Harry Dexter White


Harry Dexter White

Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was an American economist and senior U.S. Treasury department official. He was a primary mover behind the Bretton Woods agreement and the formation of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. A number of sources, including the FBI and Soviet archives, as well as the messages decoded by the Venona project, indicate that he may have engaged in espionage activity for the Soviet Union.

Early life

Harry Dexter White was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the seventh and youngest child of Jewish Lithuanian Catholic [R. Bruce Craig, "Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case",University Press of Kansas, 2004 p. 32 ISBN-13: 978-0700613113 ] immigrants, Joseph Weit and Sarah Magilewski, who had settled in America in 1885. In 1917 he enlisted in the U.S. Army, and was commissioned as lieutenant and served in France in a non-combat capacity in World War I. He did not begin his university studies until age 30, first at Columbia University, then at Stanford, where he earned a first degree in economics. After completing a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University at 38 years of age, White taught four years at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin. Harvard University Press published his Ph.D. thesis in 1933, as "The French International Accounts, 1880–1913".

Political activities

Outwardly, White was a Keynesian New Deal Democrat, though he had an affinity for fellow-travellers on the Stalinist left. As Senator William Jenner wrote after 1953 hearings on subversion in government departments, White hired Communist Party members and promoted them within the government. As head of the independently-funded Office of Monetary Research, White was able to hire staff without the normal civil service regulations or background enquiries. Some of those he hired had previously experienced security-clearance trouble in other government positions. [cite news
last =
first =
title = One Man's Greed
work = Time
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
date = 1953-11-23
url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860101,00.html
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
]

As a dedicated Rooseveltian internationalist, his energies were directed at continuing the Grand Alliance and maintaining peace through a liberal trade regime. He believed that powerful, multilateral institutions could avoid the mistakes of Versailles and prevent another worldwide depression. His political views were close to that of Henry A. Wallace and he was considered a progressive.

Treasury Department

In 1934, Jacob Viner, a professor at the University of Chicago working at the Treasury Department, offered White a position at the Treasury, which he accepted. Within a few years, White met with John Maynard Keynes and other leading international economists.

After the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, White was appointed assistant to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., the Secretary of the Treasury, to act as liaison between the Treasury and the State Department on all matters bearing on foreign relations. He was also made responsible for the "management and operation of the Exchange Stabilization Fund without a change in its procedures." White eventually came to be in charge of international matters for the Treasury, with access to extensive confidential information about the economic situation of the USA and its wartime allies.

According to Henry Morgenthau's son, White was the principal architect behind the Morgenthau Plan. [cite book
last = Dietrich
first = John
title = The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy
location = New York
publisher = Algora Publishing
year = 2002
pages = pg. 17
isbn = 1-892941-90-2
oclc = 49355870
] The Morgenthau postwar plan, as authored by White, was to take all industry out of Germany, eliminate its armed forces, and convert the country into an agricultural community, in the process eliminating most of Germany's economy and its ability to defend itself if attacked. A version of the plan, limited to turning Germany into "a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character", was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill at the Second Quebec Conference in September 1944. However, someone in White's department with access to details of the plan leaked it to the press, and White himself provided an advance copy to Soviet intelligence.cite book
last = Schecter
first = Jerrold
coauthors = Leona Schecter
title = Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History
location = Washington, DC
publisher = Brassey's
year = 2002
pages =
isbn = 1-57488-327-5
oclc = 48375744
] Public protests forced Roosevelt to publicly backtrack. The Nazis and Joseph Goebbels were ecstatic at the revelations, using the Morgenthau Plan as a propaganda coup to encourage their troops and citizens to fight on and to nullify emerging German criticism of the war and arguments for a separate peace with Western governments. White's actions also benefited the Soviet Union, virtually ensuring that the Nazi government or its successors would not negotiate a separate peace with the West. In the end Morgenthau still did manage to influence the resulting occupation policy [Frederick H. Gareau "Morgenthau's Plan for Industrial Disarmament in Germany" The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Jun., 1961)] , particularly through the Occupation Directive JCS 1067, which was in effect until the summer 1947, and which forbade activities designed for economic reconstruction in Germany. In a report on the German situation after 2 years of occupation, former President Herbert Hoover would in March 1947 remark:

:'There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a 'pastoral state'. It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,000,000 people out of it.' [http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2008/webarticles/080103_marshallplan.html] .

Dismantling of German heavy industry in the west, agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference, continued until 1951.

White was the senior American official at the 1944 Bretton Woods conference, which he and Keynes dominated. After the war, White was closely involved with setting up what were called the Bretton Woods institutions - the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. These institutions were intended to prevent some of the economic problems that had occurred after World War I, and help ensure that capitalism became the dominant post-war economic system. As late as November 1945, White continued to argue for improved relations with the Soviet Union. [cite paper
author = White, Harry Dexter
title = Untitled paper advocating "continued Peace and friendly relations with Russia"
version =
publisher = Princeton University collection
date = 1945-11-30
url =
format =
accessdate =
] White later became a director and U.S. representative of the IMF.

On June 19, 1947, White abruptly resigned from the International Monetary Fund, vacating his office the same day.

Accusations of espionage

On September 2, 1939 — two days after the signing of the Hitler-Stalin pact — Assistant Secretary of State and Roosevelt's adviser on internal security Adolf Berle had a meeting, arranged by journalist Isaac Don Levine, with defecting Soviet agent Whittaker Chambers. In his notes of that meeting, written later that night, Levine listed a series of names, including a 'Mr. White'. [ [http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html Isaac Don Levine’s Notes of the Meeting] ] Berle's notes of the meeting contain no mention of White. [John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=M8p00bTFvRkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=venona#PRA1-PA96,M1 Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America] " (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.90-91] . Berle drafted a 4-page memorandum on the information which he then passed to the President, who dismissed the idea of espionage rings in his administration as 'absurd'. The director of the FBI, J. Edgar Hoover also dismissed Chambers' revelations as 'history, hypothesis, or deduction' as late as 1942. [Robert Skidelsky, "John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946", Macmillan, London 2000 p.256]

On March 20, 1945, State Department security officer Raymond Murphy interviewed Chambers. His notes record that Chambers identified White as 'a member at large but rather timid,' who had brought various members of the American communist underground into the Treasury. [Allan Weinstein, "Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case" (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), ISBN 0394495462, p. 346]

On November 7, 1945, defecting Soviet spy Elizabeth Bentley told investigators of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) that in late 1942 or early 1943 she learned from Soviet spies Nathan Gregory Silvermaster and Ludwig Ullmann that one source of the government documents they were photographing and passing on to her and NKVD spymaster Jacob Golos was Harry Dexter White. [ [http://Ultra-Secret.info/CSR/Holdings/Soviet/NKVD.htm FBI file: Underground Soviet Espionage Organization (NKVD) in Agencies of the United States Government] , October 21, 1946, p. 78-79 (PDF pp. 86-87)]

The next day, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover sent a letter to Truman's Military Aide, Gen. Harry Vaughan, at the White House, reporting information that 'a number of persons employed by the government of the United States have been furnishing data and information to persons outside the Federal Government, who are in turn transmitting this information to espionage agents of the Soviet government.' [Hoover to Vaughan, November 8, 1945, [http://Ultra-Secret.info/PDFs/Silvermaster016.pdf FBI Silvermaster file, Vol. 16] , PDF pp. 98-100] [Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., "Venona: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), Document 15, p. 69] The letter listed a dozen Bentley suspects, the second of whom was Harry Dexter White. The FBI summarized the Bentley information and in its follow-up investigation on the suspects she named, again included White, in a report entitled 'Soviet Espionage in the United States', which was sent to the White House, the Attorney General and the State Department on December 4, 1945. [ [http://Ultra-Secret.info/PDFs/Silvermaster156.pdf FBI memo: Harry Dexter White] , PDF p. 54] Six weeks later, on January 23, 1946, Truman nominated White U.S. Director of the International Monetary Fund. The FBI responded with a 28-page memo specifically on White and his contacts, received by the White House on February 4, 1946. [ [http://Ultra-Secret.info/PDFs/Silvermaster156.pdf Harry Dexter White] , PDF pp. 24-52] White's nomination was approved by the Senate on February 6, 1946, but, as Truman later testiified in 1953, on receipt of the information White was 'separated from the Government service promptly', first from the Treasury, and then from the IMF. [Robert Skidelsky, "John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946", Macmillan, London 2000 p.257]

On July 31, 1948 Bentley told the House Committee on Un-American Activities that White had been involved in espionage activities on behalf of Soviet Union during World War II, [cite web
last =
first =
title = Elizabeth Bentley Deposition, FBI Silvermaster file
work = FBI's FOIA Website
publisher =
date = 1948-07-31
url = http://foia.fbi.gov/silversm/silversm2b.pdf
format = PDF
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
] and had passed sensitive Treasury documents to Soviet agents. Bentley said White's colleagues passed information to her from him. Bentley also said that White was responsible for passing Treasury plates for printing Allied military marks in occupied Germany to the Soviets, who thereupon printed currency with abandon, [James C. Van Hook, " [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol49no1/html_files/harry_dexter_8.html Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case] ," "Studies in Intelligence," Vol. 49, No. 1, 2005] sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country,cite news |first= Ronald |last= Radosh |authorlink=Ronald Radosh |coauthors= |title=The Truth-Spiller |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_3_55/ai_97347251/pg_1 |quote=... Bentley accused of providing stolen U.S. currency plates to the Soviets. (The plates were used to print unlimited amounts of occupation currency in the eastern zone of postwar Germany, sparking a black market and serious inflation throughout the occupied country.) |work=National Review |date=February 24, 2003 |accessdate=2008-07-30 ] costing the U.S. a quarter of a billion dollars. [Henry Morgenthau, The Morgenthau Diaries, Book 732, pp. 97-99.]

Bentley wrote in her 1951 autobiography that she had been 'able through Harry Dexter White to arrange that the United States Treasury Department turn the actual printing plates over to the Russians'. [Harvnb|Bentley|1951|p=141] Bentley had not previously mentioned this to the FBI or to any of the committees, grand juries or prosecutors before whom she had testified earlier, and there was no evidence at the time that Bentley had any role in this transfer. Some questioned Harry Dexter White's role in it. [cite book
last = Craig
first = R. Bruce
title = Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case
publisher = University Press of Kansas
year = 2004
pages = p. 245
id = ISBN 0-7006-1311-0
]

In her 1953 testimony before Joseph McCarthy's Senate subcommittee, she elaborated, testifying that she was following instructions from NKVD New York "rezident" Iskhak Abdulovich Akhmerov (who operated under the cover name “Bill”) to pass word through Ludwig Ullmann and Nathan Gregory Silvermaster for White to 'put the pressure on for the delivery of the plates to Russia.' [”Testimony of Elizabeth Bentley,” [http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/Volume4.pdf S. Prt. 107-84 – Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations (McCarthy Hearings 1953-54), Vol. 4] , p. 3427]

This is the only case in which Bentley biographer Kathryn Olmstead concluded that Bentley 'was lying about her [own] role,' citing historian Bruce Craig's conclusion 'that the whole 'scheme' was a complete fabrication.' [Harvnb|Olmsted|2002|p=186]

But Bentley's testimony would later be corroborated in dramatic fashion by a memorandum found in Soviet archives after half a century. In it, Gaik Ovakimian, head of the American desk of the NKVD (for which Bentley worked) [Michael Warner, " [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol47no2_2003/article08.html Red Spy Queen: A Biography of Elizabeth Bentley] ," "Studies in Intelligence", Vol. 47, No. 2, 2003] , cites a report from New York (where Bentley was based) [John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=M8p00bTFvRkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=venona#PRA1-PA96,M1 Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America] " (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), p.96] from April 14, 1944 (when Bentley was running the Silvermaster group) [Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, "The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB" (London: Basic Books, 1999) ISBN 978-0465003105, p. 129] [Harv|Olmstead|2002|p=45] reporting that, 'following our instructions' via Silvermaster, White had obtained 'the positive decision of the Treasury Department to provide the Soviet side with the plates for engraving German occupation marks.' [cite book
last = Schecter
first = Jerrold L.
title = Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History
publisher = Potomac Books
year = 2003
pages = p. 122
id = ISBN 1574885227
]

Whittaker Chambers, an admitted former Soviet espionage agent, subsequently testified on August 3 to his association with White in the Communist underground secret apparatus up to 1938. [cite web
last =
first =
title = Testimony of Whittaker Chambers before the House Committee on Un-American Activities
work =
publisher =
date = 1948-08-03
url = http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/8-3testimony.html
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
] Chambers produced documents he had saved from his days as a courier for the Soviets' American spy-ring. Among these was a handwritten memorandum that he testified White had given him. The Treasury Department identified this document as containing highly confidential material from the State Department, while the FBI laboratory established that it was written in White's handwriting. [ [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/FBI_Memorandum_identifying_Harry_Dexter_White_as_agent_Jurist FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist] ] Chambers stated, however, that White was the least productive of his contacts.

Death

On August 13, 1948, White testified before HUAC and denied being a communist. After he finished testifying he had a heart attack. He left Washington for a rest on his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived when he had another heart attack. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Categorical Denial |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,799061,00.html |quote=Shortly after he had finished testifying before Congress, suffering from a bad heart, Harry White left Washington for a rest on his New Hampshire farm. He had just arrived there when he was stricken by another heart attack. Two days later, death came to Harry Dexter White, 56. |work=Time (magazine) |date=August 30, 1948 |accessdate=2008-07-30 ] Two days later, on August 16, 1948, he died, age 56. [Victor Nevasky, [http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewpdf.cfm?article_id=10726 Letters From Readers] : "Harry Dexter White," "Commentary", April 1988, p. 10 (Cf. David Rees, "Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox" (Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973), ISBN 9780698105249)] [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Harry Dexter White, Accused In Spy Inquiry, Dies at 56 |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost_historical/access/293601642.html?dids=293601642:293601642&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=AUG+18%2C+1948&author=&pub=The+Washington+Post&desc=Harry+Dexter+White%2C+Accused+In+Spy+Inquiry%2C+Dies+at+56&pqatl=google |quote=Harry Dexter White, former Assistant Secretary of the Treasury accused of Soviet espionage activity during the current spy hearings at Washington, died unexpectedly at his Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, summer home late yesterday, it was disclosed today. |publisher=United Press in Washington Post |date=August 18, 1948 |accessdate=2008-04-04 ]

Senator William Jenner's Interlocking Subversion in Government Departments Investigation by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) looked extensively into the problem of unauthorized and uncontrolled powers exercised by non-elected officials, specifically White. Part of its report looked into the implementation of Roosevelt administration policy in China and was published as the "Morgenthau Diary." [cite web
last =
first =
title = Records of the Morgenthau Diary Study, 1953-65
work = Guide to the Records of the U.S. Senate at the National Archives (Record Group 46)
publisher = The Center for Legislative Archives
date =
url = http://www.archives.gov/legislative/guide/senate/chapter-13-judiciary-1947-1968.html#103
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
] The report stated,

:'The concentration of Communist sympathizers in the Treasury Department, and particularly the Division of Monetary Research, is now a matter of record. White was the first director of that division; those who succeeded him in the directorship were Frank Coe and Harold Glasser. Also attached to the Division of Monetary Research were William Ludwig Ullman, Irving Kaplan, and Victor Perlo. White, Coe, Glasser, Kaplan, and Perlo were all identified as participants in the Communist conspiracy ...'

The committee also heard testimony by Henry Morgenthau’s speechwriter, Jonathan Mitchell, that White had tried to persuade him that the Soviets had developed a system that would supplant capitalism and Christianity.

In 1953, Senator Joseph McCarthy and Eisenhower administration Attorney General Herbert Brownell, Jr. revealed that the FBI had warned the Truman White House about White before the President appointed him to the IMF. Brownell made public the FBI's November 8, 1945 letter to the White House warning about White and others, and revealed that the White House had received the FBI report on "Soviet Espionage in the United States," including the White case, six weeks before Truman nominated White to the IMF. [cite news
last =
first =
title = The White Case Record
work = Time
volume =
issue =
pages =
publisher =
date = 1953-11-30
url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,823119,00.html
doi =
id =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
]

Although he does not dispute that the FBI sent these and other warnings to Truman, Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan wrote in his introduction to the 1997 Moynihan Commission report on government secrecy that Truman was never informed of Venona. [cite web
last = Moynihan
first = Daniel Patrick
authorlink = Daniel Patrick Moynihan
title = Chairman's Forward
work = Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy
publisher =
year = 1997
url = http://www.gpo.gov/congress/commissions/secrecy/pdf/04dpm.pdf
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
] In support of this, he cited a statement from the official NSA/CIA history of Venona that 'no definitive evidence has emerged to show' that Truman was informed of Venona. [Robert Louis Benson and Michael Warner, eds., "VENONA: Soviet Espionage and the American Response, 1939-1957" (Washington, D.C.: National Security Agency/Central Intelligence Agency, 1996), xxiv.]

Venona project revelations

NSA cryptographers identified Harry Dexter White as the Soviet agent denoted in the Venona decrypts at various times under the code names “Lawyer,” [ [http://www.nsa.gov/venona/releases/02_sept_1944_r6_m2_p2.gif1251 KGB New York to Moscow, 2 September 1944, p. 2] ] “Richard,” [ [http://www.nsa.gov/venona/releases/18_Jan_1945_R3_m3_p1.gif83 KGB New York to Moscow, 18 January 1945, p.1] ] and "Jurist" [Robert J. Hanyok, [http://www.nsa.gov/publications/publi00043.pdf Eavesdropping on Hell: Historical Guide to Western Communications Intelligence and the Holocaust, 1939-1945] (Washington, DC: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 2005, 2nd Ed.), p. 119 (PDF page 124)] . Two years after his death, in a memorandum dated 15 October 1950, White was positively identified by the FBI, through evidence gathered by the Venona project, as a Soviet source, code named "Jurist". [cite web
last =
first =
title = FBI Memorandum identifying Harry Dexter White as agent Jurist
work =
publisher =
date = 1950-10-16
url = http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/FBI_Memorandum_identifying_Harry_Dexter_White_as_agent_Jurist
format =
doi =
accessdate = 2006-10-03
] Years later, the Justice Department publicly disclosed the existence of the Venona project which deciphered Soviet cable traffic naming White as 'Jurist', a Soviet intelligence source. As reported in the FBI Memorandum on White:

This codename was confirmed by the notes of KGB archivist Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin in his country volume 6, chapter 3, part1, where six key Soviet agents are named. Harry Dexter White is listed as being first "KASSIR" and later "JURIST".cite book
last = Andrew
first = Christoper
coauthors = Vasili Mitrokhin
year = 1999
title = The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB
location = New York
publisher = Basic Books
pages = p. 106
isbn = 0-465-00310-9
]

Another example of White acting as an agent of inflence for the Soviet Union was his obstruction of a proposed $200 million loan to Nationalist China in 1943, which he had been officially instructed to execute [Robert Skidelsky, "John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946", Macmillan, London 2000 p.261] , at a time when inflation was spiraling out of control.cite book
last = Haynes
first = John Earl
authorlink = John Earl Haynes
coauthors = Harvey Klehr
year = 2000
title = Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America
location = New Haven
publisher = Yale University Press
pages = pp. 142-145
isbn = 0-300-08462-5
oclc = 44694569
]

Other Venona decrypts revealed further damaging evidence against White, including White's suggestions on how to meet and pass information on to his Soviet handler. Venona Document #71 contains decryptions of White's discussions on being paid for his work for the Soviet Union. [cite web
last =
first =
title = FBI Documents of Historic Interest re Venona That Are Referenced in Daniel Moynihan's Book "Secrecy"
work = FBI's FOIA Website
publisher =
date =
url = http://foia.fbi.gov/venona/venona.pdf
format = PDF
pages = p. 17
accessdate = 2006-10-03

In 1997, the bipartisan Moynihan Commission on Government Secrecy, chaired by Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, stated in its findings,quote|The complicity of Alger Hiss of the State Department seems settled. As does that of Harry Dexter White of the Treasury Department. [cite web
last =
first =
title = Appendix A; SECRECY; A Brief Account of the American Experience
work = Report Of The Commission On Protecting And Reducing Government Secrecy
publisher = United States Government Printing Office
year = 1997
url = http://origin.www.gpo.gov/congress/commissions/secrecy/pdf/12hist1.pdf
pages = A-37
format = pdf
accessdate = 2006-10-03
]

Further evidence of White’s complicity as a Soviet agent was gleaned from Soviet archives and KGB operative Alexander Vassiliev. In a book by Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, "The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America — the Stalin Era", Vassiliev, a former Soviet journalist and KGB operative, reviewed Soviet archives dealing with White's actions on behalf of the Soviet Union. White assisted Harold Glasser, a Treasury executive and NKVD spy, 'in obtaining posts and promotions at Treasury while aware of his Communist ties.' Because of White’s backing, Glasser survived an FBI background check. In December 1941 the Secret Service forwarded a report to Harry White indicating that it had evidence Glasser was involved in Communist activities. White never acted on the report. Glasser continued to serve in the Treasury Department, and soon began recruiting other agents and preparing briefing reports on Treasury personnel and other potential espionage agents for the NKVD. After America became involved in World War II, Glasser received appointments to several higher-level positions in the government on White's approval. [cite book
last = Weinstein
first = Allen
authorlink = Allen Weinstein
coauthors = Alexander Vassiliev
title = The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--The Stalin Era
location = New York
publisher = Modern Library
year = 1999
isbn = 0-375-75536-5
oclc = 43680047
] According to Soviet archives, White's other MGB code names were “Richard,” and “Reed.” In order to protect their source, Soviet intelligence repeatedly changed White's code name.

White's family still protests his innocence. Stephen C. Schlesinger writes: 'Among historians, the verdict about White is still unresolved, but many incline toward the view that he wanted to help the Russians but did not regard the actions he took as constituting espionage.' [cite book |author=Schlesinger, Stephen E. |title=Act of Creation: the Founding of the United Nations: A story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World |publisher=Westview, Perseus Books Group |location=Cambridge, MA |year=2004 |pages=108 |isbn=0-8133-3275-3 |oclc= |doi=] . Robert Skidelsky, in reviewing the evidence, concludes that:-

'A combination of naivity, superficiality and supreme confidence in his own judgement - together with his background - explains the course of action White took. There is no question of treachery, in the accepted sense of betraying one's country's secrets to an enemy. But there ncan be no doubt that, in passing classified information to the Soviets, White knew he was betraying his trust, even if he did not thereby think he was betraying his country' [Robert Skidelsky, "John Maynard Keynes:Fighting for Britain, 1937-1946", Macmillan, London 2000 p.265]

References

External links

*
*
* cite web
last = Boughton
first = James M.
title = The Case Against Harry Dexter White: Still Not Proven
year = 2001
publisher = International Monetary Fund
url = http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2000/wp00149.pdf#search=%22%20%22The%20Case%20Against%20Harry%20Dexter%20White%3A%20Still%20Not%20Proven%22%22
format = PDF
accessdate = 2006-10-03

*cite book
last = Haynes
first = John Earl
authorlink = John Earl Haynes
coauthors = Harvey Klehr
year = 2003
title = In Denial: Historians, Communism, & Espionage
publisher = Encounter Books
location = San Francisco
id = ISBN 1-893554-72-4
oclc = 52258223

*cite web
last = Vassiliev
first = Alexander
title = Alexander Vassiliev’s Notes on Anatoly Gorsky’s December 1948 Memo on Compromised American Sources and Networks
work =
publisher =
year = 2005
url = http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page45.html
accessdate = 2006-10-03


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  • Harry White — ist der Name folgender Personen: Harry White (Posaunist) (1898–1962), US amerikanischer Jazz Posaunist Harry White (Saxophonist), US amerikanischer Saxophonist Harry Dexter White (1892–1948), US amerikanischer Volkswirt und Politiker Dies …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • WHITE, HARRY D. — WHITE, HARRY D. (1892–1948), U.S. economist. Born in Boston, Mass., White spent his early years in his father s hardware business, and for several years taught on Sunday mornings at the Home for Jewish Children in Dorchester. After serving… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • White (surname) — White is a surname. In the 1990 United States Census, White ranked fourteenth among all reported surnames in frequency, accounting for 0.28% of the population. [United States Census Bureau (9 May 1995). . Retrieved on 2008 07 04.] A list of… …   Wikipedia


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