National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) website ] . A non-exhaustive list includes:

* Kurt Blome. Judged during the Doctors' Trial, hired in 1951 by the US Army Chemical Corps to work on chemical warfare. Eventually, Blome was arrested by French authorities, convicted of war crimes, and sentenced to 20 years in prison.("See above).
* Wernher von Braun, {1912-1977} SS Major; NSDAP membership; NSFK; Rocket scientist of both the Nazi rocket Vergeltungswaffen or "retaliation weapons" program and later NASA. Involed in enslavement of Poles and others
*Arthur Rudolph, {1906-1996} NSDAP member, Rocket scientist of the Nazi rocket Vergeltungswaffen (V2) and later NASA. According to the US government, he left the US in 1984 following the Department of Justice's discovery of his role in the persecution of prisoners at the Nordhausen factory
* Bernhard Tessmann (1912–1998)
* Georg Rickhey, a former official at the Nordhausen underground V-2 rocket factory who arrived in 1946 but who left the United States in 1947 when he was tried (and acquitted) for war crimes by a U.S. military tribunal
* Walter Schreiber (1893–1952?), who had been instrumental in medical experiments on concentration camp inmates and who fled the United States to Argentina in 1952 after the appearance of a newspaper column about his activities
* Alexander Lippisch (1894–1976)
* Hans von Ohain (1911–1998) One of the inventors of jet propulsion he became director of the US Air Force Aeronautical Research Laboratory and by 1975 he was the Chief Scientist of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory there.
* Kurt Lehovec (one of the physicists responsible for the invention of the integrated circuit)
* Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) (father of US space medicine)
* Felix Jeager (1903–1977)
* John Porrini (1920-1981)

Nazis and"/"or Nazi collaborators who worked for the US secret services after the war

*Klaus Barbie (1913–1991), the "Butcher of Lyon", "Hauptsturmführer" and Gestapo official. Recruited by the US Counter Intelligence Corps in 1947, he also worked for British intelligence. Participated in Luis García Meza Tejada's 1980 "Cocaine Coup" in Bolivia. Sentenced in France to life imprisonment in 1987 for crimes against humanity.
*Otto Albrecht von Bolschwing (CIA agent in West Germany, recruited by the Gehlen Org, former assistant of Adolf Eichmann)
*Alois Brunner - Believed by some to live in Brazil or Syria under alias Dr. Georg Fischer. Responsible for the deaths of 140,000 Jews, head of Drancy internment camp near Paris. Worked for the Gehlen Org after the war and then fled to Syria.
*Reinhard Gehlen (1902–1979) (See above)
*Walter Kopp (ibid)
*Mykola Lebed (1909-1998) (Ukrainian), lived in Yonkers New York, worked for the U.S. Intelligence Agency after his collaboration with the Nazis.

Spain

*Otto Skorzeny (1908–1975). "Obersturmbannführer" during the war, he then fled to Franquist Spain, where he organized the ODESSA group. Skorzeny also founded the Paladin mercenary group in 1970, and worked as a consultant for Egyptian president Nasser and for Argentine president Juan Peron. His staff are believed to have helped Aribert Heim (found to be living in Spain in October 2005) escape trial.es icon cite news
last=Martinez
first=Félix
coauthors=Nando Garcia
title=A la caza del ultimo Nazi
publisher=El Mundo
date=2005-10-30
url=http://www.elmundo.es/suplementos/cronica/2005/524/1130623202.html
accessdate=2006-07-06
] .
*Aribert Heim (See Ex-Nazis believed to be alive, below).
*Léon Degrelle (1906-1994)

Members Who Resigned

*Hermann Rauschning, conservative and reactionary who resigned from the NSDAP and fled Germany and became a bitter opponent of Nazism.
*Otto Strasser, politician and left-wing NSDAP member who rejected some of Adolf Hitler's ideas and more moderate economical tendencies. He subsequently attempted to form his own faction within the Nazi Party and ended up living in exile during Hitler's regime.

Living Nazis

This is a list of NSDAP members that are still alive and presumed/considered war criminals. Due to the fact that there have been many Nazis living as fugitives since that time, the fates of many remain unknown, see below:

Known to be alive

*Milivoj Ašner, (born 1919) Former police chief in eastern Croatia who enforced racist laws under Croatia's World War II Nazi-allied regime, which persecuted hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews and Roma. He currently resides in Austria.
*Søren Kam, (born 1921) Member of the DNSAP, the Danish Nazi Party, who fled from Denmark to Germany after the war, and is now a German citizen. On September 21, 2006, Kam was detained in the German town of Kempten im Allgäu. He is wanted in Denmark for the assassination of Danish newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen in Copenhagen in August 1943.
*Herta Bothe, (born 1921) "Aufseherin" who served at both Stutthof and Bergen Belsen during the war.
*Luise Danz, (born 1917) "Aufseherin" at various camps, including Plaszów, Majdanek, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Malchow. Was tried and convicted as part of 1946 Auschwitz trial in Poland. She was released in 1956. Was brought to trial in 1996 for her activities at Malchow, but was dismissed due to her age.
*Erich Priebke, (born 1913) "Hauptsturmführer" of the SS, he participated in the Ardeatine massacre in Rome, on March 24, 1944, where he had a hand in the deaths of 335 Italian civilians.
*Karl Frenzel, (born 1911) "Oberscharführer" who served at Sobibór extermination camp. Frenzel aided in the implementation of the Final Solution, taking part in the industrial-scale extermination of thousands of inmates as part of Operation Reinhard. Sentenced to life imprisonment in 1966 but released in 1982 due to ill health.
*Paul Henss, (born 1922) served as a prison guard and attack dog handler at Dachau and Buchenwald Concentration Camps. Henss served in the Waffen SS in 1941 and became an SS dog handler in 1942. Recently (September 2007) located in Lawrenceville, Georgia, USA by the Criminal Division’s Office of Special Investigations, part of the U.S. Justice Department and deported to Germany. [http://www.mahalo.com/Paul_Henss]
*Paul Schäfer, (born 1921) founder of the "Colonia Dignidad" cult in Chile after the war, charged of child-abuse and of the 1976 disappearance of Juan Maino and possible involvement in Boris Weisfeiler's disappearance. Currently serving a 20 year prison sentence for the sexual abuse of 25 children.
*John Demjanjuk, (born 1920) SS alleged guard at Treblinka extermination camp.
*Martin Sandberger (born 1911) SS Standartenführer and commander of Einsatzkommando 1a of the Einsatzgruppe. As of August 2008 he is the highest ranked SS officer know to be alive
*Hermann Hubig (born 1912) SS Standartenführer and commander of Einsatzkommando 1b of the Einsatzgruppe A

Believed to be alive

These people have not been confirmed to be alive, but are believed to be by some.
*Alois Brunner - born 1912, responsible for the deaths of 140,000 Jews, head of Drancy internment camp near Paris. Worked for the Gehlen Organisation after the war and then fled to Syria. Possibly living in Brazil or Syria under alias Dr. Georg Fischer. The Wiesenthal Center believes he may have died in 1992. [http://motlc.learningcenter.wiesenthal.org/pages/t011/t01162.html]
*Aribert Heim - born 1914, known as Dr. Death; an SS doctor who killed many inmates using sadistic methods [ [http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1215330878020&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull Nazi hunter looking for 'Dr. Death' in S. America | International | Jerusalem Post ] ] .
*Heinrich Müller - born 1900, was head of the Gestapo, the political police of Nazi Germany, and played a leading role in the planning and execution of the Holocaust. The NARA review of his CIA file and related documents states that while the record is "...inconclusive on Müller's ultimate fate ... [he] most likely died in Berlin in early May 1945."Timothy Naftali and others, "Analysis of the Name File of Heinrich Mueller", U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (available online [http://www.archives.gov/iwg/declassified-records/rg-263-cia-records/rg-263-mueller.html here] )] .

Non-NSDAP members of significant postwar influence

Many well-recognized and instrumental figures in the military and economic establishment of the Third Reich were not NSDAP members. Some of them obtained significant positions of influence in the West German government, or in the service of various intelligence agencies. For the purpose of historial clarification (and to avoid mistaken biographical attributions that they were NSDAP members) they are listed here.

References

Bibliography

*"Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War", Christopher Simpson
*"The Encyclopedia of World War II Spies", Peter Kross, Barricade Books, 2001.
*"CIA's Worst-Kept Secret" Consortiumnews.com, May 16, 2001.
*"Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage", Norman Polmar & Thomas Allen, Random House, 1997.
*"Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency", W. Thomas Smith, Facts on File, Inc., 2003
*"Nazi Criminals and the State Security Service: The Secret Policies of the GDR in Dealing with the Past", Henry Leide, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2nd Rev Feb 2006.

ee also

*Nazi hunter
*Pursuit of Nazi collaborators
*List of Axis war criminals
*List of SS personnel
*List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
*Operation Paperclip
*Ratlines (history)

External links

*de icon http://www.kriegsreisende.de/relikte/org-gehlen.htm
*de icon http://www.wsws.org/de/2001/apr2001/wehr-a21.shtml
* [http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB146/index.htm "Forging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1945–49"] , CIA declassified documents on the Gehlen Organization.
*de icon http://www.mfs-insider.de/Abhandlungen/Leide4.htm


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