- Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration and Initiating Structure are two dimensions of leader behavior identified as a result of the Ohio State Leadership Studies. According to the findings of these studies, leaders exhibit two types of behaviors, people-oriented (consideration) and task oriented (initiating structure), to facilitate goal accomplishment.
Ohio State Leadership Studies
Prior to 1945 most studies of leadership sought to identify the individual traits of effective leaders. Trait theories of leadership were the first to attempt a systematic approach of studying leadership. However these studies yielded disappointing results when no set of traits were found that explained effective leadership. In 1945, a group of researchers at the Ohio State University sought to identify the observable behaviors of leaders instead of identifying personality traits.
To accomplish this they generated a list of 1790 statements. This was narrowed down to 150 statements designed to measure nine different dimensions of leader behavior. These statements were used to develop the Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The surveys would be given to members of a group and asked to respond to a series of statements about the leader of their group. Respondents of the LBDQ would rate leaders on how frequently they engaged in a certain behavior. The results showed two factors accounted for most of the variance. These two factors were labeled Consideration and Initiating Structure.
Consideration and Initiating structure
Consideration is the extent to which a leader exhibits concern for the welfare of the members of the group. This factor is oriented towards interpersonal relationships, mutual trust and friendship. This leadership style is people-oriented. Some of the statements used to measure this factor in the LBDQ are:
- being friendly and approachable
- treating all group members as his/her equal
- looking out for the personal welfare of group members
- making him/herself accessible to group members
Initiating Structure is the extent to which a leader defines leader and group member roles, initiates actions, organizes group activities and defines how tasks are to be accomplished by the group. This leadership style is task-oriented. Some of the statements used to measure this factor in the LBDQ are:
- letting group members know what is expected of them
- maintaining definite standards of performance
- scheduling the work to be done
- asking that group members follow standard rules and regulations
- Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. New York: Free Press.
- Farahbakhsh, S. "Leadership in Educational Administration: Concepts, Theories and Perspectives." Academic Leadership. 4(22). Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
- Judge, T.A., Piccolo, R.F. and Ilies, R. (2004). "The Forgotten Ones? The Validity of Consideration and Initiating Structure in Leadership Research" Journal of Applied Psychology. 89(1) 36-51.
- Tracy, L. (1987). "Consideration and Initiating Structure: Are They Basic Dimensions of Leader Behavior?" Social Behavior and Personality. 15(1), 21-33.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Industrial and organizational psychology — Psychology … Wikipedia
Business and Industry Review — ▪ 1999 Introduction Overview Annual Average Rates of Growth of Manufacturing Output, 1980 97, Table Pattern of Output, 1994 97, Table Index Numbers of Production, Employment, and Productivity in Manufacturing Industries, Table (For Annual… … Universalium
Law, Crime, and Law Enforcement — ▪ 2006 Introduction Trials of former heads of state, U.S. Supreme Court rulings on eminent domain and the death penalty, and high profile cases against former executives of large corporations were leading legal and criminal issues in 2005.… … Universalium
HISTORICAL SURVEY: THE STATE AND ITS ANTECEDENTS (1880–2006) — Introduction It took the new Jewish nation about 70 years to emerge as the State of Israel. The immediate stimulus that initiated the modern return to Zion was the disappointment, in the last quarter of the 19th century, of the expectation that… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Anaxagoras and the atomists — C.C.W.Taylor ANAXAGORAS In the course of the fifth century BC the political and cultural pre eminence of Athens attracted to the city a considerable number of intellectuals of various kinds from all over the Greek world. This phenomenon, the so… … History of philosophy
Viet Cong and PAVN battle tactics — Soldier of a NLF/Viet Cong Main Force Unit. They shared common arms, procedures, tactics, organization and personnel with PAVN. Viet Cong and PAVN battle tactics comprised a flexible mix of guerrilla and conventional warfare battle tactics used… … Wikipedia
Media and Publishing — ▪ 2007 Introduction The Frankfurt Book Fair enjoyed a record number of exhibitors, and the distribution of free newspapers surged. TV broadcasters experimented with ways of engaging their audience via the Internet; mobile TV grew; magazine… … Universalium
Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons — This article is about the 1967 TV series. For the 2005 series, see Gerry Anderson s New Captain Scarlet. Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons … Wikipedia
Awards and decorations of the Civil Air Patrol — A Civil Air Patrol Cadet Captain in his Service Dress Uniform. Ribbons worn over the left pocket represent awards and achievements. Other various Badges and insignia are worn as well, in this case, the Cadet Solo Wings over the ribbons, and the… … Wikipedia
Leadership — Leader redirects here. For other uses, see Leader (disambiguation). For other uses, see Leadership (disambiguation). Psychology … Wikipedia