subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
map_caption = Location of Timişoara
nickname = Little Vienna|official_name=Timişoara
|leader_party=Christian-Democratic People's Party
population_as_of= July 01, 2007 [ [http://www.insse.ro/cms/rw/resource/populatia_stab_1%20iulie2007.htm Population of Romania as of
July 01, 2007] ]
Timişoara (pronunciation in Romanian: ; Hungarian: "Temesvár", German: "Temeschburg", "Temeswar", or "Temeschwar", Bulgarian: Тимишоара, Serbian: Темишвар, "Temišvar",
Banat Bulgarian: "Timišvár", Turkish: "Tamışvar-Tamişvar" or "Temeşvar"), also known as "The City of Athletes", is a city in the Banatregion of western Romania. It is the capital of Timiş County.
With 312,400 inhabitantsFact|date=August 2008, Timişoara is a large economic and cultural center in
Banatin the west of the country.
The city is also called "Little Vienna",Fact|date=October 2008 because it belonged for a very long time to the
Habsburg Empireand the entire city center consists of buildings built in the Kaiserera, which is reminiscent of the old Vienna. Timişoara is an important university center with the emphasis on subjects like medicine, mechanics and electro-technology. An industrial city with extensive services, it was the first European city to be lit by electricstreet lamps in 1884. It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse drawn trams in 1867. There are numerous claims that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Towerin Paris, built one of Timişoara's footbridges over the Bega.
The old city consists of historic city quarters with several historic squares and proms. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old center in the fine old baroque square.
All of the variants of its name derive from the
Timiş River, known in Roman Antiquity as river "Tibisis" or "Tibiscus". The evolution of the river name from antiquity (with the phonetic change "b" → "m") can be explained by the transition of Latininto Old Romanian. Although the Bega passes through Timisoara, the city received its name from the Timiş river because at the time of the setting of the name, the Bega and Timiş river's paths were very much mixed up. It is frequently spelled in English simply as Timisoara (without the diacritical mark beneath the s which actually produces a "sh" sound as in "shape").
In the Roman period, in the place where Timişoara is today, or in its immediate proximity there was a military camp named Zambara or Zurobara. [ [http://www.onf.fr/europe/life-urbanwoods/pdf/Urban_wood_modern_life%20_Roumanie.pdf Urban wood and modern life- the example of Timisoara City] by Gheorghe Florian Borlea, Radu Brad, and Oliver Merce - Forest Research & Management Institute- ICAS Timisoara, RO] During the time of the invasions of the nomad tribes from the Central-Asian plains, especially that of the Avars, on the site of the ruins of Zambara, a new settlement, called Beguey, was built.
In 1019 the locality of Dibiscos/ Bisiskos/ Tibiskos/ Tibiskon/ Timbisko/etc., presumed to be the future Timisoara , was mentioned for the first time in written documents of the
Byzantine Emperor Basil II, although not all historians do agree with this identification. In 1154, the Arabian geographer Sarif al Idrisi mentioned the city telling that "it is a nice city offering a lot of riches". The first mention of the fort of Timişoara "(Castrum Temesiensis)" is found in the decree of King Andrew II of Hungarydating from 1212. Timişoara itself was first mentioned in official documents as a city in 1474. It was conquered by the Ottomans in 1552 and remained under their control until it was taken by the Habsburg army led by the Prince Eugene of Savoyin 1716.
The demographic conditions of the region changed dramatically during the 167 year of Ottoman rule. In 1582, the city of Temeswar, in spite of the bloody siege, still had a Hungarian majority (the chief judge was István Herczegh [Preyer, Johann N.: Monographie der königlichen Freistadt Temesvar, 1853] ). Later, the largest ethnic group in the city were Muslim Turks, and other smaller groups included Serbs, Jews, and Gypsies.Dr. Dušan J. Popović, "Srbi u Vojvodini", knjige 1-3, Novi Sad, 1990 ]
After the city was occupied by the
Austrian Empire, the Turkish population fled. Of the remainder, we know of about 600-700 inhabitants out of which 446 were Serbs, 144 Jewish, and 35 Armenians. [According to captain Graf Paolo Wallis - Neumann, Victor: "Istoria evreilor din Banat". Buc. 1999 ] The "Armenische Stadt" as a separate quarter existed until the Great Plague of 1738. According to the 1720 data, the largest ethnic group in the city was Serb. Other smaller groups included Romanians and Jews; there were no Hungarians or Germans in the city at that time. Later, many Germans settled in the city, and gradually they became the largest ethnic group.
In 1718, the first beer factory in Transylvania was built. The first
tobaccomill in today's Romania was set up in Timişoara. Between 1728 and 1771 a canal Begawas built to unite the city with the Danuberiver. In 1849 Timişoara became the capital of the Austrian crownland of Voivodship of Serbia and Tamiš Banatas the result of the Spring of Nationsrevolution; the province was ethnically extremely diverse, as its population was made up of Romanians, Germans, Serbs, and Hungarians. The crownland was abolished in 1860 and passed to Hungarian rule in 1867 with the creation of the dual monarchy.
The city was also the first city in the
Austro-Hungarian Empireto have public lighting using suet candles and lamps with oil and grease. Timişoara also became the first city in Europe to have electric public lighting on the 12th of November 1884, [cite web
title =Timisoara the Capital of Banat| publisher =Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy| url =http://www.umft.ro/en/general_information/timisoara's_history.html| accessdate =2007-12-31 ] (four years after
New York City). A tram hauled by horses also came into service around this period. Meanwhile, in 1869 Timişoara was also the first city in the Kingdom of Hungaryto have an ambulance station.
In 1910, the town had 72,555 inhabitants: 31,644 (43.6%) Germans, 28,552 (39.3%) Hungarians (most probably including the Hungarian speaking Jews) , 7,566 (10.4%) Romanians and 3,482 (4.8%) Serbs. ["Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914", [http://www.talmakiado.hu/ Talma Kiadó] ]
World War I, the town was occupied by Serbian troops in November 24, 1918. They withdrew from the city on July 26, 1919and the Romanian army entered the city on August 3after an ultimatum of the Romanian government. This situation was confirmed by the Treaty of Trianon.
During the next decades as a result of the city's development and of population movements from the Romanian villages of the surrounding region and from other regions of the country, Romanians became the majority in the city. A relative Romanian majority was first recorded in the 1941 census. After the
Second World Warmany ethnic Germans emigrated in Germany, also almost all of the Jews emigrated to Israel and to the West. Timişoara's population has more than tripled over the last 50 years (it was slightly more than 90,000 at 1930 census), while the percentage of Magyars (Hungarians) has decreased from 30% to 7.5%, the Germans' from 30% to 2% and the Jews from 8% to almost 0%.
December 16, 1989many citizens of the town came to support the Hungarian Calvinist pastor László Tőkésagainst the authorities and Securitate(secret police)'s decision to deport him. In these circumstances on 17th December a popular uprising started in Timişoara against the Communistregime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. This was the beginning of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which put an end to the Communist regime a week later.
Timişoara has a population of 303,200 (2006). The average annual population growth is -1,5%. 14,2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are old over 75.The municipalities population dynamics and ethnic composition:
Mircea Baniciu(1949- ), Romanian rock singer
Iolanda Balaş(1936- ), Romanian athlete, Olympic champion
Ana Blandiana(1942- ), Romanian poet
Félix Bodrossy(1920-1983), Hungarian cinema cameraman and director
J. Edward Bromberg(Joseph Bromberger), (1903-1951) US actor
Mircea Ciugudean(1940- ) founder and first dean of Electronics and Telecommunications at The "Politehnica" University of Timişoara
Ioan Mihai Cochinescu(1951- ), Romanian writer and musicologist
Cosmin Contra(1975- ) Romanian football player
Virgil Cosma( ) Romanian musicologist
Nicu Covaci(1947- ), Romanian rock musician and painter, founder of Phoenix rock band
Robert Dornhelm(1947- ), US-Austrian cinema director
Ezra Fleischer(1928-2006), Israeli Hebrew poet and literary historian
Catalin Dorian Florescu(1967), Swiss writer of German expression
André François(Farkas) (1915-2005), French illustrator and cartoonist
Peter George Oliver Freund(1936), US physicist
Michael Harish(1936- ), Israeli politician, minister of trade and industry
Arnold Hauser(1892-1978), British-Hungarian historian and sociologist of arts
Ioan Holender(1935- ), Austrian bariton and manager, director of the Opera of Vienna
Hugo Jan Huss(1934-2006), Romanian-American conductor
Ion Ivanovici(1845-1902), Romanian conductor and composer, author of the waltz" The Waves of the Danube"
Károly Kerényi(1897-1973), Hungarian-Swiss philologist and historian of religion
Roberto Schlosser( 1937- ), Romanian-Mexican Director, Actor, Producer
György Klapka(1820-1892), Hungarian general, hero of the 1848 Revolution
Frederic Klein, Romanian entomologist
* Hermann Kövess Commander-in-Chief of Austria-Hungary's army
Károly Kós(1883-1977), Hungarian-Romanian architect, author and politician
Pelbartus Ladislaus of Temesvár(1430-1504), Hungarian Catholic philosopher and preacher
Eva Lonn, (1956-) Canadian cardiologist
George Lusztig(1946- ), US mathematician
Margarete Matzenauer, (1881 - 1963) US opera singer, mezzosoprano and dramatic soprano
József Méliusz(Nelovankovic) (1909-1995), Hungarian-Romanian poet
Zoltan Mesko(1986- ), US football player
Alexandru Moisuc(*1942), Romanian Agroscientist und University-Rector Temeswar
Miss Platnum(1980- ) Singer
Reuven Ramaty(1937-2001), Israeli-US astrophysicist
Sandra Romain(1978- ) Adult Film Actress
Lőrincz Schlauchdr.( 1892-+1903).Cardinalis of rom.chatolic catedralis in Oradea
Cornel Trăilescu(1926- ), Romanian composer and conductor
Timotei Ursu(1939- ), Romanian cinema and TV programs director and author
Johnny Weissmuller(1904-1984), US Olympic swimmer, best known for his role as Tarzan
Myriam Yardeni(1932- ) Israeli historian, specialist in the history of the Huguenots
Timisoara metropolitan area
* http://e-timisoara.info People from Timisoara
* http://www.timisoreni.ro/en/video/timisoara/intro.html Welcome to Timisoara, An introduction to Timisoara made by Prof. Harry W. Morgan
* http://timisoara.com CyberTim, Timisoara's home page, the oldest Romanian page on the net.
* http://timisoara.org City of Timisoara; Homepage.
* http://www.timisoara-tourism.com Timisoara Tourism
* [http://www.romaniatourism.com/timisoara.html Tourist Bureau of Romania]
* [http://www.harti-orase.ro/ Updated map of Timisoara]
* [http://www.photomapia.com/map/l665087.htm Timisoara's interactive map and many photos from Timisoara city]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&t=k&ll=45.75664,21.228998&spn=0.006977,0.014462&t=k Satellite image from Google Maps]
* [http://www.aerotim.ro "Traian Vuia" Int'l Airport] (in Romanian, English)
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Look at other dictionaries:
Timișoara — Temeswar/Temeschwar/Temeschburg Temesvár Temišvar … Deutsch Wikipedia
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TIMISOARA — (Rom. Timişoara; Hung. Temesvár), city in the Banat, Transylvania, ; between 1552 and 1716 an important center of the Turkish administration; subsequently within hungary until 1918. The city comprises several quarters, whose individual… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Timisoara — (en húngaro Temesvár, en alemán Temeswar, Temeschwar o Temeschburg, en serbio: Temišvar, en turco: Tamisvar) es una ciudad en la región occidental de Rumania. Con una población de 305.977 personas en 2004, es la capital del distrito de Timis.… … Enciclopedia Universal
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Timişoara — [timi ʃo̯ara], rumänische Stadt, Temesvar … Universal-Lexikon