- Assessment for Learning
In classrooms where assessment for learning is practised, students know at the outset of a unit of study what they are expected to learn. At the beginning of the unit, the teacher will work with the student to understand what she or he already knows about the topic as well as to identify any gaps or misconceptions (initial/diagnostic
assessment). As the unit progresses, the teacher and student work together to assess the student’s knowledge, what she or he needs to learn to improve and extend this knowledge, and how the student can best get to that point (formative assessment). Assessment for learning occurs at all stages of the learning process.
Researchers whose work has informed much of this assessment reform include Ken O’Connor, Grant Wiggins [http://www.ltag.education.tas.gov.au] , Jay McTighe [http://www.ltag.education.tas.gov.au] , Richard Stiggins [http://www.assessmentinst.com/staff_rick] , Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam, Thomas Guskey, and Damian Cooper [http://www.damiancooperassessment.com] .
The notion of assessment informing instruction is relatively recent in education. In past decades, teachers would design a unit of study that would typically include objectives, teaching strategies, and resources. An evaluation component—the test or examination—may or may not have been included as part of this design (Cooper, 2006). The student’s mark on this test or exam was taken as the indicator of his or her understanding of the topic.
There are a number of assessment terms that will appear in any discussion of assessment. Listed below are common interpretations of some of these terms:
Assessmentcan include many meanings including those defined below. A working definition of assessment which is widely quoted is
"the term ‘assessment’ refers to all those activities undertakenby teachers, and by their students in assessing themselves, whichprovide information to be used as feedback to modify theteaching and learning activities in which they are engaged. [Black, P.J. & Wiliam, D. (1998) Inside the Black Box: Raising standardsthrough classroom assessment. King’s College, London.] " ] "
Assessment for learning
*comprises two phases—initial or diagnostic assessment and formative assessment
*assessment can be based on a variety of information sources (e.g., portfolios, works in progress, teacher observation, conversation)
*feedback to the student can be verbal or written
*used to inform instruction
*no grade or score given
*occurs throughout the learning process, from the outset of the course of study to the time of summative assessment
Assessment as learning
*student self-assesses learning and takes responsibility for moving his or her thinking forward (metacognition)
*occurs throughout the learning process
Assessment of learning
*assessment that is accompanied by a number or letter grade (summative)
*compares one student’s achievement with standards
*results can be communicated to the student and parents
*occurs at the end of the learning unit
*judgment made on the basis of a student’s performance
*assessment made to determine what a student does and does not know about a topic
*occurs at the beginning of a unit of study
*used to inform instruction:makes up the initial phase of assessment for learning
*assessment made to determine a student’s knowledge and skills, including learning gaps as they progress through a unit of study
*used to inform instruction
*occurs during the course of a unit of study
*makes up the subsequent phase of assessment for learning
*assessment that is made at the end of a unit of study to determine the level of understanding the student has achieved
*includes a mark or grade against an expected standard
Principles of Assessment for Learning
Among the most comprehensive listing of principles of assessment for learning are those written by the QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) [http://www.qca.org.uk] . The authority, which is sponsored by England’s Department of Education and Skills, is responsible for national curriculum, assessment, and examinations. Their principles focus on crucial aspects of assessment for learning, including how such assessment much be seen as central to classroom practice and that all teachers should regard assessment for learning as a key professional skill.
Cooper, Damian. (2006). "Talk About Assessment: Strategies and Tools to Improve Learning". Toronto, ON: Thomson Nelson.
Government of British Columbia [http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/classroom_assessment]
O’Connor, Ken. (2002). "How to Grade for Learning". Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight.
Wiggins, Grant. (1998). "Educative Assessment". San Francisco. CA: Jossey Bass.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Neurodevelopmental framework for learning — Neurodevelopmental framework for learning, like all frameworks, is an organizing structure through which learners and learning can be understood. Intelligence theories and neuropsychology inform many of them. The framework described below is a… … Wikipedia
Assessment — For article assessment process on Wikipedia, see . Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. This article covers educational assessment including the work of institutional… … Wikipedia
Learning and Teaching Scotland — infobox Organization name = Learning and Teaching Scotland abbreviation = LTS purpose = Educational headquarters = Glasgow/Dundee region served = Scotland language = English leader title = Chairman leader name = John Mulgrew num staff = 250… … Wikipedia
Learning Management — is the capacity to design pedagogic strategies that achieve learning outcomes in students. Definition The term Learning Management refers to the capacity to design pedagogic strategies that achieve learning outcomes in students. The emphasis is… … Wikipedia
Learning disability — In the United States and Canada, the term learning disability (LD) refers to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason and organize… … Wikipedia
Learning styles — A learning style is an educating method, particular to an individual that is presumed to allow that individual to learn best. It is commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing… … Wikipedia
Learning management system — A Learning Management System. (LMS) is software for delivering, tracking and managing training. LMSs range from simple systems for managing training records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online… … Wikipedia
Learning — Learn and Learned redirect here. For other uses, see Learn (disambiguation) and Learned (disambiguation). Neuropsychology Topics … Wikipedia
Learning object — A learning object is a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective . The term is credited to Wayne Hogins when he created a working group in 1994 bearing the name  … Wikipedia
Learning disabilities in special education — Some students with learning disabilities are eligible for special education services in the United States. Evaluation for Learning Disabilities Purposes of evaluation: # Identify children who have learning problems and may need special education… … Wikipedia