- Status of religious freedom by country
The status of
religious freedomaround the world varies from country to country.
The current government of Afghanistan has only been in place since 2002, following a U.S.-led invasion which displaced the former Taliban government. The
Constitution of Afghanistanis dated January 23, 2004, and its initial three articles mandate:
:# Afghanistan shall be an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary, and indivisible state.:# The sacred religion of Islam shall be the religion of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Followers of other faiths shall be free within the bounds of law in the exercise and performance of their religious rights.:# No law shall contravene the tenets and provisions of the holy religion of Islam in Afghanistan.
Article 2 of the
Constitution of Argentinareads: "The Federal Government supports the Roman Catholic Apostolic religion." Article 14 guarantees all the inhabitants of the Nation the right "to profess freely their religion." [ [http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/ar00000_.html Constitution of the Argentine Nation] ]
Austria guarantees freedom of religion through various constitutional provisions and through membership invarious international agreements. In Austria, these instruments are deemed to allow any religious group to worshipfreely in public and in private, to proselytize, and to prohibit discrimination against individuals because oftheir religious allegiances or beliefs. However, part of the Austrian constitutional framework is a system ofcooperation between the government and recognized religious communities. The latter are granted preferentialstatus by being entitled to benefits such as a tax-exempt status and public funding of religious education.cite web
url = http://italy.usembassy.gov/pdf/other/rellib1.pdf
title = Religious Liberty: The legal framework in selected OSCE countries.
accessdate = 2007-04-06
year = 2000
month = May
publisher = Law Library, U.S. Library of Congress] p.7
Currently, Austria recognizes twelve religions. In addition to various Christian denominations, these include Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam. To date, Austria has not granted full recognition to several newer and allegedly controversial religions such as the Church of Scientology and Jehovah's Witnesses. Some newer religious groups, however, have applied under the 1998 Act and thereby attained the preliminary status of communities of believers.p.7
Since the founding of the
Commonwealth of Australiain 1901, religious freedom has been guaranteed and state religion has been outlawed. Section 116 of the Australian Constitutionsays::"The Commonwealth shall not make any law for establishing any religion, or for imposing any religious observance, or for prohibiting the free exercise of any religion, and no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office or public trust under the Commonwealth." [ [http://www.australianpolitics.com/constitution/text/116.shtml Australian Constitution - Section 116 - Commonwealth not to legislate in respect of religion] ]
Some Australian judges have gone so far as to say that the government cannot support
religious schools, even if done in a non-discriminatory way. [cite court
litigants=Black v. The Commonwealth
court=High Court of Australia
2 February 1981
High Court of Australia, however, has consistently allowed funding of religious schools. State aid for non-Government schools became an issue in 1962 and was a major campaign issue in the 1963 federal election, following which federal and State Government funds have supported non-Government schools.
The issue of separation between religion and state is generally less contentious than in the United States. The
Australian Parliamentstill holds prayers at the start of each sitting day and has since federation. Attendance at the prayer services is optional but many Members of Parliament do attend.
Every year since 1999 the
U.S. State Departmenthas designated Burma as a country of particular concern with regard to religious freedom. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90080.htm U.S. State Dept. International Religious Freedom Report 2007, Executive Summary] ]
Article 43 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia reads: "Khmer citizens of either sex shall have the right to freedom of belief. Freedom of religious belief and worship shall be guaranteed by the State on the condition that such freedom does not affect other religious beliefs or violate public order and security. Buddhism shall be the State religion." [ [http://www.embassy.org/cambodia/cambodia/constitu.htm The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia] ]
Religious freedom in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing believers the freedom to assemble and worship without limitation or interference.
There is no established church, however religious groups can qualify for tax-exemption. The amount of funding religious schools receive varies from province to province. In many provinces religious schools are government funded in the same way other independent schools are. In most parts of Canada there is a Catholic education system alongside the secular "public" education system. They all run on Catholic principles and include religious activities and instruction as a matter of course. They are not exclusively attended by practicing Catholics.
Again, like most countries, the specific form of separation unique to the US does not apply here. There is no restriction on government funding of "faith-based" activities. Religious activity in schools is not excluded constitutionally (though in public schools it is usually not undertaken). Some Canadian public schools have the students recite the Lord's Prayer daily, some schools do not recite it.Fact|date=February 2007
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which is entrenched in the Constitution, states in the preamble that Canada "is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law." [cite web
url = http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/const/annex_e.html#I
title = The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
accessdate = 2007-04-07
work = The Constitution Act, 1982
publisher = Canada Department of Justice] Freedom of religion as also guaranteed. The
Supreme Court of Canada, in the case of " Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada v. Big M Drug Mart Ltd.", [1985 ](1 S.C.R. 295) ruled that a 1906 statute that required most places to be closed on Sunday did not have a legitimate purpose in a "free and democratic society," and was an unconstitutional attempt to establish a religious-based closing law (see Blue law.)
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China provides for freedom of religious belief; however, the Government restricts religious practice to government-sanctioned organizations and registered places of worship and to control the growth and scope of the activity of religious groups. Despite formal recognition of religious liberty, "religious freedom is accorded little respect in China." [ [http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=22&country=7155&year=2007 Freedom House 2007 County report: China] ] Every year since 1999 the
U.S. State Departmenthas designated China as a country of particular concern with regard to religious freedom. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90080.htm U.S. State Dept. International Religious Freedom Report 2007, Executive Summary] ]
freedom of worship, however the Church of Denmarkdoes hold certain privileges. According to Section 4 in the Constitution of Denmark: "The Evangelical Lutheran Church shall be the Established Church of Denmark, and, as such, it shall be supported by the State." See also|Religion in Denmark.
Despite the fact that
Egyptis a predominantly Islamicpopulation, the prevailing belief is that the Coptic Orthodox Churchis the unofficial state churchof Egypt. It is not noted in the Constitution of Egypt(which is currently in use) what is the official State Church because Egypt is currently an Arab Republicthat recognizes Islamas the State Religion, but most inhabitants of Egypt accept the Coptic Orthodox Church as the unofficial State Church mainly due to the fact that it incorporates Egypt's largest Christian population, which makes up approximately 10% of Egypt's total population.cite web
url = https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html#People
title = The World Factbook - Egypt
accessdate = 2006-12-29
publisher = U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
quote = Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%The separation of the state's influence on religion and vice versa is often undetermined; many rights groups have claimed that some laws passed by the State are heavily influenced by the State Religion, and sometimes aims at particular minorities in Egypt. The Coptic Orthodox Church is in fairly good relations with the State. This was seen when the State officially declared
January 7, the Coptic Orthodox Christmas, as an official holiday in Egypt. However, some laws (e.g., the 19th century Hamayouni Decree, which requires the President of Egypt must approve any permits to build or repair any church in Egypt) still aim at persecuting the Coptic Orthodox Church. [cite web
url = http://www.copts.net/demands.asp
title = Copts demand equality...
accessdate = 2007-04-07]
Other churches exist in Egypt, such as the
Coptic Catholic Churchas well as some Protestantdenominations. However, their population composes a very small portion of Egypt's population.
Egyptian identification card controversy.
Article 40 of The Constitution of the
Republic of Estoniareads: "Everyone has freedom of conscience, religion and thought. Everyone may freely belong to churches and religious societies. There is no state church. Everyone has the freedom to exercise his or her religion, both alone and in community with others, in public or in private, unless this is detrimental to public order, health or morals." [cite web
url = http://www.legaltext.ee/et/andmebaas/paraframe.asp?loc=text&lk=et&sk=en&dok=X0000K1.htm&query=p%F5hiseadus&tyyp=X&ptyyp=RT&fr=no&pg=1
title = The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia
accessdate = 2008-01-17
publisher = legaltext.ee]
As the national churches of Finland, the
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finlandand the Finnish Orthodox Churchhave a status protected by law. The special legal position of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is also codified in the constitution of Finland. Both churches have the right to levy an income tax on their members and every Finnish company as a part of Corporation Tax. The tax is collected by the state. The administration of the national churches is regulated by their respective church laws, which are drafted by the churches and enacted or rejected by the parliament. State universities, religiously non-aligned in themselves, provide the theological education that is required from those to be ordained as clergy of the national churches. The general direction has been to restrict and remove the privileges of the national churches, and as of 2004, in most other official business (such as officiating marriages) any registered religious community has a status comparable to that of the national churches. [Citation
May 15 2007
title =Suomen perustuslaki 11.6.1999/731
url =http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/1999/19990731] [Citation
May 15 2007
title =Church and state in Finland
place =Finnish Evangelist-Lutheran Church
Teaching Christian religion as a school subject is an old tradition in Finland. Excusing students, who are not members of either national church, from such teaching has usually been the practice since the early 1900'ies Fact|date=August 2007, though the exact regulations concerning who is entighteled to exclusion from such teaching have varied. Also requirements for teacher competency for the teaching of religion have varied Citation
August 27 2007
title = Perusopetuslain muutoksen vaikutukset uskonnon ja elämänkatsomustiedon opetukseen sekä koulun toimintaan
publisher = Opetushallitus
url = http://www.edu.fi/peruskoulu/uskonto/perusopetuslaki.pdf] .
Since 2003, world view related teaching is compulsory to all students in basic education (primary and secondary school). Each government funded primary or secondary school must arrange teaching in the religion, which the majority of the students are members of. Also, for every group of at least three students, who belong to some other organized religion, teaching in their own religion must be arranged. For a group of at least three students, who do not belong to any organized religion, teaching in the subject "secular world view" (in Finnish "elämänkatsomustieto"), must be arranged. If there are too few students for a teaching group for the student's own religion to be arranged, the student (or as most such students are
minors, their parents) can choose between joining the teaching group for the majority religion, requesting secular world view teaching or arranging the teaching from their own religious organization. A teaching group for a minority religion or for secular world view can be arranged for several schools together.
Current teacher education in Finland gives primary and secondary school teachers a basic competence to teach the national churches' religion, major
world religions and secular world view as school subjects. However, it is also noted that a teacher should not have to teach a particular religion, if that offends her or his conscience, and any conflicts between students' right to receive teaching and teachers' religious freedom should be solved on a case-by-case basis.
Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin, Minister of Education at the time]
Francehas had a law requiring separation of church and state, prohibiting the state from recognizing or funding any religion. According to the French constitution, freedom of religion was already a constitutional right. The 1905 law on secularitywas highly controversial at the time. France adheres to the notion of " laïcité", that is, noninterference of the government into the religious sphere and noninterference of religion into government, and a strict neutrality of government in religious affairs.
References to religious beliefs by politicians to justify public policies are considered a political
faux pas, since it is widely believed that religious beliefs should be kept out of the public sphere.
Public tax money supports some church-affiliated schools, but they must agree to follow the same
curriculumas the public schools and are prohibited from forcing students to attend religion courses or to discriminate against students on the basis of religion.
Churches, synagogues, temples and cathedrals built before 1905, at the taxpayers' expense, are now the property of the state and the communes; however they may be gratuitously used for religious activities provided this religious use stays continuous in time. Some argue weasel that this is a form of unfair
subsidyfor the established religions in comparison to Islam.
Alsace-Mosellearea, which was administered by Germany at the time the 1905 law was passed and was returned to France only after World War I, is still under the pre-1905 regime established of the Concordat, which provides for the public subsidy of the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, the Reformed churchand the Jewish Religion as well as public education in those religions. An original trait of this area is that priests are paid by the state; the bishops are named by the Presidenton the proposal of the Pope. Controversy erupts periodically on the appropriateness of these and other extraordinary legal dispositions of Alsace-Moselle, as well as on the exclusion of other religions in Alsace-Moselle from this arrangement. See also laïcité
In recent years, some legislation such as the
About-Picard lawand government actions were taken against some groups considered to be dangerous or criminal. Officials and associations fighting excesses of such groups, justified these measures by the need to have appropriate legal tools and the need to fight criminal organizations masquerading as legitimate religious groups. Critics contended that those actions unfairly targeted minority religions, jeopardized freedom of religion, and were motivated by prejudice. The matters were made even more complex by the fact that some of the groups involved are based in the United States, which prompted the intervention of the government of that country.
The Georgian Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice.
After the wars that followed the Reformation, the principle "
cuius regio, eius religio" divided the Holy Roman Empirein statelets with a homogeneous faith. This principle was changed to religious freedom as a result of the Thirty Years' Warin the 17th century.
Today, church and state are separate, but there is cooperation in many fields, most importantly in the social sector. Churches and religious communities, if they are large, stable and loyal to the constitution, can get special status from the state as a "corporation under public law" which allows the churches to levy taxes called Kirchensteuer (literally
church tax) on their members. This revenue is collected by the state without any fee.
Religious instruction (for members of the respective religions) is an ordinary subject in public schools (in most states). It is organized by the state, but also under the supervision of the respective religious community. Teachers are educated at public universities. Parents, or students 14 years old and above, can decide not to take those religion classes, but most federal states require classes in "ethics" or "philosophy" as replacements. A small but significant number of religious schools, which receive the majority of their funding (but never all of it) from the state, exist in most parts of the country; however nobody can be compelled to attend them. There was considerable public controversy when the Federal Constitutional Court declared a
Bavarian law requiring a crucifixin every classroom to be unconstitutional in 1997; Bavaria replaced it with a law still demanding the same, unless parents file a formal protest with the state.
As immigration has significantly increased the numbers of Muslim inhabitants, there is ongoing discussion about introducing an Islamic religious instruction for Muslim pupils, but such plans have yet been hampered by difficulties in organising a curriculum for the whole Islamic spectrum. The Federal Administrative Court has ruled that the Berlin Islamic Federation was a qualified religious community under Berlin law (which differs considerably from most of the rest of the country); hence, the Berlin State Government decided to begin Islamic religious instruction in public schools in areas with significant Islamic populations.Fact|date=May 2008
The government did not recognize several belief systems, including Scientology, as
Non-profit organizations; however, the absence of recognition did not prevent their adherents from engaging in public and private religious activities. [Citation
March 6 2007
title =Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2006 (Germany)
publisher =U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Greece is the only European Union (EU) country to ban
proselytismin its constitution, and for this reason the only EU country that has been condemned by the European Court of Human Rightsfor a lack of religious freedom. The position of the Church of Greeceand its relations with the State are set forth in Article 3, par. 1 of the present Constitution (1975/1986/2001). According to this article: (a) The Greek-Orthodox dogma is the prevailing religion, (b) The Church of Greece is inseparably united in doctrine with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinopleand with all other Orthodox Churches, and (c) The Church is self-administered and autocephalous. Freedom of religion for all Greeks is guaranteed in the constitution, but proselytismis outlawed.
About 98% of the population is nominally Christian Orthodox.cite web
url = https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html#People
title = The World Factbook - Greece
accessdate = 2006-12-29
publisher = U.S. Central Intelligence Agency
quote = Religions: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. However, in the
Eurostat- Eurobarometer poll of 2005, only 81% of Greek citizens responded that they "believe there is a God",cite web |url=http://europa.eu.int/comm/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf |title=Eurobarometer: Social values, science, and technology |work=Eurobarometer |publisher=europa.eu.int |date=2005-06 |accessdate=2007-04-14] whereas 16% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 3% that they "do not believe there is a God, spirit, nor life force".Non-Orthodox Christian Greeks are mainly Muslims, Roman Catholics, Eastern-rite Catholics and Jews. The Government, under the direction of the Ministry of Education and Religion, provides some financial support by, for example, paying for the salaries and religious training of clergy, and financing the maintenance of Orthodox Church buildings. The government also pays the salaries and some expenses of the two official Muslim religious leaders in Thrace. [Citation
March 6 2007
title =Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2006 (Greece)
publisher =U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
url =http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78815.htm] A separation of Church and State would require a Constitutional amendment in Greece.
Religious instruction is provided in Greek public schools, and students are taught the tenets of the Christian Orthodox faith (or, respectively, Islam, for the Muslim religious minority in Thrace). Typically, one hour per week (out of the 32 hour program of studies) is devoted to these lessons. However, students and parents can choose to opt out of religious instruction lessons [http://www.esos.gr/nomothesia_cat/nom3/thrisekytika-31-77-2008.htm] by providing a written note to their school stating they desire to do so. The Lord's Prayer or another prayer is typically recited before lessons, once a day, but
school prayerattendance is not mandatory.
The relationship between church and state in Greece is partly responsible for the fact that Athens doesn't have a mosque Fact|date=August 2008. A Greek Government plan exists which would build an Islamic center and mosque on some 35,000 square meters of donated land in the Athens suburb of Peania.cite web
url = http://www.pluralism.org/news/intl/index.php?xref=Athens+Mosque+Controversy&sort=DESC
title = Cross Reference - Athens Mosque Controversy
accessdate = 2006-11-12
authorlink = http://www.pluralism.org/
publisher = The Pluralism ProjectThe plan has drawn fire on grounds that Peania currently has no Muslim community. The Mayor of Peania has initiated legal action, pointing to a century-old deed which, municipal authorities say, proves that the land on which the Mosque would be built belongs to Peania and not the central government.cite web
url = http://www.grecoreport.com/planned_new_mosque_in_paenia.htm
title = A planned new mosque ignites resentment and anger of the Greeks
accessdate = 2006-11-12
authorlink = http://www.grecoreport.com/
publisher = The Greco ReportMuslim communities have also criticized the Peania project, noting that such a mosque would be located some 30 kilometers (19 miles) from Athens, where most of the capital's Muslim faithful live.cite web
url = http://www.wwrn.org/article.php?idd=19852&sec=33&con=51
title = Greek Orthodox church softens stance on Muslim prayer sites
accessdate = 2006-12-29
authorlink = http://www.wwrn.org/
publisher = WorldWide Religious News
Das Leben des Jesus (The Life of Jesus), a satire in which Jesus is portrayed as an incense-addicted hippy, was banned in Greece in 2005 under blasphemy statute, while Haderer received a suspended six-month jail sentence. However, both the ban and sentence were repealed on appeal and the book has circulated freely since. [cite web
url = http://www.theage.com.au/news/World/Greek-court-lifts-ban-on-Jesus-cartoon-book/2005/04/14/1113251690792.html
title = Greek court lifts ban on Jesus cartoon book
accessdate = 2007-04-07
14 April 2005
publisher = Reuters - appeared in theage, com.au]
In 2006, an Athens court has decreed the official recognition of the ancient Greek pantheon, as a "known religion". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6283907.stm Zeus devotees worship in Athens] ] [Also see [http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php/article?article_id=321 GREECE: Religious freedom, the Achilles' Heel] ]
The Indian constitution's preamble states that India is a secular state. Freedom of religion is a fundamental right guaranteed by the constitution. Every citizen of India has a right to practise and promote their religions peacefully. But there have been many incidence of religious intolerance which resulted in riots.
United States Department of Statein its annual human rights report for 2006 noted attacks against religious minorities in India. [ [http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=82512 'India respects rights, but problems remain'] ] State Department's annual reports on religious freedom for 2007 expressed concern over organized societal attacks against religious minorities.cite web|title=International Religious Freedom Report 2007:India|url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90228.htm] However in judging overall religious freedom, the report noted signs of improvement in India along with Saudi Arabiaand Vietnamcompared to Iran, Iraq, Burma, Eritrea, North Korea, China and Egypt. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6995964.stm US reports on religious freedom] ]
Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. It is stated in the first principle of the state ideology, Pancasila: "belief in the one and only God". A number of different religions are practiced in
Indonesiaand their collective influence on the country's political, economical and cultural life is significant. [cite web|title = Instant Indonesia: Religion of Indonesia | work = Swipa | url = http://home.swipnet.se/~w-15266/indons/instant/religion.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] As of 2007, 86.1% of Indonesia's 234.7 million people (July 2007 est.) are Muslims, 5.7% are Protestant, 3% are Catholic, 1.8% are Hindu, and 3.4% other or unspecified (percentages based on 2000 census).cite web | title = Indonesia | work = The World Factbook | publisher = CIA | date = July 19, 2007| url = https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html | accessdate = 2007-08-16 ]
The Indonesian Constitution states "every person shall be free to choose and to practice the religion of his/her choice" and "guarantees all persons the freedom of worship, each according to his/her own religion or belief". [cite web | title = The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia | url = http://www.us-asean.org/Indonesia/constitution.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] The government, however, officially only recognises six religions, namely
Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhismand Confucianism.cite journal | last = Yang | first = Heriyanto | title = The History and Legal Position of Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia | journal = Religion | volume = 10 | issue = 1 | date= 2005 | url = http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/pdf/2005/yang2005.pdf | accessdate = 2006-10-02] [cite journal | last = Hosen | first = N | authorlink = | coauthors =
title = Religion and the Indonesian Constitution: A Recent Debate
journal = Journal of Southeast Asian Studies | volume = | issue = | pages = | publisher = Cambridge University Press | date= 2005-09-08 | url = http://eprint.uq.edu.au/archive/00002795/01/hosen-JSEAS.pdf | doi = 10.1017/S0022463405000238
id = | accessdate = 2006-10-26 ]
The Iranian constitution was drafted during the
Iranian Constitutional Revolutionin 1906;cite web | author= Iran Human Rights Documentation Center | publisher = Iran Human Rights Documentation Center | title= A Faith Denied: The Persecution of the Baha'is of Iran | date= 2007 | accessdate = 2007-03-03|url=http://www.iranhrdc.org/english/pdfs/Reports/bahai_report.pdf] While the constitution was modelled on Belgium's 1831 constitution, the provisions guaranteeing freedom of worship were omitted.cite journal | first = Janet | last = Afary | title = Civil Liberties and the Making of Iran's Constitution, Retrospectives on the Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1905-1909 | journal = Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East | publisher = Duke University Press | volume = 25 | issue = 2 | year = 2005 | pages = pp. 341–359] Subsequent legislation provided some recognition to the religious minorities of Zoroastrians, Jews and Christians, in addition to majority Muslim population, as equal citizens under state law, but it did not guarantee freedom of religion and "gave unprecedented institutional powers to the clerical establishment." The Islamic Republic of Iran, that was established after the Iranian revolution, recognizes four religions, whose status is formally protected: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.cite web | date= 2003-08-01 | title = Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran | author = International Federation for Human Rights | publisher = fdih.org | accessdate = 2006-10-20 | url = http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/ir0108a.pdf] Members of the first three minority religions receive special treatment under Iranian law.
However, adherents of the
Bahá'í Faith, Iran's largest religious minority are not recognized and are persecuted. Bahá'ís have been subjected to unwarranted arrests, false imprisonment, executions, confiscation and destruction of property owned by individuals and the Bahá'í community, denial of civil rights and liberties, and denial of access to higher education. Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian Bahá'ís have regularly had their homes ransacked or been banned from attending university or holding government jobs, and several hundred have received prison sentences for their religious beliefs. Bahá'í cemeteries have been desecrated and property seized and occasionally demolished, including the House of Mírzá Buzurg, Bahá'u'lláh's father.cite journal | first = Friedrich W. | last = Affolter | title = The Specter of Ideological Genocide: The Bahá'ís of Iran | journal = War Crimes, Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity | volume = 1 | issue = 1 | pages = 59– 89 | year = 2005| url = http://www.aa.psu.edu/journals/war-crimes/articles/V1/v1n1a3.pdf] The House of the Báb in Shiraz has been destroyed twice, and is one of three sites to which Bahá'ís perform pilgrimage. [cite web | author = Netherlands Institute of Human Rights | publisher = Netherlands Institute of Human Rights |title = Iran, Islamic Republic of | date= 2006-03-08 | accessdate = 2006-05-31 | url = http://sim.law.uu.nl/SIM/CaseLaw/uncom.nsf/0/e7b8824bdd987268c1256fa8004a8753?OpenDocument] [cite web | author = Bahá'í International Community | publisher = Religion News Service |title = Bahá'í International Community dismayed at lack of Human Rights Resolution on Iran | date= 2005-04-14 | accessdate = 2006-03-08 | url = http://www.religionnews.com/press02/PR041505.html ]
For most practical purposes, Ireland has separation of church and state. Article 44.1 of the constitution states that 'The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion.' However, Article 44.2 goes on to state that '1˚Freedom of conscience and the free profession and practice of religion are, subject to public order and morality, guaranteed to every citizen. 2˚The State guarantees not to endow any religion.' While many religious schools are publicly funded, the religious link is due to the way the national school system is funded - a board of management runs the school, which is usually privately owned, while teachers' salaries are paid by the state. The Fifth Amendment of the constitution removed the section which referred to the special position of the
Catholic Church, though it has been argued that this section was more symbolic than of actual influence. The Irish President has to swear an oath that does contain an explicit religious reference, though this may be changed in future. Occasionally, there is mild controversy that the Angelusbell is broadcast by RTE on RTÉ 1 TV and radio station, but it generally peters out, due to the indifference of the population at large to the issue. RTÉ is theorethically not state-owned, being a semi state corporation. Only one of RTÉ's eight radio stations and one of its two television stations shows this.
With some exceptions, such as laws relating to marriage and divorce, as well as policies concerning the
Temple Mount, Israel is a secular state. English Common Law, rather than Judaic Talmudic Law, is the legal tradition. Every citizen of Israel, regardless of his or her religious or national affiliation, enjoys full and equal civil rights. This of course includes the large Arab and Muslim minority.
However, the ultra-Orthodox minority parties in Israel, being a necessary element in almost every coalition government, try to increase religious influence over the state, and receive state funding for religious schools, and other benefits, such as exemption from service in the
Israeli Defence Forces. Israel also offers automatic citizenship to any Jew who wishes to become a citizen. Such benefits and funds are considered by many as discriminatory privileges, and as clear violations of the principle of separation of church and state.
Israel is commonly referred to as "the Jewish State" which is often a source of confusion, as the term "Jew" has the twin meaning of referring to both a religion and a nation. Israel's founders considered "Jew" as a nationality and hence Israel can be considered "the Jewish State" with regard to nationality only, just as Italy can be described as the "Italian State," France "the French Republic" and so on.
Notwithstanding, this definition is often cited as justification for enforcement of religious laws as official policies. Unlike other democracies, Israel enforces several religious laws, such as the ban on commerce on Sabbath or on the selling of pork.Fact|date=April 2007 Civil marriage and public transport on
Shabbat(sundown Friday until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night) are also against the Israeli law.Fact|date=April 2007 Some religious schools are considered independent and are run without being monitored by the ministry of education, resulting in an alternative education system whereby parents can have their children educated in institutions which teach nothing but religion.Fact|date=April 2007 This phenomenon, non- existent in any other democracy, is an official Israeli policy.Fact|date=April 2007 Such controversial practices make Israel differ substantially from other, secular democracies, and may pose a problem if Israel is to apply for EU membership.Fact|date=April 2007
But according to almost all sources, kosher is not enforced in Israel. "Having said this, due to the secular nature of much of Israel, most foods can be found, and most restaurants aren't kosher." http://wikitravel.org/en/Israel
There is no state religion; however, the Catholic Church enjoys a large number of privileges, stemming from its sovereign status and its historical political authority, not available to other religious groups.
Historically, Japan had long tradition of mixed religious practice between
Shintoand Buddhismsince the introduction of Buddhism in 7th century. Though the Emperor of Japan is supposed to be the direct descendant of Amaterasu Oomikami, Shinto sun goddess, all Imperial family members, as well as almost all Japanese, were Buddhists who also practiced Shinto religious rites as well. Christianity flourished when it was first introduced by Francis Xavier, but was soon violently suppressed.
Meiji Restoration, Japan tried to remodel the state in line of modern European constitutional monarchy. Upon learning that many European states sourced their constitutional authority to the ChristianGod, which Japanese religious tradition did not have, the emperor itself was substituted to its position. Buddhism and Shintoism were officially separated and Shintoism was set as the state religion. The Constitution specifically stated that Emperor is " holyand inviolable" (Tennou ha shinsei nishite okasu bekarazu). During the period of Emperor Showa, the status of emperor was further elevated to be a living god (Arahito gami). This ceased at the end of World War II, when the current constitution was drafted. (See " Ningen-sengen".)
Article 20 of the
constitution of Japandrafted in by the US occupation forces, in 1946 and currently in use, mandates a separation of religious organizations from the state, as well as ensuring religious freedom: "No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority. No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious act, celebration, rite or practice. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity." However, like the CDUof Germany, Japan is not without a political party that has religious affiliation, namely the New Komeito Partywhich has affiliation with Sōka Gakkai. Less than one percent of Japanese population are Christian, and Soka Gakkai is a minor religion itself. Japanese in general mix Buddhism, Shinto, and secularism in practice, and often have "Christian" weddings, but have Buddhist funerals. A secular form of Christmasis widely observed. Tenrikyoand other Japan-centered faiths are also present.
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (north)
The North Korean constitution guarantees freedom of belief; however according to one source which is generally considered authoritative, "Genuine religious freedom does not exist." [cite web
title=International Religious Freedom Report 2006— Korea, Democratic People's Republic of
publisher=U.S. Department of state; Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Korea, Republic of (south)
According to one source which is generally considered authoritative, "The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice." [cite web
title=International Religious Freedom Report 2006— Korea, Republic of
publisher=U.S. Department of state; Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Article 11 [Equality] , paragraph 1, of the Constitution decares: "All citizens are equal before the law, and there may be no discrimination in political, economic, social, or cultural life on account of sex, religion, or social status." [cite web
title= South Korea - Constitution
17 July, 1948
publisher=International Constitutional Law
The status of religious freedom in Malaysia is a controversial issue. Islam is the official state religion and the Constitution of Malaysia provides for limited freedom of religion, notably placing control upon the 'propagation' of religion other than Islam to Muslims, a fundamental part of a number of other religions. However, questions including whether Malays can convert from Islam and whether Malaysia is an Islamic state or secular state remains unresolved. For the most part the multiple religions within Malaysia interact peacefully and exhibit mutual respect. This is evident by the continued peaceful co-existence of cultures and ethnic groups.
A precedent of limiting the rights of the church – especially the
Roman Catholic Church– was set by President Valentín Gómez Faríasin 1833. Later, President Benito Juárezenacted a set of laws that came to be known as the " Leyes de Reforma" between 1859 and 1863 in the backdrop of the " Guerra de Reforma". These laws mandated, among other things, the separation of church and state, allowed for civil marriages and a civil registry, and confiscated the church's property.
Tensions also existed between the Roman Catholic Church and the post-Revolution Mexican government. Severe restrictions on the rights of the Church and members of the clergy were written into the country's 1917 constitution that led to the eruption of the
Cristero Warin 1926. In 1992 the government reestablished diplomatic relations with the Holy Seeand lifted almost all restrictions on the Catholic Church. This later action included granting all religious groups legal status, conceding them limited property rights, and lifting restrictions on the number of priests in the country. However, the law continues to mandate a strict separation of church and state. The constitution still bars members of the clergy from holding public office, advocating partisan political views, supporting political candidates, or opposing the laws or institutions of the state.
The constitution provides that education should avoid privileges of religion, and that one religion or its members may not be given preference in education over another. Religious instruction is prohibited in public schools; however, religious associations are free to maintain private schools, which receive no public funds.
According to the Religious Associations and Public Worship Law, religious groups may not own or administer broadcast radio or television stations; however, the Catholic Church owns and operates a national cable television channel. Government permission is required to transmit religious programming on commercial broadcast radio or television, and permission is granted routinely. [Citation
March 6 2007
title =Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2006 (Mexico)
publisher =U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
In the Netherlands, freedom of religion found its roots in the religious wars that took place in the 16th century and which led to the first limited form of constitutional recognition of the freedom of religion in 1579. With the last major revision of the Constitution in 1983 with respect to freedom of religion, the secularization between state and church that started in the 19th century was completed. In Article 6, all discrimination based on religion or philosophy of life is forbidden. With the insertion of the term "philosophy of life," the equal treatment of religious and non-religious philosophies of life is guaranteed in conformity with the international commitments of the Netherlands. This article briefly reviews the legal and constitutional background of the Netherlands and the constitutional provisions relevant to freedom of religion. It then lists the most important international agreements and laws affecting religious organizations.p.76
The Netherlands has separation of church and state, but the government does recognize religious communities, especially in cultural affairs. Schools founded by religious communities, whether Protestant, Catholic, Jewish or Islamic, receive government finance. This was instituted in 1918 in what is known as the Pacification. Religiously inspired broadcasting associations are also allowed to broadcast on Dutch national public television. As such the Netherlands does not have a strong separation between church and state, but instead the state sustains a plural society, which historically consisted out of multiple separated religious groups. One anomaly in this respect is the convention that the Dutch monarch has to be a member of the
Protestant Church in the Netherlands.
There has never been a state church in
New Zealand, although prayers are said in Parliament. The New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990codified freedom of religion and belief in Section 15.
Nigeria allows freedom of religion. [Citation
title=Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999
chapter=Chapter IV — Fundamental Rights
2008-04-23(Article 38)] Islam and Christianity are the two major religions. [Citation
publisher=Central Intelligence Agency
2008-04-23] Everyone is free to choose any religion and both religions live peacefully. Northern Nigeria is mainly Muslim while southern Nigeria is mainly Christian. The Roman catholic church leads in terms of population in Christianity.Fact|date=April 2008
Religious freedom in
Pakistanhas come into conflict with sharia law. The original Constitution of Pakistandid not discriminate between Muslims and non-Muslims. Blasphemylaws prohibit hate speech. Speaking in opposition to Islam and publishing an attack on Islam or its prophets are prohibited. Pakistan's penal codenow mandates the death penaltyfor anyone defiling the name of the Prophet Muhammad. This penal code mandates life imprisonmentfor desecrating the Koran, and up to 10 years' imprisonment for insulting another's religious beliefs with intent to outrage religious feelings.
By passing through the numerous phases of colonial occupation, the relationship of the church and state in the
Philippineshas gradually changed from the collaboration of the Roman Catholic Churchwith the government during the Spanish era to the generally accepted separation today.
The Republic of Poland is predominantly a Roman Catholic state with more than 96 percent of the population Roman Catholic. [cite web
title=International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Poland
publiher=Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. department of State
accessdate=2007-06-06] The remainder of the state encompasses more than 151 churches or other religious organizations. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Polish Constitution and major international conventions and agreements related to religion. Most of these have been signed and ratified by Poland. The Constitution provides, without any exception, separation of church and state, freedom of faith and religion, and equal rights for churches and other religious organizations. After registration, churches and other religious organizations may enjoy their rights provided by various laws. The relations between the State and the Roman Catholic Church are determined by the Concordat Between the Holy See and the Republic of Poland and by other laws. The relations between the State and other major churches and religious organizations are determined by laws adopted pursuant to agreements concluded between their appropriate representatives and the Council of Ministers.p.85
Article 13 of the
Portuguese Constitutionstates, in part, that "No one is privileged, favored, injured, deprived of any right, or exempt from any duty because of his ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological convictions, education, economic situation, or social condition" [cite web
title=Portugal - Constitution
publisher= Berne university, Department of Law, International constitutional Law
The country is mostly
Roman Catholic, although other Christian churches are on the rise since the 1974 Revolution which inserted the aforementioned article in the constitution.
Immigrants from ex-colonies are Muslim and Hindu.
Recent immigration from Eastern European countries also brought the presence of the Orthodox faith.
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Article 13 of the constitution of the Republic of China provides that the people shall have freedom of religious belief. [ [http://www.president.gov.tw/en/prog/news_release/document_content.php?id=1105498686&pre_id=1105498701&g_category_number=409&category_number_2=373&layer=on&sub_category=455 Constitution of the Republic of China (Taiwan), Chapter II - Rights and Duties of the People] ]
From the foundation of the
Kievan Rus dynasty until the institution of bolshevism, Russia maintained very close ties between the officially recognized religion, the Russian Orthodox Church, and the government. These bonds became tightest under tsarPeter I ("Peter the Great"); in 1721, the office of Patriarchof Moscowwas eliminated and replaced with a "Holy Governing Synod," presided over by an Imperial appointee and regulated by Imperial law. From that point until 1917 the Russian Orthodox Churchwas explicitly a department of the Russian government.
October Revolutionand bolshevikcoup, the government of the Soviet Unionwas quite active in religious affairs, even though it was theoretically atheist and purely secular. Between 1917 and 1922, Soviet authorities executed 28 Orthodox Bishops and over 1,000 priests. A government-sponsored "renovation" known as the Living Churchwas instigated in May of 1922 as a replacement for the Russian Orthodox Church. It was eliminated in 1943 during the Second World War, but state intervention in religious affairs did not end, and religion was highly regulated and controlled until the end of the Soviet Union.
October 9and November 10of 1990, the Russian Parliament passed two freedom of conscience laws that formally disestablished the Russian Orthodox Church as the state church of Russia (this step had never actually been explicitly taken in the Soviet Union). In 1997, however, the Russian Parliament passed a law restricting the activities of religious organizations within Russia. Complete freedom is given to any religious organization officially recognized by the Soviet government before 1985: the Orthodox Church, Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism. The basis for consideration as an official religion of the Russian Federation is supposed to be a 50-year presence in the state. According to this criterion, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and the Baptistfaith should all enjoy official status as Russian religions. However, this is not the case. Non-official religions are strictly limited in that they are not permitted to operate schools or import non-Russian citizens to act as missionaries or clergy. Likewise, they must annually re-register with local officials.
This act has been sharply criticized as antithetical to the concept of freedom of religion, especially in countries with religious organizations that expend a great deal of money and effort in proselytizing.
The Russian government also engages in practices that have been accused of being discriminatory against citizens who profess faiths other than Orthodox Christianity. In the Russian armed forces — for which there continues to be universal conscription — no form of religious worship other than Orthodox Christian is permitted. Thus, conscripted Jews, Muslims, and Buddhists (despite their ostensible religious freedom granted in the 1997 law) are prohibited from engaging in prayer, even if they do so in solitude.
Despite these overtly religious practices listed above, The Constitution of the Russian Federation adopted on
December 12, 1993, declares the state to be secular, and that no religion shall be declared an official or compulsory religion. The Constitution further provides for equality of all religious associations before the law and states in Article 14 that all religious organizations shall be separate from the state. This provision is contained in the chapter that constitutes the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Russian Federation and cannot be changed except by a very complicated procedure established by the Constitution. No other legal actsmay contradict the fundamental principles of the Russian constitutional system.p.107
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is an Islamic theocratic monarchy in which Islam is the official religion; the law requires that all Saudi citizens be Muslims, but permits non-Muslim visitors or foreign workers to live among and deal with Muslims except in certain areas. The Saudi Mutaween (Arabic: مطوعين), or Committee for the Propagation of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice (i.e., the religious police), prohibits the public practice of non-Muslim religions. The Government claims to recognize the right of non-Muslims to worship in private; however it does not always respect this right in practice.
Church-state ties in Sweden were formally separated on
1 January 2000. The Lutheranchurch still maintains special status, but this is only for an adjustment period. It is now possible to register new religious organizations, but they lack the same special status and the ability to perform legally binding services such as marriage and burials.
The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respects this right in practice. The Government at all levels seeks to protect this right in full and does not tolerate its abuse, either by governmental or private actors. The rights and freedoms enumerated in the constitution include the rights to practice one's religion and protection of religious freedom. The laws concerning religious freedoms are generally observed and enforced at all government levels and by the courts in a non-discriminatory fashion. Legal protections cover discrimination or persecution by private actors.cite web
title=International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Sweden
publisher=U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Since the separation of church and state in 2000, eight recognized religious denominations, in addition to the Church of Sweden, raise revenues through member-contributions made through the national tax system. All recognized denominations are entitled to direct government financial support, contributions made through the national tax system, or a mix of both. The state does not favor the
Church of Swedenat the expense of other religious groups in any noticeable way. Since the population is predominantly Christian, certain Christian religious holy days are national holidays, but this does not appear to affect other religious groups negatively. School students from minority religious backgrounds are entitled to take relevant religious holidays.
There are ongoing efforts to remove the special status from the former state church. Marriage can now be performed by anyone who has received a certificate.Fact|date=May 2007
Nominally, 99.0% of the Turkish population is Muslim [cite web |url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf |title=Social values, Science and Technology |date=June 2005 |language=English |format=PDF |accessdate=2006-12-19 |publisher=
Eurobarometer] (in practice it is less)Fact|date=June 2008, of whom a majority belong to the Sunnibranch of Islam. A sizeable minority of the population is affiliated with the Alevisect. [cite book|title=The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition|first=David|last=Shankland|publisher=Routledge (UK)|location=|year=2003|id=ISBN 0-7007-1606-8 |url=http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0700716068&id=lFFRzTqLp6AC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=Religion+in+Turkey&sig=qrG576JrBxJ4LIBqD-41ALytcAI#PPP1,M1 |page=20|quote=Some [researchers] claim that the number of Alevis is as high as 30 per cent of Turkey's population. Others state that there are as few as 10 per cent. My own feeling ... offered purely tentatively, is that the proportion of Turkeys' population that today holds itself to be Alevis is ... perhaps nearer to 15 per cent.] The remainder of the population belongs to other beliefs, particularly Christiandenominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac Orthodox, Chaldean Catholic, Church of the East), Judaism, Yezidismand others are irreligious. [cite web|url=http://www.unfpa.org.tr/turkey/countryinfo.htm |title=Turkey - A Brief Profile|author=United Nations Population Fund|authorlink=United Nations Population Fund|publisher=United Nations Population Fund|accessdate=2006-12-27|date=2006]
There were reports of societal abuses and discrimination based on religious belief or practice. Violent attacks and threats against non-Muslims during the reporting period created an atmosphere of pressure and diminished freedom for some non-Muslim communities. Although proselytizing is legal in the country, some Muslims, Christians, and Baha'is faced a few restrictions and occasional harassment for alleged proselytizing or unauthorized meetings. The Government continued to oppose "Islamic fundamentalism." Authorities continued their broad ban on wearing Muslim religious headscarves in government offices, universities, and schools (upheld by the European Court of Human Rights); a 2006 court ruling, some argue, has extended this ban to the private sphere.
Religious minorities said they were effectively blocked from careers in state institutions because of their faith. Christians, Baha'is, and some Muslims faced societal suspicion and mistrust, and more radical Islamist elements continued to express anti-Semitic sentiments. Additionally, persons wishing to convert from Islam to another religion sometimes experienced social harassment and violence from relatives and neighbors.
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005,citeweb|url=http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf|title=Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 - page 11|accessdate=2007-05-05]
Turkeyis a country with a strong stance of secularism since the republican revolution of October 29, 1923 and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's modernization movement in March 3, 1924which, among other things, abolished the Caliphateand removed all religious influence over the affairs of the state. Even though the state has no official religion nor promotes any, it actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitution recognises freedom of religionfor individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.cite book|title=Religion and Politics in Turkey|first=Ali|last=Çarkoǧlu|publisher=Routledge (UK)|location=|year=2004|id=ISBN 0-4153-4831-5|url=http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0415348315&id=t5G_zw9exMQC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=nBltWxHPjd&dq=Religion+in+Turkey&sig=gLF9WOvOo0qZO5iwyUQSUc26Ya0#PPA28,M1 ]
In reverse, the mainstream
Hanafite school of Sunni Islamis largely organised by the state, through the " Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı" (Religious Affairs Directorate), which controls all mosques and Islamic clerics. All Islamic views which are deemed political are censored in accordance with the principle of secularism. All mosques are state funded and it is the state that appoints their imams. The content of the weekly seminars of these mosques has to be approved "a priori" by the DRI. As such, independent Sunni communities and mosques are illegal. Minority religions, like AleviIslam or Armenian or Greek Orthodoxy, are guaranteed by the constitution as "individual" faiths and are mostly tolerated, but this guarantee does not give any rights to "religious communities". However, the Treaty of Lausannegives certain minority religious rights to Jews, Greeks and Armenians, but not, for example, to Syriac-Orthodox or Roman Catholics. The question over the re-establishment of an ancient Greek Orthodox seminary in Istanbul has became a political issue in regard to the accession of Turkey to the European Union. The EU considers such prohibition to amount to suppression of religious freedom.Fact|date=May 2008 However, it is pointed out that, if the Greek Orthodox are allowed to reopen the school, they will become the only religion in Turkey with the right to independent religious schools.weasel|date=May 2008Fact|date=May 2008
Moreover, Turkey, like France, prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both genders in government buildings, schools, and universities; [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5414098.stm |title=The Islamic veil across Europe|author=|authorlink=|work=British Broadcasting Corporation|accessdate=2006-12-13|date=2006-11-17] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the
European Court of Human Rightsas "legitimate" in " Leyla Şahin v. Turkey" on November 10 2005. [cite web|url=http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?item=3&portal=hbkm&action=html&highlight=Sahin%20%7C%20Turkey&sessionid=11294215&skin=hudoc-en |title=Leyla Şahin v. Turkey|author=European Court of Human Rights|authorlink=European Court of Human Rights|publisher=ECHR|accessdate=2006-11-30|date=2005-11-10]
Freedom of religionand worship is a fundamental feature of Britain's traditions, except for the provisions of the Act of Settlement (1701) [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Settlement_1701] which ensures that no Catholic shall ever be the monarch of the United Kingdom, nor shall they be married to one. For a mature democracy, the freedom was achieved relatively late, and some discriminatory laws against minority religions survived into modern times. The role of Britain's "established" (i.e., state) churches remains incongruous. The new Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates the European Convention on Human Rightsinto domestic law, guarantees the protection of individual rights, including freedom of thought, conscience, and religion, and the freedom to hold or adopt a religion or belief of one's choice. Religious organizations are generally accorded the status of tax exempt public charities. Religious educationis mandated in state schools based on a syllabusreflecting the country's Christian traditions, but taking into account the other principal represented religions. Students may be excused from attendance at religious worship or instruction upon the request of a parent. Recent laws have shown sensitivity towards religious practices of different groups. A greater role for the judiciary in protecting religious liberties is envisaged under the Human Rights Act.p.159
Britain is a predominantly Christian country with two established, i.e. state, churches, the
Church of England(COE), the mother church of the Anglican Communion and the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Roman Catholics, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodistsand Orthodox are among the other Christianfaiths present. Most of the world's religions are also represented, including a large number of Muslims (1 million), Sikhs (400,000), Hindus (400,000), and Jews (285,000). There are smaller communities of Bahá'í (6,000), Buddhists(over 500 groups and centers), Jains (25,000) and Zoroastrians (5,000), as well as followers of new religious movements and pagans. Many Britons consider themselves agnostic.p.159
The Church of Scotland is Presbyterian while the Church of England is
Anglican(Episcopalian). The former is a national church guaranteed by law to be separate from the state, while the latter is a state-established church and any major changes to doctrine, liturgy, or structure must have parliamentary approval. Neither Walesnor Northern Irelandcurrently have established churches: the Church in Waleswas disestablished in 1920, the Church of Irelandin 1871. The king or queen must promise to uphold the rights of the Presbyterian church in Scotlandand the Anglican church in England. He or she is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, holding the title of Defender of the Faith, but an ordinary member of the Church of Scotland. Neither church receives direct funding from taxation. State schools must provide religious instruction and regular religious ceremonies, though parents may withdraw their children from either; the choice of religion is left up to the school governors, but in the absence of an explicit choice it is by default "broadly Christian;" the Church of England and the Catholic Churchoperate many state-funded schools and there are a small number of Jewish and Muslimones. Senior Church of England bishops have a right to sit in the House of Lords, the upper chamber of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In the 1600s and 1700s, many Europeans emigrated to what would later become the
United States. For some this was driven by the desire to worship freely in their own fashion. These included a large number of nonconformists such as the Puritans and the Pilgrims as well as English Catholics. However, with some exceptions, such as Roger Williams of Rhode Islandor the Roman Catholic Lord Baltimorein Maryland, most of these groups did not believe in religious tolerationand in some cases came to America with the explicit aim of setting up an established religion.
U.S. Constitutionsaid "... no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.". The people's belief in religious freedom was further integrated into the U.S. Constitution with the passing of the Bill of Rightscontaining the First Amendment. The clauses of the First Amendment that adopted the founders' principles that the federal government should not establish an official religion and should allow religious freedom are known respectively as the Establishment Clauseand the Free Exercise Clause. They state, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ...".
The court-enforced separation does not extend to all elements of
civil religion. By law, the country's currency now carries the motto "In God We Trust." Congress begins its sessions with a prayer, and since 1954 the Pledge of Allegiancecontains the phrase, "one nation, under God." Court rulings have upheld these apparently religious references, viewing them as non-substantive " ceremonial deism" or utilizing other legal theories. Recent lawsuits have unsuccessfully attempted to challenge this view. Some expressions of religion on public property, such as certain displays of the Ten Commandmentsin courtrooms or Nativity scenes on public land have been ruled to be unconstitutional.Fact|date=May 2008 The government is also permitted to restrict religious activities so long as these restrictions do not target religion specifically. For instance, a religious group cannot perform human sacrifice under the veil of separation of church and state because the government views it as murder and murder is illegal.
Religion plays a strong role in national politics, especially in controversial issues like
abortion, euthanasia, and homosexuality. Direct church-state issues also arise, currently including the question of whether or not school vouchersshould be used to help parents pay for education at private schools which may have religious affiliations, and the status of the faith-based initiatives of the current President, George W. Bush.
While there are numerous Catholics in the government, the most prominent religious participants in national politics are
Evangelical Christians, Conservative Catholics, some Orthodox Jews, and Mormons, largely allied with the Republican Party and in the Bible Beltof the Southern and Midwestern United States, comprising what is known as the "religious right." Some religious groups wish to increase the ability of government to make various religious expressions; they often emphasize the largely Christian demographics and history of the country, however it is also often used as an attempt to give state sanction to a majoritarian faith at the direct expense of the rights of minority religious groups. See " Santa Fe Independent School Dist. v. Doe"
It is common practice for national politicians with strongly religious constituencies to cite religious texts or beliefs in support of certain policies. In other areas voters may be more disapproving of expressions of religious faith by political candidates and government officials.
The Constitution formally allows religious freedom.cite web
title=Constitution Chapter Five: Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizen
publisher=Embassy of the Socialist republic of Vietnam in the United States of America
accessdate=2007-09-27 (See Article 70)] Every citizen is declared to be allowed to freely follow no, one, or more religions, practice his or her religion without violating the law, be treated equally regardless of his or her religion, be protected from being violated his or her religious freedom, but is prohibited to use religion to violate the law.
Despite the official position,
Freedom Housestates that, although the conditions had improved in recent years, "freedom of religion and expression are again under attack in Vietnam" and "that the country’s recent economic liberalization is not equally matched by necessary improvements in political rights and civil liberties.” [ [http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=70&release=481 Loss of New Freedoms in Vietnam] April 2, 2007]
All religious groups and most clergy must join a party controlled supervisory body, religions must obtain permission to build or repair houses of worship, run schools, engage in charity or ordain or transfer clergy, and some clergy remain in prison or under serious state repression. [ [http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=363&year=2007&country=7303 Freedom House 2007 County report: Vietnam] ]
Freedom of religion
Separation of church and state
url = http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/
title = International Religious Freedom Report 2006
accessdate = 2006-10-08
publisher = U.S. Department of State
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