- Boeing 707
subtemplate=Infobox Boeing Aircraft
name = Boeing 707/720
caption = Yugoslav Airlines 707 at
Belgrade International Airport, Serbia
national origin =
manufacturer = Boeing Airplane Company
first flight =
20 December 1957[ [http://www.aviation-history.com/boeing/707.html Boeing 707 Jet Transport] , aviation-history.com]
introduction = October 1958 with Pan American
produced = 1958-1979
primary user =
more users =
number built = 1,010
unit cost = US$4.3 million (1955 dollars)Bowers 1989, p. 434.]
developed from =
variants with their own articles =
C-137 StratolinerVC-137C (Air Force One)
The Boeing 707 is a four-engine commercial passenger
jet airlinerdeveloped by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly spoken as "Seven Oh Seven". Boeing delivered a total of 1,010 Boeing 707s, which dominated passenger air transport in the 1960s and remained common through the 1970s. Boeing also offered a smaller, faster version of the aircraft that was marketed as the Boeing 720.
Although it was not the first commercial jet in service, the 707 was the first to be commercially successful, and is generally credited as ushering in the
Jet Age. It established Boeing as one of the largest makers of passenger aircraft, and led to the later series of aircraft with "7x7" designations.
The 707 was based on an aircraft known as the 367-80. The "Dash 80" took less than two years from project launch in 1952 to rollout on
14 May 1954. This was powered by the Pratt & Whitney JT3Cengine, which was the civilian version of the J57 used on many military aircraft of the day, including the F-100 fighter and the B-52 bomber.
The prototype was conceived for both military and civilian use: the
United States Air Forcewas the first customer for the design, using in the KC-135 Stratotankermidair refueling platform. It was far from certain that the passenger 707 would be profitable. At the time, Boeing was making nearly all of its money from military contracts: its last passenger transport, the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser, had netted the company a $15 million loss before it was purchased by the Air Force as the KC-97 Stratotanker. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,857520,00.html Gamble in the Sky] , "Time", 19 July 1954.]
The convert|132|in|mm|sigfig=3|abbr=off|lk=on fuselage of the Dash 80 was only wide enough to fit two-plus-two seating (in the manner of the Stratocruiser). Boeing soon realized that this would not provide a viable payload, so decided to widen the fuselage to convert|144|in|mm|sigfig=3|abbr=on, the same as the
KC-135 Stratotanker, which would allow six-abreast seating - and the shared use of the KC-135's tooling.Bowers, 1989, pg. 433.] However, Douglas had launched its DC-8 with a fuselage width of convert|147|in|mm|sigfig=3|abbr=on. The airlines liked the extra space, and so Boeing was obliged to increase the 707's cabin width again, this time to convert|148|in|mm|sigfig=3|abbr=on. Irving 1994, pp. 194–197.] This meant that little of the tooling that was made for the Dash 80 was usable for the 707. The extra cost meant the 707 did not become profitable until some years after it would have if these modifications had not been necessary.
The first flight of the first production 707-120 took place on
20 December 1957, and FAA certification followed on 18 September 1958. A number of changes were incorporated into the production models from the prototype. A Krueger flap was installed along the leading edge. The height of the vertical fin was increased, and a small fin was added to the underside of the fuselage, and acted as a bumper during excessively nose high takeoffs.
While the initial standard model was the 707-120 with JT3C engines,
Qantasordered a shorter body version called the 707-138 and Braniffordered the higher-thrust version with Pratt & Whitney JT4A engines, the 707-220. The final major derivative was the 707-320 which featured an extended-span wing and JT4A engines, while the 707-420 was the same as the -320 but with Rolls-Royce Conway turbofanengines, in response to a request from Air Canada.Fact|date=April 2008 British certification requirements relating to engine-out go-arounds also forced Boeing to increase the height of the tail fin on all 707 variants, as well as add a ventral fin.
Eventually, the dominant engine for the Boeing 707 family was the
Pratt & Whitney JT3D, a turbofan variant of the JT3C with lower fuel consumption as well as higher thrust. JT3D-engined 707s and 720s were denoted with a "B" suffix. While many 707-120Bs and 720Bs were conversions of existing JT3C-powered machines, 707-320Bs were only available as new-built aircraft as they had a stronger structure to support a maximum take-off weight increased by convert|19000|lb|kg|abbr=on, along with minor modifications to the wing.
The ultimate 707 variant was the 707-320C, (C for "Convertible") which was fitted with a large fuselage door for cargo applications. This aircraft also had a significantly revised wing featuring three-section leading-edge flaps. This provided an additional improvement to takeoff and landing performance, as well as allowed the ventral fin to be removed (although the taller fin was retained). 707-320Bs built after 1963 used the same wing as the -320C and were known as "707-320B Advanced" aircraft.
Production of the passenger 707 ended in 1978. In total, 1,010 707s were built for civil use, though many of these found their way to military service. The purpose-built military variants remained in production until 1991.
Traces of the 707 are still found in the 737, which uses a modified version of the 707's fuselage, as well as essentially the same external nose and cockpit configuration as the 707. These were also used on the previous
Boeing 727, while the Boeing 757also used the 707 fuselage cross-section. The Chinese government sponsored development of the Shanghai Y-10during the 1970s, which was a near carbon-copy of the 707; however, this did not enter production.
The first commercial orders for the 707 came on
13 October 1955, when Pan Am committed to 20 707s and 25 Douglas DC-8s, a dramatic increase in passenger capacity over its existing fleet of propeller aircraft. The competition between the 707 and DC-8 was fierce. Several major airlines committed only to the DC-8, as Douglas Aircraftwas a more established maker of passenger aircraft at the time. To stay competitive, Boeing made a late and costly decision to redesign and enlarge the 707's wing to help increase range and payload. The new version was numbered 707-320.
Pan Am was the first
airlineto operate the 707; the aircraft's first commercial flight was from New York to Parison 26 October 1958with a fuel stop in Gander, Newfoundland. American Airlinesoperated the first domestic 707 flight on 25 January 1959. Airlines which had only ordered the DC-8, such as United, Delta and Eastern, were left jetless for months until September and lost market share on transcontinental flights.
The 707 quickly became the most popular jetliner of its time. Its popularity led to rapid developments in airport terminals, runways, airline catering, baggage handling, reservations systems and other air transport infrastructure. The advent of the 707 also led to the upgrading of
air traffic controlsystems to prevent interference with military jet operations. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810685,00.html Jets Across the U.S.] , "Time", 17 November 1958.]
As the 1960s drew to a close, the exponential growth in air travel led to the 707 being a victim of its own success. The 707 was now too small to handle the increased passenger densities on the routes for which it was designed. Stretching the fuselage was not a viable option because the installation of larger, more powerful engines would in turn need a larger undercarriage, which was not feasible given the design's limited ground clearance. Boeing's answer to the problem was the first twin aisle airliner - the
Boeing 747. The 707's first-generation engine technology was also rapidly becoming obsolete in the areas of noise and fuel economy. Trans World Airlinesflew the last scheduled 707 flight for passengers by a US carrier on 30 October 1983, [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952267,00.html Farewell Flight] , "Time", 14 November 1983.] although 707s remained in scheduled service by airlines from other nations for much longer. For example Middle East Airlines (MEA) of Lebanonflew 707s and 720s in front-line passenger service until the end of the 1990s. Since LADEof Argentinatook its 707-320B from regular service in 2007, Saha Airlinesof Iranis the last airline to keep 707s in scheduled passenger service. Saha's 707-320C is listed for the nightly domestic flight between Tehranand Kish Islandas well as a weekly flight between Tehran and Mashhadon Friday morning as of February 2008.
In 1984, a Boeing 720 that was flown by remote control was intentionally crashed at
Edwards AFBas a part of the FAAand NASA Controlled Impact Demonstrationprogram. The test provided peak accelerations during a crash. [ [http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19890006539_1989006539.pdf Flight test experience and controlled impact of a remotely piloted jet transport aircraft, NASA-TM-4084] , NASA, 1 November 1988.] Honeywelloperated the last Boeing 720 in operation in the United States, flying out of Sky Harborairport in Phoenix. The aircraft had been modified with an extra engine nacelle to allow testing of a turbine engine at altitude, operating on special certification allowing it to be used for experimental use. The aircraft's experimental flight certification was set to expire in 2008, and the 720 is being replaced by a Boeing 757. [http://www.air-and-space.com/20060411_Sky_Harbor.htm Goleta Air & Space Museum] This 720B was scrapped on June 21 and 22, 2008. [http://ets.honeywell.com/flightTest/]
The 707's engines could not supply sufficient
bleed airfor pressurizationwithout a serious loss of thrust, so the aircraft instead used engine-driven turbocompressors to supply high-pressure air for this purpose. On many commercial 707s the outer port (#1) engine mount is distinctly different from the other three, as this is the only engine not fitted with a turbocompressor. The Boeing 707 was the first commercially successful airliner to use podded engines.
The 707 wings are swept back at 35 degrees and, like all swept-wing aircraft, displayed an undesirable "
Dutch roll" flying characteristic which manifested itself as an alternating yawing and rolling motion. Boeing already had considerable experience with this on the B-47 and B-52, and had developed the yaw dampersystem on the B-47 that would be applied to later swept wingconfigurations like the 707. However, many new 707 pilots had no experience with this phenomenon as they were transitioning from straight-wing propeller driven aircraft such as the Douglas DC-7and Lockheed Constellation.
On one customer acceptance flight, where the yaw damper was turned off to familiarize the new pilots with flying techniques, a trainee pilot exacerbated the Dutch Roll motion causing a violent roll motion which tore two of the four engines off the wing. The plane, a brand new 707-227 N7071 destined for Braniff, crash landed on a river bed north of
Seattleat Arlington, Washington, killing four of the eight occupants. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19591019-0&lang=en Accident details on Aviation Safety] ]
In his autobiography,
test pilot Tex Johnstondescribed a Dutch Roll incident he experienced as a passenger on an early commercial 707 flight. As the aircraft's movements gradually became more severe, he went to the cockpit and found the crew frantically attempting to resolve the situation. He introduced himself and relieved the ashen-faced captain who immediately left the cockpit feeling ill. Johnston quickly stabilized the plane and later, even landed it for the crew.
Upgrades and modifications
Pratt & Whitney, in a joint venture with Seven Q Seven (SQS) and Omega Air, has developed the JT8D-219 as a re-engine powerplant for Boeing 707-based aircraft, calling their modified configuration a 707RE. [http://www.flug-revue.rotor.com/FRNews1/FRNews02/FR020512.htm ] ,"Flug Revue",
12 May 2002] ] Northrop Grumman has selected the -219 to re-engine the United States Air Force’s fleet of 19 Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System ( E-8 Joint STARS) aircraft, which will allow the JSTARS more time on station due to the engine's greater fuel efficiency. NATO also plans to re-engine their fleet of E-3 SentryAWACS aircraft. The -219 is publicized as being half the cost of the competing 707 re-engine powerplant, the CFM-56, and is 40dB quieter than than JT3D engines that are being replaced.
* 367-80 (Dash-80): The original prototype jet transport layout. Used to develop the 707, it was fitted with four
Pratt & Whitney JT3Cengines producing convert|10000|lbf|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on|lk=on. First flight was 15 July 1954.
* 707-120: 69 of the first production 707s were built, with a longer fuselage and greater wingspan than the original Dash-80. A full set of rectangular cabin windows was included for the interior, which was capable of a seating 179 passengers. The version was designed for transcontinental routes and often required a refuelling stop when used on the North Atlantic route. It was fitted with four
Pratt and WhitneyJT3C-6 turbojets, civilian versions of the military J57 model, which produced convert|12500|lbf|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on each, allowing a convert|257000|lb|abbr=on takeoff gross weight. First flight was on 20 December 1954. Other major orders were the launch order for 20 707-121 aircraft by Pan American and an American Airlinesorder for 30 707-123 aircraft. Pan Am service began the 707 career on 26 October 1958.
Qantashas been assigned the Boeing customer number of 38. The 13 -138 were based on the -120 but had a convert|10|ft|m|sigfig=3|abbr=on reduction to the rear fuselage and were capable of increased range.
* 707-220: Designed for
hot and highoperations with powerful Pratt & Whitney JT4A-3 turbojets, only five of these were ultimately produced. All were for Braniff International Airwaysand carried the model number 707-227. This version was made obsolete by the arrival of the turbofan-powered 707-120B.
* 707-320 Intercontinental: A stretched version of the turbojet-powered original model, powered by JT4A-3 turbojets producing 15,800 lbst each. The interior allowed for up to 189 passengers due to a convert|100|in|mm|sing=on stretch, while a longer wing carried more fuel, increasing range by convert|1600|mi|km and allowing the aircraft to operate as true transoceanic aircraft. Takeoff weight was increased to convert|316000|lb|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on. First flight was on
11 January 1958, and 69 turbojet -320s were produced.
* 707-120B: The first major upgrade to the design was a re-engining with JT3D-3 turbofans, which were quieter, more powerful, and more fuel-efficient, producing convert|18000|lbf|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on each. The aircraft also received extra leading-edge slats, and the tailplane was enlarged. A total of 72 of these were built, and many more were converted from 707-120 aircraft, including Qantas' aircraft, which became 707-138B aircraft upon conversion. The first flight of the -120B was on
22 June 1960.
* 707-320B: A re-engining of the stretched version was undertaken in parallel with the -120B, using the same JT3D-3 turbofans and incorporating many of the same airframe upgrades as well. Takeoff gross weight was increased to convert|335000|lb|sigfig=3|abbr=on. 175 of the 707-300B aircraft were produced, as well as upgrades from original -320 models. One of the final orders was by the Iranian Government for 14 707-3J9C aircraft capable of VIP transportation, communication, and inflight refuelling tasks.
* 707-320B Advanced: A minor improvement made available to -320B aircraft, adding three-section leading-edge flaps. These reduced takeoff and landing speeds, and also altered the lift distribution of the wing, allowing the ventral fin found on earlier 707s to be removed. The same wing was also used on the -320C.
* 707-320C: A convertible passenger/freight configuration which ultimately became the most widely produced variant of the 707, the -320C added a strengthened floor and a new cargo door to the -320B model. 335 of these variants were built, including a small number with uprated JT3D-7 engines and a takeoff gross weight of convert|336000|lb|abbr=on. Despite the convertible option, a number of these were delivered as pure freighters.
* 707-420: A version of the 707-320 originally produced at specific request for
BOACand powered by Rolls-Royce Conway508 turbofans, producing convert|17500|lbf|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on each. Although BOAC initiated the programme, Lufthansawas the launch customer and Air Indiawas the first to receive a 707-420 on February 18 1960. A total of 37 were built to this configuration.
* 707-700: A test aircraft used to study the feasibility of using
CFM International's CFM56 powerplants on a 707 airframe and possibly retrofitting them to existing aircraft. After a testing in 1979, N707QT, the last commercial 707 airframe, was refitted to 707-320C configuration and delivered to the Moroccan Air Force as a tanker aircraft. (This purchase was considered a "civilian" order and not a military one.) Boeing abandoned the program, since they felt it would be a threat to the Boeing 757program. The information gathered in the test led to the eventual retrofitting program of CFM56 engines to the USAF C-135/KC-135R models, and some military versions of the 707 also used the CFM56. Ironically the Douglas DC-8"Super 70" series by Cammacorp did develop commercially, extending the life of DC-8 airframes in a stricter noise regulatory environment, so there are today more DC-8s in commercial service than there are 707s.
* 720: Originally designated 707-020 but later changed for marketing reasons, was a modification of the 707-120 designed for medium-range operation from shorter runways. It was lighter and faster than the Boeing 707 and had a simplified wing design. This model had few sales but was still profitable due to the minimal R&D costs associated with modifying an existing type. At one point in the promotion stage to airlines it was known as the "717", although this was the Boeing model designation of the KC-135 and remained unused for a commercial airliner until it was applied to the
MD-95following Boeing's merger with McDonnell Douglas. [ [http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2006/july/i_history.pdf "Historical Perspective, Start of a Proud Mission."] "Boeing Frontiers", July 2006.] The 720 was used before the Boeing 727 replaced it in the market. First flight was on 23 November 1959, and 64 of the original version were built.
* 720B: The turbofan-powered version of the 720, with JT3D-1-MC6 turbofans producing convert|17000|lbf|kN|sigfig=3|abbr=on each. Takeoff gross weight was increased to convert|235000|lb|sigfig=3|abbr=on. 88 of these were built in addition to conversions of existing 720 models. [ [http://www.boeing.com/history/boeing/707.html Boeing 707/720 Short History] Official website.]
The militaries of the United States and other countries have used the civilian 707 aircraft in a variety of roles, and under different designations. (Note: The U.S. Air Force's
C-135 Stratolifteris not a 707 variant, but was developed in parallel to the 707 from the original Boeing 367-80.)
The VC-137C variant of the Stratoliner was a special-purpose design meant to serve as
Air Force One, the secure transport for the President of The United States of America. These models were in operational use from 1972 to 1990. The two aircraft remain on display: SAM 26000is at the National Museum of the United States Air Forcenear Dayton, Ohioand SAM 27000is at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Libraryin Simi Valley, California.
Although 707s are no longer employed by major airlines 63 aircraft remain in commercial use, mainly with air cargo operators.
In the 1980s, the USAF acquired around 250 used 707s to provide parts for the KC-135E Stratotanker program. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/kc-135e.htm Global Security's KC-135E article.] ]
As of August 2007, commercial operators of the Boeing 707 with more than one aircraft include:
African Airlines International(4), Air Charter Express(2), Angola Air Charter(3), Azza Transport(2), Beta Cargo(4), Hewa Bora Airways(3), Interair(2), Iraqi Airways(2), Libyan Arab Airlines(4), Saha Airlines(4), Sky Aviation FZE(2), Skymaster Airlines(5), Sudan Airways(2), Sudanese States Aviation(2) and TMA(5). Flight International, 21- 27 August 2007.] American actor John Travoltaowns, and is qualified to fly as second in command, an ex- Qantas707-138B, registration N707JT. [ [http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/NNumSQL.asp?NNumbertxt=707JT FAA Registry: N707JT] ]
The list of customer codes used by Boeing to identify specific options and trim specified by customers was started with the 707, and has been maintained through all Boeing's models. Essentially the same system as used on the earlier
Boeing 377, the code consisted of two digits affixed to the model number to identify the specific aircraft version. For example, Pan American Airlines was assigned code "21." Thus a 707-300B sold to Pan Am had the model number 707-321B. The number remained constant as further aircraft were purchased, thus when Pan American purchased the 747-100 it had the model number 747-121.
Accidents and incidents
As of May 2007, the 707 has been in a total of 166 hull-loss occurrences [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type.php?type=100 Boeing 707 Accident summary] , Aviation-Safety.net,
5 May 2007.] with 2,733 fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type-stat.php?type=100 Boeing 707 Accident Statistics] , Aviation-Safety.net, 5 July 2005.]
15 February 1961, Sabena Flight 548crashed while on approach to Brussels Airport, Belgium. A total of 73 people were killed, including the entire United States Figure Skating team. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19610215-3 Sabena Flight 548 accident summary] , Aviation-Safety.net.]
1 March 1962, American Airlines Flight 1crashed into Jamaica Bayafter taking off from Idlewild Airport(now JFK Airport) while heading for Los Angeles International AirportAll 95 people on board died.
22 May 1962a bomb destroyed Continental Airlines Flight 11, killing everyone on board.
8 December 1963 Pan Am Flight 214crashed outside Elkton, Marylandduring a severe electrical storm, with a loss of all 81 passengers and crew. The Boeing 707-121, registered as N709PA, was on the final leg of a San Juan - Baltimore - Philadelphia flight.
24 January 1966, an Air India707-437 flying Flight 101 crashed into Glacier des Bossonson the SW face of Mont Blancin the French Alps. All 106 passengers and 11 crew were killed.
6 March 1966, BOAC Flight 911broke up in flight due to severe turbulence and crashed into Mount Fuji.
3 November 1973, Pan Am Flight 160, a 707 crashed on approach to Boston-Logan. Smoke in the cockpit caused the pilots to lose control. Three people were killed in the hull-loss accident. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19731103-1]
22 April 1974, Pan Am 707-321C crashed into a mountain while preparing for landing after a 4 hour 20 minutes flight from Hong Kongto Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. All 107 people on board were killed. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19740422-0]
20 April 1978, Korean Air Lines Flight 902was shot down by Su-15interceptors after unintentionally penetrating Soviet airspace and made an emergency landing on a frozen lake near Murmansk, USSR. Two passengers were killed due to rapid decompression in the fuselage.
13 October 1983, a Bolivian 707 cargo jet crashed in Santa Cruz, Boliviakilling 91 (88 were killed on the ground when it crashed into a practice football game). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/october/13/newsid_3733000/3733160.stm 707 crashed in Santa Cruz, Bolivia] ]
29 November 1987, Korean Air Flight 858exploded over the Andaman Seaby a terrorist attack. All 115 people on board died.
8 February 1989, Independent Air Flight 1851, a Boeing 707, crashed into a hill on approach to Santa Maria, Azores. All 144 people on board were killed.
25 January 1990, Avianca Flight 52crashed after running out of fuel in Long Island, New York. The 707 was delayed numerous times because of a blizzardat New York. A total of 73 people died.
23 October 1996, a 707 belonging to the Argentinian Air Force crashed shortly after failing to achieve take-off speed in EZE (Buenos Aires International Airport). [ [http://www.nuevamayoria.com/ES/INVESTIGACIONES/defensa/060320.html Argentinian Air Force crash info] ]
Aircraft on display
* "N70700" Model
367-80(Prototype) previously at the Museum of Flight, Seattle, Washington; now at Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Washington, DC.
* "N751TW" Model 707-720, in storage, Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, AZ. [ [http://www.aero-web.org/specs/boeing/707-720.htm AeroWeb: "707 at Pima Museum"] ]
* "VH-XBA" Model 707-138B (No. 29) one of the first 707s exported (sold to
Australian airline Qantasin 1959) is on display at the Qantas Founders Outback Museumin Longreach, Queensland, Australia.
* "F-BLCD" Model 707-328B (No. 471) is on display at the
Musee de l'Air, Paris, France.
* "1419" Model 707-328C (No. 19917)
South African Air Forceis on display at the South African Air Force Museum- Swartkops Air Force Base, Pretoria.
Sources: [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/707family/product.html Boeing 707 Family] , [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/707.htm Boeing 707] , [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/airports/720.htm Boeing 720]
The 707 is mentioned in the songs "Boeing Boeing 707" by
Roger Miller; "Jet Airliner" performed by The Steve Miller Bandand written by Paul Pena; and "Early Morning Rain" by Gordon Lightfoot; Fact|date=August 2008.
The aircraft also has major roles in the "Airport" and "Airplane" films.
de Havilland Comet
Sud Aviation Caravelle
List of airliners
List of Boeing customers
* Bowers, Peter M. "Boeing Aircraft since 1916". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.
* Irving, Clive. "Wide Body: The Making of the Boeing 747". Philadelphia: Coronet, 1994. ISBN 0-340-59983-9.
* Wilson, Stewart. "Airliners of the World". Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 1999. ISBN 1-875671-44-7.
* [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/707family/ Boeing 707 family on Boeing.com]
* [http://www.airlinercafe.com/page.php?id=72 Detailed guide to all variants of the 707/720 on airlinercafe.com]
* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=87 Boeing 707 page on Airliners.net]
* [http://community.webshots.com/photo/362079242/1374000380048918155VtnaUH# A proposed double-decker design for the 707]
* [http://www.toscanavolo.it/dvd-707.html Video DVD on an Air Refueling Mission onboard to the B-707 TT Tanker of Italian Air Force]
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