Text Encoding Initiative


Text Encoding Initiative

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a consortium of institutions and research projects which collectively maintains and develops a standard for the representation of texts in digital form. Originally sponsored by three scholarly societies, the TEI is now an independent membership consortium, hosted by academic institutions in the US and in Europe. Its major deliverable is a set of Guidelines, which specify encoding methods for machine-readable texts, chiefly in the humanities, social sciences and linguistics. Since 1994, these guidelines are a widely-used standard for text materials for performing online research and teaching, and TEI is now the de facto standard for the encoding of electronic texts in the humanities academic community. [See e.g. NEH 2007 Scholarly Editions Grants Guidelines ( [http://www.neh.gov/grants/guidelines/editions.html] ): "Applicants are encouraged to use open standards and markup conforming to the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI), and to employ current best practices in creation of electronic editions."; JISC catalogue ( [http://standards.jisc.ac.uk/catalogue/TEI_DTD.phtml] ): "The TEI is the norm for deep text encoding in digital libraries and collections worldwide."; NEH Institutes for Advanced Topics in the Digital Humanities suggested topics ( [http://www.neh.gov/grants/guidelines/IATDH.html] ): "Text Encoding Initiative, electronic editing, and publishing".]

ponsors and organisation

The scholarly societies originally sponsoring the TEI are the Association for Computers and the Humanities, the Association for Computational Linguistics, and the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing. These three groups first organized the TEI in 1987 as a research effort funded exclusively by significant grants from many agencies.Fact|date=April 2008

Today, the TEI Consortium is a member-funded non-profit corporation hosted by:
* The [http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/rts/ Research Technologies Service] at the University of Oxford,
* the [http://www.stg.brown.edu/ Scholarly Technology Group] at Brown University,
* a francophone group comprising [http://www.atilf.fr ATILF] , [http://www.inist.fr INIST] , and [http://www.loria.fr LORIA] , co-ordinated at Nancy
* the [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ Electronic Text Center] and the [http://www.iath.virginia.edu/ Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities] at the University of Virginia.

The guidelines

The Guidelines define some 500 different textual components and concepts, which can be expressed using a markup language and defined by a DTD or XML schema. Early versions of the Guidelines used SGML as a means of expression; more recently XML has been adopted. The basic concepts have been stable for over a decade, with TEI P3 (public release version 3) published in 1994, and updated in 1999. P4 (2002) is a slight update to accommodate XML; [http://www.tei-c.org/P5/ TEI P5] was released in November 2007 and adds many new features.Fact|date=April 2008

The TEI scheme is a modular one, designed to be customized for particular research or production environments. Many different applications of it are possible; one very popular example customization is subset is known as TEI Lite.

There is ongoing work on [http://www.tei-c.org/P5/ TEI P5] which, although it breaks backward compatibility in a number of ways, has significantly updated the inner workings including a reorganization of the underlying structures of elements into classes which allow greater and easier customization. Maintenance and development continue under the sponsorship of the TEI Consortium. The TEI component for marking up feature structures (a model of data sometimes used in linguistics) has been adopted as the basis of the ongoing development of an ISO standard for feature structures.Fact|date=April 2008

TEI projects

The TEI is used by many projects worldwide. The [http://www.tei-c.org/ TEI Website] contains a list of [http://www.tei-c.org/Applications/ TEI Projects] and a [http://www.tei-c.org/Applications/newproj.xml form for adding your project] . Some well-known projects include:
* [http://www.canterburytalesproject.org/ Canterbury Tales Project]
* [http://www.ibsen.uio.no/his/ Henrik Ibsens skrifter] (writings of Henrik Ibsen)
* [http://insaph.kcl.ac.uk/ Inscriptions of Aphrodisias]
* [http://www.menota.org/ Medieval Nordic Text Archive]
* Oxford Text Archive
* Perseus Project
* Women Writers Project
* [http://www.nzetc.org/ New Zealand Electronic Text Centre]

TEI Customizations

* EpiDoc (Epigraphic Documents)
* [http://www.lib.virginia.edu/digital/resndev/mei/ Music Encoding Initiatives]
* [http://www.cei.lmu.de/ Charters Encoding Initiative]

References

External links

* [http://www.tei-c.org/ TEI Consortium Web site]
* [http://www.tei-c.org/P5/ TEI P5]
* [http://www.tei-c.org/wiki/ TEI Consortium Wiki]
* [http://www.tei-c.org/Guidelines/index.xml TEI Guidelines]
* [http://tei.sourceforge.net/ TEI] at SourceForge.net

ee also

* List of document markup languages
* TEI Lite
* Open Scripture Information Standard
* ODD (One Document Does it all)


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