- BBC Radiophonic Workshop
The BBC Radiophonic Workshop, one of the
sound effects units of the BBC, was created in 1958 to produce effects and new music for radio, and was closed in March 1998, although much of its traditional work had already been outsourced by 1995. It was based in the BBC's Maida Vale Studiosin Delaware Road, London, W9, UK growing outwards from the then-legendary "Room 13". The innovative music and techniques used by the Workshop has made it one of the most significant influences on electronic musictoday.
The Workshop was set-up to satisfy the growing demand in the late 1950s for "radiophonic" sounds from a group of producers and studio managers at the
BBC, including Desmond Briscoeand Daphne Oram. For some time there had been much interest in producing innovative music and sounds to go with the pioneering programming of the era, in particular the dramatic output of the BBC Third Programme. Often the sounds required for the atmosphere that programme makers wished to create were unavailable or non-existent through traditional sources and so some, such as the musically trained Oram, would look to new techniques to produce effects and music for their pieces. Much of this interest drew them to musique concrèteand tape manipulation techniques, since using these methods could allow them to create soundscapes suitable for the growing range of unconventional programming. When the BBC noticed the rising popularity of this method they established a Radiophonic Effects Committee, setting up the Workshop in rooms 13 & 14 of the BBC's Maida Vale studios with a budget of £2,000. The Workshop regularly released technical journals of their findings - leading to some of their techniques being borrowed by sixties producers and engineers such as Eddie Kramer.
In 1958, Desmond Briscoe was appointed the Senior Studio Manager with
Dick Millsemployed as a technical assistant. Much of The Radiophonic Workshop's early work was in effects for radio, in particular experimental drama and "radiophonic poems". Their significant early output included creating effects for the popular science-fiction serial " Quatermass and the Pit" and memorable comedy sounds for The Goon Show. In 1959, Daphne Oram left the workshop to set up her own studio, the "Oramics Studios for Electronic Composition", where she eventually developed her " Oramics" technique of electronic sound creation. That year Maddalena Fagandinijoined the workshop from the BBC's Italian Service.
From the early sixties the Workshop began creating television theme tunes and jingles, particularly for low budget schools programmes. The dramatic move from the experimental nature of the late 50s dramas to the cheery themes was noticeable enough for one radio presenter to have to remind listeners that the purpose of the Workshop was not pop music. In fact, in 1962 one of Fagandini's interval signals "Time Beat" was reworked with assistance from
George Martin(in his pre-Beatles days) and commercially released as a single using the pseudonym Ray Cathode. During this early period the innovative electronic approaches to music in the Workshop began to attract some significant young talent including Delia Derbyshire, Brian Hodgsonand John Baker, who was in fact a jazz pianist with an interest in reverse tape effects.
In these early days, one criticism the Workshop attracted was its policy of not allowing musicians from outside the BBC to use its equipment, which was some of the most advanced in the country at that time not only because of its nature, but also because of the unique combinations and workflows which the Workshop afforded its composers. In later years this would become less important as more electronic equipment became readily available to a wider audience.
Perhaps the most significant recording in Radiophonic Workshop history came in
1963when they were approached by composer Ron Grainerto record a theme tune for the upcoming BBC television series " Doctor Who". Presented with the task of "realising" Grainer's score, complete with its descriptions of "sweeps", "swoops", "wind clouds" and "wind bubbles", Delia Derbyshirecreated a piece of musique concrètewhich has become one of television's most recognisable themes. Over the best part of the next three decades the Workshop contributed greatly to the programme providing its vast range of unusual sound-effects, from the TARDISto the Sonic screwdriver, as well as much of its distinctive electronic incidental music, including every score from 1980 to 1985. Such is the relationship between the two that to many the phrase "Radiophonic Workshop" will always be associated with the programme, often to the detriment of the reputation of the Workshop's other output.
As the sixties drew to a close many of the techniques used by the Workshop changed as more electronic music began to be produced by
synthesisers. Many of the old members of the Workshop were reluctant to use the new instruments, often because of the limitations and unreliable nature of many of the early synthesisers but also, for some, because of a dislike of the sounds they created. This led to many leaving the workshop making way for a new generation of musicians in the early 1970s including Malcolm Clarke, Paddy Kingsland, Roger Limband Peter Howell. From the early days of a studio full of tape reels and electronic oscillators, the Workshop now found itself in possession of various synthesisers including the EMS VCS 3and the EMS Synthi 100nicknamed the "Delaware" by the members of the Workshop.
In 1977, Workshop founder Desmond Briscoe retired from organisational duties with Brian Hodgson, returning after a five year gap away from the Workshop, taking over.
By this point the output of the Workshop was vast with high demand for complete scores for programmes as well as the themes and sound effects for which it had made its name. By the end of the decade they were contributing to over 300 programmes a year from all departments of the BBC and had long since expanded from its early two room setup. Their contributions included material for programmes such as "The Body in Question", "
Blue Peter" and " Tomorrow's World" as well as sound effects for popular science fiction programmes " Blake's 7" and " The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (in both its radio and television forms) by Richard Yeoman-Clarkand Paddy Kingslandrespectively.
Listen|filename=Whale Theme from HitchHikers TV series sample.ogg
title=BBC Radiophonic Workshop, "SoundHouse", Whale Theme excerpt|description=An excerpt from "Whale Theme" from the
Hitchhikers Guide to the GalaxyTV series (music only), BBC Radiophonic Workshop
By the early 1990s, under the direction of
John Birt, the BBC had made the decision to cut departments which couldn't make enough revenue to cover their costs. In 1991 the Workshop was given five years in which to break even but the cost of keeping the department, which required a number of engineers as well as composers, proved too much and so they failed. In 1995, despite being asked to continue, organiser Brian Hodgson left the Workshop closely followed by Dick Mills and Malcolm Clarke. By the end only one composer, Elizabeth Parker, remained and the Workshop closed in March 1998.
Whilst the decision to close the Radiophonic Workshop was both regrettable and difficult the BBC recognised its contribution and heritage and as such Mark Ayres and Brian Hodgson were commissioned to catalogue the extensive library of recordings by the workshop prior to placing it into the archive, thus preserving a considerable part of the workshop's work for posterity.
Since the closure many of the Radiophonic Workshops albums have been re-released on CD and some of the incidental scores for episodes of "Doctor Who" have been made available for the first time.
In October 2003, "Alchemists of Sound", an hour-long
televisiondocumentary about the Radiophonic Workshop, was broadcast on BBC Four. The Magnetic Fieldstitled the first track of their album Holiday after the BBC Radiophonic Workshop.
The techniques initially used by the Radiophonic Workshop were closely related to those used in "musique concrète"; new sounds for programs were created by using recordings of everyday sounds such as voices, bells or gravel as raw material for "radiophonic" manipulations. In these manipulations, audio tape could be played back at different speeds (altering a sound's pitch), reversed, cut and joined, or processed using reverb or equalisation. The most famous of the Workshop's creations using 'radiophonic' techniques include the "Doctor Who" theme music, which
Delia Derbyshirecreated using a plucked string, 12 oscillators and a lot of tape manipulation; and the sound of the TARDIS (the Doctor's time machine) materialising and dematerialising, which was created by Brian Hodgson running his keys along the rusty bass strings of a broken piano, with the recording slowed down to make an even lower sound.
Much of the equipment used by the Workshop in the earlier years of its operation in the late 1950s was semi-professional and was passed down from other departments, though two giant professional tape-recorders (which appeared to lose all sound above 10 kHz) made an early centrepiece. Reverberation was obtained using an
echo chamber, a basement room with bare painted walls empty except for loudspeakers and microphones. Due to the considerable technical challenges faced by the Workshop and BBC traditions, staff initially worked in pairs with one person assigned to the technical aspects of the work and the other to the artistic direction.
Influence on popular music
The Radiophonic Workshop regularly released free journals of its experiments to the public, complete with instructions and wiring diagrams. Amongst those who studied the journals and learned from their techniques was sound engineer
Roger Mayer, who supplied guitar pedals to Jeff Beck, Jimmy Pageand Jimi Hendrix.
Members of the Radiophonic Workshop
Desmond Briscoe(1958 - 1983)
Daphne Oram(1958 - 1959)
Maddalena Fagandini(1959 - 1966)
Brian Hodgson(1962 - 1972), Organiser (1977 - 1995)
Delia Derbyshire(1962 - 1973)
*John Baker (1963 - 1974)
*David Cain (1967 - 1973)
Malcolm Clarke(1969 - 1995)
Paddy Kingsland(1970 - 1981)
Richard Yeoman-Clark(1970 - 1978)
Roger Limb(1972 - 1995)
Glynis Jones(1973 - ?)
Peter Howell(1974 - 1997)
*Elizabeth Parker (1978 - 1996)
*Jonathan Gibbs (1983 - 1986)
Richard Attree(1987 - 1998)
Mark Ayres, now archivist of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop archive, and restoring some recordings.
BBC Radiophonic Music" (1971)
*Paddy Kingsland - "Fourth Dimension" (1973)
The Radiophonic Workshop" (1975)
*"Out of This World" (1976)
*Peter Howell & the BBC Radiophonic Workshop - "Through A Glass Darkly" (1978)
BBC Sound Effects No. 19 - Doctor Who Sound Effects" (1978)
BBC Radiophonic Workshop - 21" (1979)
BBC Sound Effects No. 26 - Sci-Fi Sound Effects" (1981)
Doctor Who - The Music" (1983)
The Soundhouse" (1983)
*Elizabeth Parker - "
The Living Planet - Music from the BBC TV Series" (1984)
Doctor Who - The Music II" (1985)
Music from the BBC Radiophonic Workshop" (2003)
*John Baker - "" (2008)
BBC Radiophonic Workshop - A Retrospective" (2008)In 1994, BBC Enterprises also licensed out material, by members of the Radiophonic Workshop, to the Cavendish Music Library for release on CD. Five themed compilations of material were released under the titles "Poisoned Planet", "Undersea World", "Africa", "Time And Space" and "Ethnic Impressions". They featured various works by Elizabeth Parker, Peter Howell, Roger Limb, Malcolm Clarke and Richard Attree.
*Ray Cathode - "
Time Beat" / "Waltz in Orbit" (1962) (Ray Cathode was actually a pseudonym used by Maddalena Fagandini and Beatles producer George Martin)
*"Doctor Who" (
Delia Derbyshireoriginal arrangement) (b/w "This Can't Be Love" by Brenda & Johnny) (1964)
*"Doctor Who" (
Delia Derbyshirenew arrangement) / Paddy Kingsland - "Reg" (1973)
*Dick Mills - "
Moonbase 3"/"The World of Doctor Who" (1973) (both sides composed by Dudley Simpsonand realised by Dick Mills)
*Peter Howell - "Doctor Who" / "The Astronauts" (1980, reissued 1982 and 1984)
*Paddy Kingsland - Music from "The Changes" (1976) RESL33
elected other works
*"The Foundation Trilogy" (produced by David Cain) (1973)
*"A Wall Walks Slowly" (produced by
Desmond Briscoewith music by Peter Howell) (1977)
*"August 2026" (produced by
Malcolm Clarke) (1977)
*"Notes from Janàcek's Diary" (produced by Maxwell Steer) (1991)
**This was the only production ever to be realised at the Radiophonic Workshop completely by an external composer.
ound effects and music contributions
The Goon Show"
**"The Hobbit" (effects and music composed by David Cain) (1968)
**"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (effects by
Paddy Kingslandwith additional effects by Dick Mills. Music (except theme music) for second series by Paddy Kingsland)
**"The Lord of the Rings" (effects by Elizabeth Parker) (1981)
Quatermass and the Pit" (effects by Desmond Briscoe& (uncredited) Dick Mills) (1958)
Doctor Who" (effects by Brian Hodgson(1963 - 1972) & Dick Mills(1972 - 1989). Some additional effects provided by various Workshop members)
Blake's 7" (effects by Richard Yeoman-Clark& Elizabeth Parker)
**"The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (music and effects by
Paddy Kingslandexcept theme music)
Doctor Who" incidental music
The "Doctor Who" theme music was provided by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop from 1963 to 1985. From 1986 to the programme's demise the theme was provided by freelance composers. Between 1980 and 1985 the complete incidental scores for the programme were provided in-house by the Workshop. Below is a complete list of incidental music provided by the Radiophonic Workshop for the programme.
The Wheel in Space" (music by Brian Hodgson)
The Sea Devils" (music by Malcolm Clarke)
Revenge of the Cybermen" (additional, uncredited music by Peter Howell(main score by Carey Blyton))
The Leisure Hive" (music by Peter Howell)
Meglos" (music by Paddy Kingsland& Peter Howell)
**"Full Circle" (music by
State of Decay" (music by Paddy Kingsland)
Warriors' Gate" (music by Peter Howell)
The Keeper of Traken" (music by Roger Limb)
Logopolis" (music by Paddy Kingsland)
Peter Howellalso supplied the incidental music for the spin-off " K-9 and Company".
Castrovalva" (music by Paddy Kingsland)
Four to Doomsday" (music by Roger Limb)
**"Kinda" (music by
The Visitation" (music by Paddy Kingsland)
**"Black Orchid" (music by
Earthshock" (music by Malcolm Clarke)
Time-Flight" (music by Roger Limb)
Arc of Infinity" (music by Roger Limb)
Snakedance" (music by Peter Howell)
**"Terminus" (music by
**"Enlightenment" (music by
The King's Demons" (music by Peter Howell& Jonathan Gibbs)
The Five Doctors" (music by Peter Howell)
Warriors of the Deep" (music by Jonathan Gibbs)
**"The Awakening" (music by
Resurrection of the Daleks" (music by Malcolm Clarke)
Planet of Fire" (music by Peter Howell)
The Caves of Androzani" (music by Roger Limb)
The Twin Dilemma" (music by Malcolm Clarke)
Attack of the Cybermen" (music by Malcolm Clarke)
Vengeance on Varos" (music by Jonathan Gibbs)
The Mark of the Rani" (music by Jonathan Gibbs)
The Two Doctors" (music by Peter Howell)
Timelash" (music by Elizabeth Parker (as "Liz Parker"))
Revelation of the Daleks" (music by Roger Limb)
Terror of the Vervoids(music by Malcolm Clarke)
Programmes about Radiophonic Workshop
**"The Sound Makers" (1963)
**"The Electric Tunesmiths" (1971)
**"The Space Between" (1973)
**"Wee Have Also Sound-Houses" (1979)
***The title to this programme is a reference to Francis Bacon's 1626 novel "
The New Atlantis".
**"Sound in Mind" (1979)
**"The Same Trade as Mozart" (1969)
**"The New Sound of Music" (1979)
**"The Electric Music Machine, Five Days at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop" (1988)
**"Alchemists of Sound" (2003)
* [http://www.mb21.co.uk/ether.net/radiophonics/index.shtml Background and Discography of the Radiophonic Workshop]
* [http://whitefiles.org/rws Radiophonic Workshop - An Engineering Perspective]
* [http://whitefiles.org/rwg Radiophonic Workshop Gallery]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/music/features/alchemists.shtml BBC Documentary on the Radiophonic Workshop]
* [http://www.elidor.freeserve.co.uk/radiophonic.htm Reviews of some Radiophonic Workshop recordings]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/rd/pubs/archive/pdffiles/monographs/bbc_monograph_51.pdf "BBC Engineering Division Monograph" #51 (November 1963) "Radiophonics in the BBC"] (
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20030405072438/http://www.elektronik.co.uk/critq3-bbc.htm "Music Ex Machina" from "Radio Times" (19 March 1979)]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20060517133312/http://www.sonicartsnetwork.org/ARTICLES/ARTICLE2000JoHutton.html "Radiophonic Ladies", article about Daphne Oram, Maddalena Fagandini and Delia Derbyshire]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/doctorwho/classic/news/radiophonatron.shtml "Radiophonatron"]
* [http://www.myspace.com/bbcradiophonicworkshop Myspace tribute page]
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