Levite


Levite

In the Jewish tradition, a Levite ().

Kohath's son Amram was the father of Miriam, Aaron and Moses. The descendants of Aaron: the "Kohanim" ("Priests"), had the special role as priests in the Tabernacle in the wilderness and also in the Temple in Jerusalem. The remaining Levites ("Levi'yim" in Hebrew), divided into three groups (the descendants of Gershon, or Gershonites, the descendants of Kohath, or Kohathites, and the descendants of Merari, or Merarites) each filled different roles in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple services.

Levites' principal roles in the Temple included singing Psalms during Temple services, performing construction and maintenance for the Temple, serving as guards, and performing other services. Levites also served as teachers and judges, maintaining cities of refuge in Biblical times. The Book of Ezra reports that the Levites were responsible for the construction of the Second Temple and also translated and explained the Torah when it was publicly read.

During the Exodus the Levite tribe were particularly zealous in protecting the Mosaic law in the face of those worshipping the Golden Calf, which may have been a reason for their priestly status. [From did choose, He hath cast them off? Jeremiah 33:22-24

The prophet Malachi also spoke of a covenant with Levi:

:Know then that I have sent this commandment unto you, that My covenant might be with Levi, saith the LORD of hosts. :My covenant was with him of life and peace, and I gave them to him, and of fear, and he feared Me, and was afraid of My name. :The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not found in his lips; he walked with Me in peace and uprightness, and did turn many away from iniquity. Malachi 2:4-6

Malachi connected a purification of the "sons of Levi" with the coming of God's messenger:

:Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in, behold, he cometh, saith the LORD of hosts. :But who may abide the day of his coming? And who shall stand when he appeareth? For he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap; :And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer unto the LORD offerings in righteousness. Malachi 3:1-3

In contemporary Jewish practice

Today, Levites in Orthodox Judaism continue to have additional rights and obligations compared to lay people, although these responsibilities have diminished with the destruction of the Temple. For instance, "Kohanim" are eligible to be called to the Torah first, followed by the Levites. Levites also provide assistance to the "Kohanim", particularly washing their hands, before the "Kohanim" recite the Priestly Blessing. They also do not participate in the Pidyon Haben (redemption of the firstborn) ceremony, because they are traditionally pledged to Divine service. Conservative Judaism recognizes Levites as having special status, but not all Conservative congregations call Kohanim and Levites to the first and second reading of the Torah, and many no longer perform rituals such as the Priestly Blessing and Pidyon Haben in which "kohanim" and Levites have a special role. Reconstructionist and Reform Judaism do not observe the distinctions between Kohanim, Levites, and other Jews.

Orthodox Judaism believes in the eventual rebuilding of a Temple in Jerusalem and a resumption of the Levitical role. A tiny minority of Orthodox Jews support schools, primarily in Israel, to train priests and Levites in their respective roles. Conservative Judaism believes in a restoration of the Temple as a house of worship and in some special role for Levites, although not the ancient sacrificial system as previously practiced.

Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism do not believe in a future Temple at all, or in a form of worship in which role is determined by ancestry. However, some Reform synagogues will refer to members who volunteer to help with services and other functions as "Levites." This is more of an honorific title and has no basis of lineage.

Bat Levi

A Bat Levi (daughter of a Levite) is recognized as having lineal sanctity in both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism, stemming from her traditional eligibility to receive proceeds of the Levitical tithe (Maaser Rishon). In both Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism, children of a Bat Levi, regardless of her marital status or husband's tribe, retain the traditional exemption for their children from the requirement of being redeemed through the Pidyon HaBen ceremony because of this lineal sanctity.

Conservative Judaism permits a Bat Levi to perform essentially all the rituals a male Levi would perform, including being called to the Torah for the Levite aliyah in those Conservative synagogues which have both retained traditional tribal roles and modified traditional gender roles. [ [http://www.rabbinicalassembly.org/teshuvot/docs/19861990/roth_daughtersaliyot.pdf Joel Roth, The Status of Daughters of Kohanim and Leviyim for Aliyot, Rabbinical Assembly] ]

Family name

Some Levites have adopted a related last name to signify their status. Because of diverse geographical locations, the names have several variations:

* "Levi", "Lévy" - Hebrew for "Levite", equally common in Ashkenazic and Sephardic groups.
* "HaLevi, Halevi and Halevy" are Hebrew language and all translate to "the Levi" or "the Levite."
* "Levin" - a Russian variation, also "Levine" or "Lavine" (pronounced le-°vēn, rhyming with "ravine" or in some cases, anglicised as lə-°vīn rhyming with "divine") and "Lewin" a Polish variation. Sometimes supplemented with German 'thal' (valley) to "Levinthal" or "Leventhal" and -sohn and -son to "Levinson" or "Levinsohn" as a patronymic, and with slavic -ski and -sky suffixes "Levinski", "Levinsky", "Lewinski" and "Lewinsky" (the 'e' often replaced with 'a' in German areas).
* "Lewicki" Polish "of the Levites", also "Lewicka", "Lewycka", "Lewycki", "Lewycky", "Lewicky", "Levicki", "Levicky" (can also originate from placenames in Poland).
* "Lewita" Polish "Levite" or "Levita" Latinized, with Slavic suffix -an/in "Lewitan", "Levitan" (the greatest family name of Levite origin), "Levitin", "Lewitin", and with additional suffix -ski/sky "Levitanski", "Lewitanski", "Levitansky", also "Lewitas", "Levitas", Belarusian.
* Variants from yiddish "Leyvik", a pet form of Leyvi: "Levitch" Ukrainian variant, also "Levicz", "Levis", "Levitz", "Lewicz", "Lewitz", "Lewis", and with -ski and -sky suffixes "Leviczky", "Levitski", "Levitsky", "Lewitski" and "Lewitsky" ('e' and 's' often replaced with 'a' and 'z' in German areas).
* "Loewy", "Löwi", "Löwy", and "Loewe" German or Swiss variations (although the usual origin for these names is Loewe, the German word for "lion").
* "Leevi" - a Finnish variation.

Having a last name of Levi or a related term does not necessarily mean a person is a Levite, and many Levites do not have such last names. Levitical status is passed down in families from parent to child, as part of a family's genealogical tradition. In traditional Judaism, tribal status is determined by patrilineal descent, so a child whose biological father is a Levite is a Levite (in cases of adoption or artificial insemination, status is determined by the genetic father). Because Jewish status is traditionally determined by matrilineal descent, conferring levitical status on children requires both biological parents to be Jews and the biological father to be a Levite.

Currently the only branches of Judaism which regard Jewish status as being conferrable by both parents have also abolished tribal statuses and distinctions, due to a view in both cases that egalitarian principles override halakha (traditional Jewish law). Accordingly, there is currently no branch of Judaism that regards levitical status as conferrable by matrilineal descent. It is either conferable patrilineally, in the traditional manner, or it does not exist and is not conferred at all.

In archeology

Levites and priests may have been responsible for stamping the LMLK seals on Judean storage jars during the reign of Hezekiah (ca. 700 BCE). The associated personal seals on the same jars may have represented various courses of Levites overseeing the proper production of 10 percent for tithing in the same manner that modern rabbis ("mashgihim") approve kosher wine (Grena, 2004, pp. 75-6).

In Biblical criticism

The parts of the Torah attributed by advocates of the Documentary Hypothesis to the Elohist, seem to treat "Levite" as a descriptive attribute for someone particularly suited to the priesthood, rather than as the designator of a tribe and feel that Moses and Aaron are being portrayed as part of the Joseph group rather than being part of a tribe called "Levi" [JewishEncyclopedia] . The Levites are not mentioned by the Song of Deborah considered one of the oldest passages of the Bible. Jahwist passages have more ambiguous language; traditionally interpreted as referring to a person named "Levi" they could also be interpreted as just referring to a social position titled "levi" ["Jewish Encyclopedia"] . In the Blessing of Jacob (later than the Song of Deborah), Levi is treated as a tribe, cursing them to become scattered; critics regard this as an aetiological postdiction to explain how a tribe could be so scattered, the simpler solution being that the priesthood was originally open to any tribe, but gradually became seen as a distinct tribe to themselves [ibid] ["Peake's commentary on the Bible"] . In the Priestly Source and Blessing of Moses, which critical scholars view as originating centuries later, the Levites are firmly established as a tribe, and the only tribe with the right to be priests.

Notable descendants

Moses,Aaron,Miriam,Samuel,John the Baptist,

ee also

*Levi
*Kohanim

Footnotes

References

*
*Zarlengo, Michael. "Tabernacle Gifts". Dallas, Texas: Michael Zarlengo Publishing, 2005.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • LÉVITE — Terme par lequel la Bible désigne ceux qui appartiennent à la tribu de Lévi, troisième fils de Jacob. Moïse et Aaron étaient issus de cette tribu. Chargés du service divin, les lévites n’eurent pas de portion prévue lors du partage de la Terre… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • lévite — 1. (lé vi t ) s. m. Israélite de la tribu de Lévi, destiné au service du temple ; Lévi était fils de Jacob. •   Les lévites seront obligés de se trouver dès le matin pour chanter les louanges du Seigneur, et ils le feront aussi le soir, SACI… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • Levite — Le vite (l[=e] v[imac]t), n. [L. Levites, Gr. Leyi: ths, fr. Heb. Levi, one of the sons of Jacob.] 1. (Bib. Hist.) One of the tribe or family of Levi; a descendant of Levi; esp., one subordinate to the priests (who were of the same tribe) and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Levite — [lē′vīt΄] n. [LL(Ec) Levites < Gr(Ec) Leuitēs < Heb lēwī: see LEVI] Bible any member of the tribe of Levi, chosen to assist the priests in the Temple: Num. 18:6 …   English World dictionary

  • Levite — /lee vuyt/, n. 1. a member of the tribe of Levi. 2. a descendant of Levi, esp. one appointed to assist the priests in the temple or tabernacle. [1250 1300; ME < LL Levita < Gk Leuítes Levite, equiv. to Leuí ( < Heb Levi Levi, Levite) + tes… …   Universalium

  • Levite — Le•vite [[t]ˈli vaɪt[/t]] n. 1) bib jud a member of the tribe of Levi, esp. one appointed to assist the Temple priests 2) jud+bib a descendant of the tribe of Levi, having honorific religious duties • Etymology: 1250–1300; ME < LL Levīta <… …   From formal English to slang

  • Levite — noun Date: 14th century a member of the priestly Hebrew tribe of Levi; specifically a Levite of non Aaronic descent assigned to lesser ceremonial offices under the Levitical priests of the family of Aaron …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Levite — Le|vite [le vi:t] die; , n <aus fr. lévite »langer Überrock (eines Priesters im kath. Levitenamt)«> (veraltet) sehr weites Frauengewand …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • Levite — /ˈlivaɪt/ (say leevuyt) noun 1. a descendant of Levi; one of the tribe of Levi. 2. one of those who assisted the priests in the tabernacle and temple. {Middle English, from Latin levīta, levītes, from Greek levītēs, from Leuī Levite, from Hebrew} …   Australian English dictionary

  • LÉVITE — s. m. Israélite de la tribu de Lévi, destiné au service du temple. Les lévites avaient le second rang dans le service du temple …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)


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