Academy of Sciences


Academy of Sciences

An Academy of Sciences is a national academy or another learned society dedicated to sciences.

In non-English speaking countries, the range of academic fields of the members of a national Academy of Science often includes fields which would not normally be classed as "science" in English. Many languages use a broad term for systematized learning which includes both natural and social sciences and fields such as literary studies, history, art history etc. which are not typically labelled "sciences" in English.This can be illustrated by contrasting examples from the English speaking world and the non-English speaking world. The Australian Academy of Sciences is an organization of natural scientists, reflecting the English use of the term "scientist." There are separate academies for Arts, Humanities and Social Science. The Hungarian "Academy of Science" (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia) however, has members drawn from many other areas of academia, including those not considered science in English. What has presumably happened is that the Hungarian term "tudómány" has been translated as "science" - in a broad sense as it was used in English 200 years ago, and is still used in French and other languages. As the engineering sciences have become more varied and advanced, there is a recent trend in many advanced countries to organize the national Academy of Engineering (or Engineering Sciences), separate from the national Academy of Sciences.

Examples include:
* Armenia - Armenian Academy of Sciences
* Austria - Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna
* Australia - Australian Academy of Science
* Azerbaijan - National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan
* Belarus - National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
* Brazil - Brazilian Academy of Sciences
* Bulgaria - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
* People's Republic of China
**Chinese Academy of Sciences
**Chinese Academy of Engineering
** Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
* Czech Republic - Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
* Estonia - Estonian Academy of Sciences
* France - French Academy of Sciences
* Georgia - Abkhazian Regional Academy of Sciences
* Germany - German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina
* Hungary - Hungarian Academy of Sciences
* India
**Indian Academy of Sciences
**Indian National Science Academy
**National Academy of Sciences, India
* Japan - Japan Academy, 1879 founded as Tokyo Academy
* Kazakhstan - National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan
* Kyrgyzstan - National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic
* Latvia - Latvian Academy of Sciences
* Moldova - Academy of Sciences of Moldova
* Morocco - Hassan II Academy of Sciences and Technologies
* Netherlands - Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences
* Poland
** Polish Academy of Sciences
** Polish Academy of Learning
* Portugal - Lisbon Academy of Sciences
* Russia - Russian Academy of Sciences
* Soviet Union - Soviet Academy of Sciences
* Sweden - Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
* Switzerland - Swiss Academy of Sciences
* Taiwan - Academia Sinica
* Ukraine - National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
* United Kingdom - Royal Society
**Scotland - Royal Society of Edinburgh
* United States
** United States National Academy of Sciences
*** California - California Academy of Sciences
*** New York - New York Academy of Sciences
** United States National Academy of Engineering
* Vatican City - Pontifical Academy of Sciences
* Jordan and the Islamic World - Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS)


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