- Bertel Thorvaldsen
Thorvaldsen was born in
Copenhagenin 1770 (according to some accounts, in 1768), the son of an Icelander who had settled in Denmark and there carried on the trade of a wood-carver. This account is disputed by some Icelanders, who claim Thorvaldsen was born in Iceland.
Young Thorvaldsen attended Copenhagen's
Royal Danish Academy of Art("Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi"), winning all the prizes including the large Gold Medal. As a consequence, he was granted a Royal stipend, enabling him to complete his studies in Rome, where he arrived on March 8, 1797. Since the date of his birth had never been recorded, he celebrated this day as his "Roman birthday" for the rest of his life.
Thorvaldsen's first success was the model for a statue of
Jason, which was highly praised by Antonio Canova, the most popular sculptor in the city. In 1803 he received the commission to execute it in marble from Thomas Hope, a wealthy English art-patron. From that time Thorvaldsen's success was assured, and he did not leave Italy for sixteen years.
In 1819 he visited his native Denmark. Here he was commissioned to make the colossal series of statues of Christ and the twelve Apostles for the rebuilding of Vor Frue Kirke (from 1922 known as the Copenhagen Cathedral) between 1817 and 1829, after its having been destroyed in the British bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807. These were executed after his return to Rome, and were not completed till 1838, when Thorvaldsen returned to Denmark, being received as a hero.
He died suddenly in the Copenhagen Royal Theatre on
March 24, 1844, and bequeathed a great part of his fortune for the building and endowment of a museum in Copenhagen, and also left to fill it all his collection of works of art and the models for all his sculptures very large collection, exhibited to the greatest possible advantage. Thorvaldsen is buried in the courtyard of this museum, under a bed of roses, by his own special wish.
Thorvaldsen was an outstanding representative of the Neoclassical period in
sculpture. He was often compared to Antonio Canova, but in fact he embodied the style of classical Greek art more than the Italian artist. The poses and expressions of his figures are much more stiff and formal than those of Canova's.
Motifs for his works (reliefs, statues, and busts) were drawn mostly from
Greek mythology, but he also created portraits of important personalities, as in his statue of Pope Pius VII. His works can be seen in many European countries, especially in the [http://www.thorvaldsensmuseum.dk/ Thorvaldsen Museum] in Copenhagen, where his tomb is in the inner courtyard. Thorvaldsen's " Lion Monument" (1819) is in Lucerne, Switzerland. This monument commemorates the sacrifice of more than six hundred Swiss Guards who died defending the Tuileriesduring the French Revolution. The monument portrays a dying lion lying across broken symbols of the French monarchy.
Thorvaldsen produced some striking and affecting
statues of historic figures, including two in Warsaw, Poland: the equestrian statueof Prince Józef Poniatowski that now stands before the Presidential Palace the seated Nicolaus Copernicus, before the Polish Academy of Sciencesbuilding, and the seated Nicolaus Copernicus, before the Polish Academy of Sciencesbuilding, both located on Warsaw's " Krakowskie Przedmieście". A replica of this sculpture of Copernicus was recast in bronze installed in 1973 on Chicago's lakefront along Solidarity Drive in the city's Museum Campus [Graf, John, "Chicago's Parks" Arcadia Publishing, 2000, p. 13-14., ISBN 0-7385-0716-4.] . A statue of Johannes Gutenbergby Thorvaldsen can be seen in Mainz, Germany.
Part of Thorvaldsen's work is informed by a pronounced classicist sensibility, traditionally encoded in European art in the myth of
Zeusand Ganymede. Illustrative are his "Eros", several versions of "Ganymede", the "Shepherd Boy with Dog", and his bas relief of "Hylas and the Nymphs", depicting a shapely Hylasterrified of the nubile nymphs embracing him. Outside Europe, Thorvaldsen is less well known (but see the important paper by Dimmick below). Additionally, his statue of the resurrected Christ, commonly referred to as "Thorvaldsen's Christus" (created for Vor Frue Kirke) has appealed to the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saintsand a 3.4 m replica is on display at Temple Square[ cite web
title= Christus Statue
author= Florance S. Jacobsen | publisher= LightPlanet
accessdate= 2008-08-11 ] and images of the statue are used in official church media, such as the internet site [http://www.lds.org LDS.org] .
Thorvaldsen's primary mastery was his feel for the rhythm of lines and movements. Nearly all his sculptures can be viewed from whatever angle without compromise of their impact. In addition, he had the ability to work in monumental size. Thorvaldsen's classicism was strict; nevertheless his contemporaries saw his art as the ideal, although afterwards art took new directions. In short, he is the greatest of the neo-classicist sculptors — more strict a classicist than Sergel but far greater an artist than Canova.Fact|date=July 2007
A bronze copy of Thorvaldsen's "Self-Portrait" stands in
Central Park, New York, near the East 97 Street entrance.
*Lauretta Dimmick, "Mythic Proportion: Bertel Thorvaldsen's Influence in America", "Thorvaldsen: l'ambiente, l'influsso, il mito," ed. P. Kragelund and M. Nykjær, Rome 1991 (Analecta Romana Instituti Danici, Supplementum 18.), pp. 169–191.
*Eugène Plon, "Thorwaldsen, sa vie," etc. (Paris, 1880);
*Andersen, "B. Thorwaldsen" (Berlin, 1845)
*Killerup, "Thorwaldsen's Arbeiten," etc. (Copenhagen, 1852)
*Thiele, "Thorwaldsen's Leben" (Leipzig, 1852–1856);
*CA Rosenberg, "Thorwaldsen ..." mit 146 Abbildungen (1896, "Künstlermonographien," No. 16)
*S Trier, "Thorvaldsen" (1903);
*A Wilde, "Erindringer om Jerichau og Thorvaldsen" (1884)
*"Malta 1796-1797: Thorvaldsen's Visit" (Malta & Cop., 1996)
* [http://www.thorvaldsensmuseum.dk/ Thorvaldsen's Museum, Copenhagen]
* [http://www.pinakothek.de/neue-pinakothek/sammlung/rundgang/rundgang_inc.php?inc=bild&which=25524 "Adonis" (links to larger image in new window)]
* [http://www.insecula.com/oeuvre/O0020442.html "Adonis" (5 views)]
* [http://www.androphile.org/preview/Museum/Europe/ganymede-thorvaldsen.html "Ganymede and the Eagle," from the Androphile image collection]
* [http://cv.uoc.es/~991_04_005_01_web/fitxer/perc81b.html "Jason with the Golden Fleece" (links to larger image)]
* [http://towerwebproductions.com/alt-lib/art/threegraces.shtml "The Three Graces" (relief)]
* [http://www.scultura-italiana.com/Galleria_Estero/Thorvaldsen%20Bertel/index.html 23 works]
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