General Service Medal (1962)


General Service Medal (1962)

Infobox Military Award
name= General Service Medal (1962-2007)


caption= Obverse (top left), reverse (top right)
and ribbon (bottom) of the medal.
awarded_by= United Kingdom and Commonwealth
type= Campaign medal
eligibility= British and Commonwealth forces.
for= Campaign service.
campaign= Minor campaigns 1962-2007
status=
description= Silver disk, 36mm diameter.
clasps= 13
established= 6 October1964
first_award=
last_award=
total=
posthumous=
recipients=
individual=
higher=
same=
lower=
related=Naval General Service Medal 1915-62,
General Service Medal (1918)


caption2=
__NOTOC__The 1962 General Service Medal ( also known as the "Campaign Service Medal" ), was introduced to combine the Army/RAF GSM and the Naval General Service Medal (NGSM). The GSM has been replaced by the Operational Service Medal (OSM).

Description

* The GSM 1962-2007 is a circular Silver medal. The obverse shows the crowned effigy of Queen Elizabeth II.
* The reverse bears the words ‘FOR CAMPAIGN SERVICE' under a crown, all surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves.
* The 32mm wide ribbon is purple with two outer stripes of dark green. These are the same colours as the GSM 1918-62, but with different proportions of these two colours being used for this medal.

Clasps

13 Clasps have been awarded on the GSM since 1962.

* Borneo:Awarded to soldiers that served under Major General Walker fighting Indonesian insurgents in Malaya.:Major General Walker eventually established a British and Commonwealth force, which came to dominate the border area and eventually defeated the persistent incursions into the region. This conflict claimed the lives of 114 Commonwealth personnel with 180 wounded.

* Radfan:Awarded to soldiers that fought the campaign mounted by British personnel, with Federation troops, against the Egyptian/Yemeni backed Radfan tribesmen. They were quickly and effectively defeated.

* South Arabia:This campaign is related to the Radfan Campaign, because both were attempts by Egyptian-inspired attempts to end the British presence in Aden and end the embryonic Federation of South Arabia.:This 3 year long campaign saw numerous terrorist attacks on both civilian and military targets. In both Rafan and Aden, the British Army suffered 90 personnel killed and 510 wounded.:The qualifying period was 30 days service in the Federation of South Arabia between 1 August1964 and 30 November1967.

* Malay Peninsula:This campaign was an extension of the conflict in Borneo where British and Malaysian troops were operating against Indonesian insurgents. In 1964, the Indonesian President decided to attack the Malaysian mainland. Parachute landings were made in Johore while other troops managed to land across the Malacca Straits from Indonesian Sumatra.:It was for operations in Malaysia and surrounding waters against these troops that this clasps was instituted, as opposed to the concurrent Borneo operations.:The qualifying period was 30 days' service in the Malaysian Peninsula-Singapore area between 17 August1964 and 11 August1966.

* South Vietnam:This clasp was instituted by Royal Warrant dated 8 June1968 for award to Australian personnel. Only 68 clasps were issued, and all 68 went to members of the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam.:The various qualifying periods, between 24 December1962 and 29 May1964, were:* 30 days' service in ships operating in inland waters or off the Vietnamese coast.:* 1 day in the service of a land unit.:* 1 operational sortie.:* 30 days' service on an official visit.:For service after 29 May1964, the personnel were awarded the Vietnam Medal.

* Northern Ireland:This clasp was instituted for award to personnel involved in varying operations in Northern Ireland.:The general qualifying period is a minimum of 30 days' service between 14 August1969 and 31 July 2007. The 30 days' service does not have to be composed of consecutive days. Should the qualifying period be cut short due to injury or death, then the completed days are counted as sufficient for the award of this clasp.

* Dhofar:In 1965 the mountain tribesmen of Dhofar (now Oman) rose in revolt against the regime of Sultan Sa'ib bin Taimur. The revolt worsened in 1967 when the British left the adjacent State of Aden. The new communist government in Yemen provided an important base for the rebels.:By 1970 it was clear that the Sultan would lose the war unless some action was taken. On 23 July1970, the Sultan's son staged a coup which provided the required change of direction. Some of the previous Sultan's excesses were removed, and the new leader expanded his armed forces and requested British assistance.:The British Special Air Service (SAS) provided training for his local forces, the Royal Engineers provided military and civil engineering, and RAF officers provided the backbone of the new Sultan's air force. In addition to these contribution, many British officers were seconded to the Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF). As well as the British contribution, Jordan and Iran also provided assistance.:During this period, the British forces suffered 24 killed and 55 wounded.:The qualifying period for service was between 1 October1969 and 30 September1976.

* Lebanon:In 1982, in attempt to remove PLO bases which were attacking Israel, Israel invaded Lebanon and struck north towards Lebanon's capital Beirut. However, they quickly became embroiled in the local Lebanese politics.:In October 1982, a US-inspired multinational peacekeeping force was sent into Beirut. It was composed of troops from USA, France, Italy and UK. Though all the other contingents suffered casualties (241 US Marines in one attack and 58 French troops in another suicide attack), the British troops carried out their assignments with no loss of life.:However, as the force was increasingly becoming just a target for the various factions, it was withdrawn during February - March 1984.

* Mine Clearance:For service in the Gulf of Suez between 15 August and 15 October1984.

* Gulf:For service between 17 November1986 and 31 October1988, and mine countermeasures in the Gulf up to 28 February1989.

* Kuwait:For service in Kuwait between 8 March and 30 September1991.

* N. Iraq & S. Turkey:For service in Northern Iraq or Southern Turkey between 6 April and 17 July1991.

* Air Operations Iraq:Awarded to RAF personnel and some members of the Army (mainly Royal Engineers and attached personnel) for patrolling the no fly zones and airfield repair in Iraq and Royal Navy (RN) personnel patrolling the northern Persian Gulf between July 1991 and April 2003. Also Awarded to members of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) who served on the Arabian Gulf Ready Tanker (AGRT) during above dates

References

* [http://www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/gsm_1962.htm Stephen Stratford Medal site]
* [http://medals.nzdf.mil.nz/category/h/h22.html NZDF Medals site]
* [http://medals.nzdf.mil.nz/warrants/h22warrant.html Royal Warrant for GSM1962] - from NZDF site
* [http://www.defence.gov.au/medals/Content/+040%20Campaign%20Medals/+050%201945-1975/+070%20GSM%201962/default.htm ADF Honours and Awards site]

Bibliography

* Mackay, J and Mussel, J (eds) - "Medals Yearbook - 2006", (2005), Token Publishing.
* Joslin, Litherland, and Simpkin (eds), "British Battles and Medals", (1988), Spink


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