Argyll Robertson pupil


Argyll Robertson pupil
Argyll Robertson pupil
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A52.1, H58.0
ICD-9 094.89, 379.45
DiseasesDB 33036

Argyll Robertson pupils (“AR pupils”) are bilateral small pupils that constrict when the patient focuses on a near object (they “accommodate”), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (they do not “react” to light). They are a highly specific sign of neurosyphilis. In general, pupils that “accommodate but do not react” are said to show light-near dissociation. A video of AR pupils and light-near dissociation is available here

AR pupils are extremely uncommon in the developed world. There is continued interest in the underlying pathophysiology, but the scarcity of cases makes ongoing research difficult.

Contents

History

In the early 20th century, William John Adie described a second type of pupil that could “accommodate but not react.” Adie’s tonic pupil is usually associated with a benign peripheral neuropathy (Adie syndrome), not with syphilis.[1]

When penicillin became widely available in the 1940s, the prevalence of AR pupils (which develop only after decades of untreated infection) decreased dramatically. AR pupils are now quite rare. A patient whose pupil “accommodates but does not react” almost always has a tonic pupil, not an AR pupil.

In the 1950s, Loewenfeld[2] distinguished between the two types of pupils by carefully observing the exact way in which the pupils constrict with near vision. The near response in AR pupils is brisk and immediate. The near response in tonic pupils is slow and prolonged.

Pathophysiology

The two different types of near response are caused by different underlying disease processes. Adie's pupil is caused by damage to peripheral pathways to the pupil (parasympathetic neurons in the ciliary ganglion that cause pupillary constriction to bright light and with near vision). The pathophysiologic mechanism which produces an Argyll Robertson pupil is unclear. Studies have failed to demonstrate a focal localising lesion. Research has implicated the rostral mid-brain in the vicinity of the cerebral aqueduct of the third ventricle as the most likely region of damage. A lesion in this area would involve efferent pupillary fibres on the dorsal aspect of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (associated with the response to light) while sparing the fibres associated with the response to near, which lie slightly more ventrally.[3] The exact relationship between syphilis and the two types of pupils (AR pupils and tonic pupils) is not known at the present time. The older literature on AR pupils did not report the details of pupillary constriction (brisk vs. tonic) that are necessary to distinguish AR pupils from tonic pupils. Tonic pupils can occur in neurosyphilis.[4] It is not known whether neurosyphilis itself (infection by Treponema pallidum) can cause tonic pupils, or whether tonic pupils in syphilis simply reflect a coexisting peripheral neuropathy.

Thompson and Kardon (2006)[5] summarize the present view:

The evidence supports a midbrain cause of the AR pupil, provided one follows Loewenfeld’s definition of the AR pupil as small pupils that react very poorly to light and yet seem to retain a normal pupillary near response that is definitely not tonic.
To settle the question of whether the AR pupil is of central or peripheral origin, it will be necessary to perform iris transillumination (or a magnified slit-lamp examination) in a substantial number of patients who have a pupillary light-near dissociation (with and without tonicity of the near reaction), perhaps in many parts of the world.

Parinaud syndrome

A third cause of light-near dissociation is Parinaud syndrome, also called dorsal midbrain syndrome. This uncommon syndrome involves vertical gaze palsy associated with pupils that “accommodate but do not react."[6] The causes of Parinaud syndrome include brain tumors (pinealomas), multiple sclerosis and brainstem infarction.

Due to the lack of detail in the older literature and the scarcity of AR pupils at the present time, it is not known whether syphilis can cause Parinaud syndrome. It is not known whether AR pupils are any different from the pupils seen in other dorsal midbrain lesions.

See also

References

  1. ^ Kawasaki A. Physiology, assessment, and disorders of the pupil. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 10(6):394-400, 1999
  2. ^ Thompson HS, Kardon RH. Irene E. Loewenfeld, PhD Physiologist of the Pupil. J Neuroophthalmol 26(2):139-148, 2006
  3. ^ Dr Christopher Dente and Dr Andrew Gurwood, The Argyll Robertson Pupil
  4. ^ Fletcher WA, Sharpe JA (1986). "Tonic pupils in neurosyphilis". Neurology 36 (2): 188–92. PMID 3945389. 
  5. ^ Thompson HS, Kardon RH (2006). "The Argyll Robertson pupil". Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology 26 (2): 134–8. doi:10.1097/01.wno.0000222971.09745.91. PMID 16845316. 
  6. ^ Redirect URL

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Argyll Robertson pupil — Ar·gyll Rob·ert·son pupil är .gīl räb ərt sən n a pupil characteristic of neurosyphilis that fails to react to light but still reacts in accommodation to distance Robertson Douglas Argyll (1837 1909) British ophthalmologist. The leading… …   Medical dictionary

  • argyll-robertson pupil — |ärˌgīlˈräbərtsən noun Usage: usually capitalized A&R Etymology: after D. Argyll Robertson died 1909 Scottish physician : a pupil that fails to react to light but still reacts in accommodation to distance and that is characteristic of… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Argyll Robertson pupil — a disorder of the eyes, common to several diseases of the central nervous system (such as syphilis), in which the pupillary reflex is absent. Although the pupils contract normally for near vision (the accommodation reflex), they fail to contract… …   Medical dictionary

  • Argyll Robertson pupil — a disorder of the eyes in which the pupillary (light) reflex is absent. Although the pupils contract normally for near vision (the accommodation reflex), they fail to contract in bright light. It may occur, for example, as a result of syphilis or …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Argyll Robertson pupil (pupil sign) — Ar·gyll Rob·ert·son pupil (pupil sign) (ahr gilґ robґərt sən) [Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson, Scottish physician, 1837–1909] see under pupil …   Medical dictionary

  • Argyll Robertson pupil sign — see under pupil …   Medical dictionary

  • Зрачок Аргайлла Робертсона (Argyll Robertson Pupil) — заболевание глаз, характерное для поражений центральной нервной системы, при котором у человека отсутствует зрачковый рефлекс (реакция глаза на свет). Несмотря на то, что зрачки нормально сокращаются при рассматривании предметов вблизи, они не… …   Медицинские термины

  • Signe d'Argyll-Robertson — Le signe d Argyll Robertson, (ou Pupille d Argyll Roberston) est une abolition du réflexe photomoteur (contraction des pupilles à la lumière), avec conservation de la réaction d accommodation (contraction des pupilles lors de la mise au point… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Signe d'Argyll Robertson — Le signe d Argyll Robertson, (ou Pupille d Argyll Roberston) est une abolition du réflexe photomoteur (contraction des pupilles à la lumière), avec conservation de la réaction d accommodation (contraction des pupilles lors de la mise au point… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Douglas Argyll Robertson — Douglas Moray Cooper Lamb Argyll Robertson FRSE (1837 – 3 January 1909) was a Scottish ophthalmologist and surgeon. Argyll Robertson pupil is named after him.[1] After earning his degree in 1857 from the University of St Andrews, he went to… …   Wikipedia


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