- Maximilian Ulysses Browne
Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf von Browne, Baron de Camus and Mountany (October 23, 1705 – June 26, 1757) was an Austrian military leader during the middle of the 18th century, and a scion of the Irish "Wild Geese".
Born in Basel, von Browne was the son of Count Ulysses von Browne (b. Limerick, Ireland; 1659 d. Frankfurt am Main 1731) by his wife Annabella Fitzgerald, a daughter of the House of Desmond. Both families had been exiled from Ireland in the aftermath of Tyrone's Rebellion.
Browne's early career was helped by family and marital connections. His father and his father's brother, George (b. Limerick 1657 d. Pavia 1729), were created Counts of the Holy Roman Empire (Reichsgraf) by Emperor Charles VI in 1716. The brothers enjoyed a lengthy, close friendship with John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, who was primarily responsible for their establishment in the Imperial Service of Austria. His wife, Countess Marie Philippine von Martinitz, had valuable connections at court and his sister, Barbara (b. Limerick 1700 d. Mantua 1751), was married to Freiherr (Baron) Francis Patrick O'Neillan (b. Dysert 1671 d. Mantua 1734) a Major General in the Austrian Service. (See Dysert O'Dea Castle). So, by the age of 29 von Browne was already colonel of an infantry regiment.
But he justified his early promotion in the field, and in the Italian campaign of 1734 he greatly distinguished himself. In the Tirolese fighting of 1735, and in the Turkish war, he won further distinction as a general officer.
War of the Austrian Succession
He was a lieutenant field marshal in command of the Silesian garrisons when in 1740 Frederick II and the Prussian army overran the province. His careful employment of such resources as he possessed materially hindered the king in his conquest and gave time for Austria to collect a field army (see War of the Austrian Succession). He was present at Mollwitz, where he received a severe wound. His vehement opposition to all half-hearted measures brought him frequently into conflict with his superiors, but contributed materially to the unusual energy displayed by the Austrian armies in 1742 and 1743.
In the following campaigns von Browne exhibited the same qualities of generalship and the same impatience of control. In 1745 he served under Count Traun, and was promoted to the rank of Feldzeugmeister. In 1746 he was present in the Italian campaign and the battles of Piacenza and Rottofreddo. Von Browne himself with the advanced guard forced his way across the Apennines and entered Genoa. He was thereafter placed in command of the army intended for the invasion of France, and early in 1747 of all the imperial forces in Italy instead of Antoniotto Botta Adorno. At the end of the war, von Browne was engaged in the negotiations on troop withdrawals from Italy, which led to the convention of Nice (January 21, 1749). He became commander-in-chief in Bohemia in 1751, and field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) two years later.
Seven Years' War
He was still in Bohemia when the Seven Years' War opened with Frederick's invasion of Saxony (1756). Von Browne's army, advancing to the relief of Pirna, was met, and, after a hard struggle, defeated by the king at Lobositz, but he drew off in excellent order, and soon made another attempt with a picked force to reach Pirna, by wild mountain tracks. The field marshal never spared himself, bivouacking in the snow with his men, and Carlyle records that private soldiers made rough shelters over him as he slept.
He actually reached the Elbe at Schandau, but as the Saxons were unable to break out, von Browne retired, having succeeded, however, in delaying the development of Frederick's operations for a whole campaign. In the campaign of 1757 he voluntarily served under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine who was made commander-in-chief, and on the 6th of May in that year, while leading a bayonet charge at the Battle of Prague, von Browne, like Schwerin on the same day, met his death. He was carried mortally wounded into Prague, and there died on the 26th of June, his last days embittered by the knowledge that he was unjustly held responsible for the failure of the campaign.
From 1888 to 1918, the 36th Austrian infantry was named after von Browne.
- Irish military diaspora
- Irish regiments
Regarding personal names: Reichsgraf is a title, usually translated Count of the Empire, not a first or middle name. The female form is Reichsgräfin. Titles using the prefix Reichs- were not created after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire.
- See Zuverlässige Lebensbeschreibung U.M. Reichsgrafen, v. B. K-K. Gen.-Feldmarschall (Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1757); Baron O'Cahill, Gesch. der grossen Herrführer (Rastadt, 1785, v. ii. pp. 264-316).
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Maximilian Ulysses Browne — Maximilian Ulysses Reichsgraf Browne, Baron de Camus und Mountany (* 23. Oktober 1705 in Basel; † 26. Juni 1757 in Prag) war ein österreichischer Feldmarschall irischer Abstammung. Seine Eltern waren Ulysses (von) Browne (* 24. August 1659; †… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Maximilian Ulysses Browne — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Browne. Maximilian Ulysses Browne (Maximilian Ulysses Reichsgraf Browne, Baron de Camus und Mountany) (1705 1757), est né à Bâle en Suisse. C est un officier d origine irlandaise qui rendit de grands services à… … Wikipédia en Français
Browne, Maximilian Ulysses, Reichsgraf — ▪ Austrian field marshal born October 23, 1705, Basel died June 26, 1757, Prague field marshal, one of Austria s ablest commanders during the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) and the Seven Years War (1756–63), who nevertheless… … Universalium
Maximilian Brown — Maximilian Ulysses Browne Pour les articles homonymes, voir Brown. Maximilian Ulysses Browne (Maximilian Ulysses Reichsgraf Browne, Baron de Camus und Mountany) (1705 1757), est né à Bâle en Suisse. C est un officier d origine irlandaise qui… … Wikipédia en Français
Browne (Familienname) — Browne ist ein Familienname. Varianten Brown Bekannte Namensträger Inhaltsverzeichnis A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V … Deutsch Wikipedia
Browne — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie des personnes (réelles ou fictives) partageant un même patronyme. Pour les articles homophones, voir Brown et Braun. Patronymie Anthony Browne … Wikipédia en Français
Browne — is a surname from the French le Brun which becomes de Brun in Gaelic in the 11th century.Fact|date=March 2007* Adam Browne, Australian writer * Andrew Browne, Australian rules footballer * Anthony Browne, sixteenth century English Knight of the… … Wikipedia
Browne — (spr. braun), 1) Robert, Stifter der Brownisten (s.d.), geb. nach 1550 aus angesehener Familie zu Tolethorpe (Rutland), gest. 1636, gewann als Prediger in Norwich seit 1580 für seine separatistischen Gedanken zahlreiche Anhänger. Die… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Browne — (spr. Braun), 1) Georg, irischer Augustinermönch, nahm Luthers Lehre an u. verbreitete dieselbe, wurde 1535 Erzbischof von Dublin u. 1551 Primas von Irland, aber von der katholischen Marie 1554 seines Bisthums entsetzt, st. er 1556. 2) Simon, geb … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
George Browne (soldier) — George Browne, Count von Browne in the nobility of the Holy Roman empire (15 June 1698 – 18 February 1792) was an Irish soldier of fortune who became field marshal in the Russian service.Browne was descended from a family which could trace its… … Wikipedia