- Succession to the British throne
Succession to the British throne is governed both by
common lawand statute. Under common law the crown is passed on by male-preference primogeniture.Bogdanor, p. 42] In other words, an individual's malechildren are preferred over his or her femalechildren, and an older child is preferred over a younger child of the same gender, with children representing their deceased ancestors. Succession in the United Kingdom is also governed by the Act of Union 1800, which restates the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701and the Bill of Rights (1689). These laws stipulate that those who are not legitimate descendants of Sophia, Electress of Hanover and those who have ever been Roman Catholics, or who have married Roman Catholics, are disbarred from succeeding to the Crown. The descendants of those who are disbarred for becoming or marrying Roman Catholics, however, may still be eligible to succeed. [Bogdanor, p. 55] (The succession was also regulated by His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which excluded the abdicated king Edward VIIIand his descendants, if any, from the throne; this Act ceased to have any practical effect when Edward, then known as the Duke of Windsor, died without issue in 1972.)
The first four individuals (twenty-one years or older) in the line of succession, along with the Sovereign's consort, may be appointed Counsellors of State. Counsellors of State are individuals who perform some of the Sovereign's duties whilst he or she is outside the nation or temporarily incapacitated. Otherwise, individuals in the line of succession need not have specific legal or official duties (though members of the Royal Family often do).
Under the arrangements by which the Monarchy is shared by the 16 Realms of the Commonwealth, the British line of succession is separate from, but symmetrical to, the lines of succession in the 15 other Realms, unless that Realm's constitution specifically defers succession rules to the UK.
heir apparentto Elizabeth II, the present Sovereign, is her eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales. Next in line is Prince William of Wales, the Prince of Wales's eldest son. (For further individuals in the line of succession, see Line of succession to the British throne.)
The current succession law in the
United Kingdomevolved from succession law in both Englandand Scotland. Originally in both countries, there were no fixed rules governing succession to the Throne. The individual could have relied on inheritance, statute, election (by Parliament or by another body), nomination (by a reigning Sovereign in his or her will), conquest or prescription ("de facto" possession of the Crown). It was often unclear which of these bases should take precedence; often, the outcome depended not on the legal strength of the claims, but on the political power of the claimants.
However, over time, the default rule in England and Scotland became
male primogeniture: later monarchs coming to the throne by exception to this rule went to great lengths to explain and justify going against these rules, and to prove their rivals illegitimate. Eventually in both countries, Parliament took control of succession, and currently the Parliament of the United Kingdom controls succession to the throne of the United Kingdom.
House of Wessex
Upon the death of Beorhtric who had forced him into exile, Egbert returned to
Wessexand took the throne. Overtaking Merciaas the dominant power in Britain, Egbert militarily expanded his realm to include Kent, Sussex, Surrey, some Mercian territory, and briefly all of Mercia; this gained him the title Bretwalda, or "ruler of Britain". Egbert's heirs have ruled England almost exclusively ever since; in the years since there have been only five, or possibly six, monarchs of the country who were not his descendants: the four Danish kings, William the Conqueror, and arguably Harold II, whose claimed patrilineal descent, referred to below, is not universally accepted as true.
Egbert was succeeded by his son Ethelwulf upon his death. Ethelwulf's second son Ethelbald was not as patient and forced his father to abdicate the throne. Dying without issue Ethelbald was followed by his brother Ethelbert who also left no children. The next brother, Ethelred did have two young sons, but still upon his death his younger brother
Alfred the Greattook the throne, which caused no resistance mostly due to domestic turmoil connected with Danish invasions. Alfred was succeeded on his death by his son Edward the Elder, but the latter's death caused a rougher transition. England was briefly split with various of Edward's children ruling Mercia, Wessex and Kent. In Wessex he was followed by Elfward who died only about two weeks later and was probably never crowned. Though he may have been followed by his brother Edwin, this too would have been very brief as Athelstan soon came to power over a reunited England.
Athelstan had no children and was succeeded by his half-brother Edmund. Though Edmund had a son, his half-brother Edred took the throne upon his death. This only delayed Edmund's son Edwy's ascension to the throne, as Edred died without issue. Edwy also remained childless, however, so upon his death the crown went to his brother Edgar, who had already taken some of the realm by force.
Edgar died at the relatively young age of about 32 leaving an unclear succession. He left two sons, ostensibly one each to his two wives, but rumors circulated that the eldest son Edward who was initially crowned was actually born to a mistress. As Edward and his brother Ethelred were both quite young, they did not directly participate in the struggle, which was led on the one side by Ethelred's mother and on the other by the Archbishop of Canterbury. However, Edward's participation became quite direct when he was murdered three years into his reign by servants of his stepmother, allowing Ethelred to ascend the throne. Ethelred "the Unready" spent the bulk of his reign unsuccessfully defending the realm against
Vikinginvaders. Sweyn I of Denmarkconquered England and took the throne in 1013, only to die a few weeks later. This allowed Ethelred to retake the crown for the three final years of his life, but his son and successor Edmund Ironsidelasted only seven months before being conquered by Sweyn's son Canute the Great.
House of Denmark
Sweyn and Canute then are the first two monarchs in a completely new succession, which was destined to be short-lived. Canute left two sons, the elder, illegitimate
Harold Harefoot(who may not even have been his son) and the younger, legitimate Harthacanutewho was supposed to be heir to the throne of all Canute's realms. However, Harthacanute could not travel to England due to threats of invasion in Denmark, so Harold took the throne. Harthacanute eventually began assembling a force to depose his half-brother, but Harold died before this could materialize and Harthacanute assumed power in England peacefully. Harthacanute left no sons, however, and since his mother, Emma, had been married to Ethelred the Unready (and borne him sons) before his death and Canute's ascension, the throne passed back to the original Anglo-Saxon line in the form of her son (Harthacanute's half-brother) Edward the Confessor.
Starting with Edward the Confessor there was a brief reinstatement of the House of Wessex, but the power of the crown had diminished greatly and succession was basically controlled by the
Witenagemotrather than strict primogeniture. As such Edward was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, whose hereditary claim differed from the preceding 11 Anglo-Saxon kings in that he was descendant from Ethelred's disenfranchised son rather than Alfred the Great, Ethelred's younger brother. Depending on how one looks at it, this was either a break in primogeniture or its proper restoration, as Alfred technically should never have come to power. Harold was killed in the Battle of Hastings, and was theoretically succeeded by Edgar Ætheling, who had not even been crowned when the Norman William the Conqueror marched on London and took the throne.
Normans and Plantagenets
William I, the first Norman monarch of
England, willed that his second son William—not his eldest son Robert—receive the Crown. (Robert instead inherited the Duchy of Normandy.) William II and Robert agreed that in the event of one dying without children the other would inherit their possessions (and realms), but Robert was away on the crusades when William II died, and their younger brother Henry claimed the throne instead. Robert's subsequent invasion of England was resolved diplomatically via the Treaty of Alton, in which he renounced his claim to the English throne for a stipend and other concessions. Women were not originally accepted as monarchs; William II's successor, Henry I, named his daughter Matilda as his heir, but his nephew Stephen took the Throne, eventually resulting in a period of civil war known as The Anarchy, during which Matilda ruled briefly.
As part of the settlement Stephen named as his successor Matilda's son Henry II, which was challenged by his own children. Henry II's son,
Henry the Young King, was crowned king during his own father's lifetime, but he never actually ruled, and is not known by any ordinal. He predeceased his father, who was succeeded by Richard I. Richard designated his nephew Arthur as his heir, but his brother John assumed the Crown instead. The throne then passed directly from father to son four times, through Henry III and Edward I, II, and III. This straightforward succession was about to end, however; the proper rules of primogeniture would be followed once more with the ascension of 10-year-old Richard II, the son of Edward the Black Prince, the deceased eldest son of Edward III. Afterward, a long, violent conflict ensued between the descendants of Edward III's five legitimate sons.
Houses of Lancaster and York
According to the rules of primogeniture, Richard II's heir presumptive was the seven-year-old
Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, grandson and heir of Lionel of Antwerp, the second surviving son of Edward III. However, in 1399 Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt(third surviving son of Edward III), deposed his cousin and became Henry IV. Henry IV's House of Lancaster(John of Gaunt's descendants) was opposed by another branch of the royal family, the House of York(Lionel of Antwerp's descendants), which had a better claim by strict primogeniture. As both houses used roses in their family symbols the conflict is known as the War of the Roses. Henry IV passed the throne to his son Henry V, who likewise passed it to his son Henry VI. However in 1461, Henry VI was deposed by the Yorkist Edward IV. Henry VI returned to the Throne briefly in 1470, but Edward IV deposed him again in 1471; this second time Henry and his son Edward were murdered, destroying the main Lancaster line. Edward IV's son, Edward V, was proclaimed king on his father's death, but never crowned; instead his uncle locked him and his brother in the Tower of London never to be seen again and usurped the Throne to become Richard III, only to be deposed by the Lancastrian Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond.
Richmond, who became Henry VII, though a Lancastrian by descent, had hardly any hereditary claim on the throne, and relied neither on one nor on statute. Rather, he relied on mere possession. The Act of Parliament passed in 1485 which recognised Henry VII as the Sovereign did not assert that he was entitled to the Crown by inheritance; rather, it merely acknowledged the fact that Henry ruled over England.
Henry VII was followed by his son, Henry VIII. Though his father was a Lancastrian, Henry VIII could also claim the Throne through the Yorkist line, as his mother Elizabeth was the sister and heiress of Edward V.
Henry VIII's numerous marriages led to several complications over succession. Henry VIII was first married to
Catherine of Aragon, by whom he had a daughter named Mary. His second marriage, to Anne Boleyn, resulted in a daughter named Elizabeth. Henry VIII had a son Edward by his third wife, Jane Seymour. An Act of Parliament passed in 1533 declared Mary illegitimate; another passed in 1536 did the same for Elizabeth. Though the two remained illegitimate, an Act of Parliament passed in 1544 allowed reinserting them, providing further "that the King should and might give, will, limit, assign, appoint or dispose the said imperial Crown and the other premises … by letters patentor last will in writing." Mary and Elizabeth, under Henry VIII's will, were to be followed by the descendants of the King's deceased sister Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk. This will also excluded from the succession the descendants of Henry's eldest sister Margaret Tudor, who were the rulers of Scotland.
When Henry VIII died in 1547, the young Edward succeeded him, becoming Edward VI. Edward VI was the first Protestant Sovereign to succeed to the rule of England; he strongly opposed having the Catholic Mary be his heir. Therefore, he attempted to divert the course of succession in his will. He excluded Mary, Elizabeth and Frances Brandon, Duchess of Suffolk (daughter of Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk), the three individuals next in line under Henry's will, settling on the Duchess of Suffolk's daughter, the
Lady Jane Grey. The Lady Jane was also originally excluded on the premise that no woman could reign over England. Nonetheless, the will, which originally referred to the Lady Jane's heirs-male, was amended to refer to the Lady Jane "and" her heirs-male. The Lady Jane was duly proclaimed the first reigning Queen of England upon Edward VI's death in 1553. She reigned for but nine days, as the popular Mary overthrew her and took the Throne; the Lady Jane's proclamation as Sovereign was revoked. Under the Act of Parliament passed in 1544, it was Henry VIII—not Edward VI—who had been granted authority to dispose of the Crown in his will. Edward's will, being unlawful, was ignored, and the provisions of Henry's will were followed.
Mary I was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth. Elizabeth I broke with the precedents of many of her predecessors, and refused to name an heir. Whilst previous monarchs (including Henry VIII) had specifically been granted authority to settle uncertain successions in their wills, the
Treasons Act 1571asserted that Parliament had the right to settle disputes, and made it treason to deny Parliamentary authority. Wary of threats from other possible heirs, Parliament further passed the Act of Association 1584, which provided that any individual involved in attempts to murder the Sovereign would be disqualified from succeeding. (The Act was repealed in 1863.)
The House of Stewart (later Stuart) had ruled in Scotland since 1377. It had followed strict rules of primogeniture until the deposition and exile of Mary Queen of Scots in 1567; even then she was succeeded by her son, who became James VI of Scotland.
After the union of the crowns
Elizabeth I of England was succeeded by King James VI of Scotland, her first cousin twice removed, who reigned in England as James I and in Scotland as James VI. This succession—like the Lady Jane Grey's—violated Henry VIII's will, which had been specifically authorised by statute. Under the will,
Lady Anne Stanley, heiress of Mary Tudor, Duchess of Suffolk, was supposed to succeed Elizabeth. Like Lady Jane, James asserted that hereditary right was superior to statutory provision. The only difference was in the outcome: Lady Jane had been overthrown and executed, while James had no serious opposition. Already a King in Scotland, he was powerful enough to deter any rival.
James I and VI's eldest surviving son and successor, Charles I was overthrown and beheaded in 1649. The monarchy itself was abolished. A few years later, it was replaced by the Protectorate under
Oliver Cromwell, effectively a monarch with the title of Lord Protectorrather than King. Cromwell had the right to name his own successor, which he exercised on his deathbed by choosing his son, Richard Cromwell. Richard was ineffective, and was quickly forced to abdicate. Shortly after, the traditional monarchy was restored, with Charles II—Charles I's son and heir—as King.
James II & VII, a Catholic, followed his brother Charles II, despite efforts in the late 1670s to exclude him and pass the throne to his Protestant daughter Mary. James II & VII was the last British monarch to be deposed; his Protestant opponents forced him to flee from the country in 1688. Parliament then deemed that James II & VII had, by fleeing the realm, abdicated the Throne. Parliament offered the Crown not to James II & VII's infant son by his second, Catholic, wife, also named James, but to his Protestant daughter Mary and to her husband William, who as James' nephew was the first person in the succession not descended from him. The two became joint Sovereigns (a unique circumstance in British history) as William III of England (and II of Scotland) and Mary II of England and Scotland. William had insisted on this unique provision as a condition of his military leadership against James.
Bill of Rightspassed in 1689 determined succession to the English Throne. First in the line were the descendants of Mary II. Next came Mary's sister the Princess Anne and her descendants. Finally, the descendants of William III & II by any future marriage were added to the line of succession. Only Protestants were allowed to succeed to the Throne, and those who married Roman Catholics were excluded.
After Mary II died in 1694, her husband continued to reign alone until his own death in 1702. The line of succession provided for by the Bill of Rights was almost at an end; William and Mary never had any children, and the Princess Anne's children had all died. Therefore, Parliament passed the
Act of Settlement 1701. The Act maintained the provision of the Bill of Rights whereby William III & II would be succeeded by the Princess Anne and her descendants, and thereafter by his own descendants from future marriages. The Act, however, declared that they would be followed by James I & VI's granddaughter Sophia, Electress and Dowager Duchess of Hanover (the daughter of James's daughter Elizabeth Stuart) and her heirs. As under the Bill of Rights, non-Protestants and those who married Roman Catholics were excluded.
Upon William III & II's death, Anne became Queen of England. Because the Parliament of England settled on Sophia, Electress of Hanover as Anne's heir without consulting Scottish leaders, the
Estates of Scotlandretaliated by passing the Scottish Act of Security. The Act provided that, upon the death of Anne, the Estates would meet to select an heir to the throne of Scotland, who could not be the same person as the English Sovereign unless numerous political and economic conditions were met. Anne originally withheld the Royal Assent, but was forced to grant it when the Estates refused to raise taxes and sought to withdraw troops from the Queen's army. England's Parliament responded by passing the Alien Act, which threatened to cripple Scotland's economy by cutting off trade with them. Thus, Scotland had little choice but to unite with England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707; the Crown of the new nation was subject to the rules laid down by the English Act of Settlement.
Hanoverians, Wettins and Windsors
Anne was predeceased by Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and was therefore succeeded by the latter's son, who became George I in 1714. The Crown descended thereafter without incident until 1936, when Edward VIII abdicated. Edward VIII had desired to marry
Wallis Simpson, a divorcée, but the Church of England, of which the British Sovereign is Supreme Governor, prohibited divorcés and divorcées from remarrying. Therefore, Parliament passed His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, by which Edward VIII ceased to be Sovereign. The Act provided that he and his descendants, if any, were not to have any "right, title or interest in or to the succession to the Throne." Edward VIII was succeeded by his brother George VI.
The Act of Settlement 1701 (restated by the Acts of Union) still governs succession to the Throne. (The Act does not abrogate several provisions of the Bill of Rights, which, therefore, still remain in effect.) His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, which provided that Edward VIII and his descendants would have no claim to the Throne, is no longer applicable, as Edward died in 1972 without issue.
Anyone ineligible to succeed is deemed "naturally dead". That individual's descendants are not also disqualified, unless they are personally ineligible.
The Protestant "heir of the body" of Sophia, Electress of Hanover succeeds to the Throne. The term, under English law, applies the rules of male primogeniture to succession. Children born out of wedlock and adopted children, however, are not eligible to succeed. Illegitimate children whose parents marry are legitimated, but still remain incapable of inheriting the Crown.
In addition to the normal rules relating to marriage, the
Royal Marriages Act 1772applies to the descendants of George II. (The descendants of princesses who married into foreign royal families were excepted, as were, in 1936, any descendants of Edward VIII.) The Act provides that each individual bound by its provisions may not marry without the Sovereign's consent being signified under the Great Seal and being announced before the Privy Council. The Act provides, however, that if an individual older than twenty-five years notifies the Privy Council of his or her intention to marry without the consent of the Sovereign, then he or she may lawfully do so after one year, unless both houses of Parliament expressly disapprove of the marriage. Any marriage that contravenes the Royal Marriages Act is void, and the offspring thereof are illegitimate and ineligible to succeed to the Crown. Such a purported marriage, if made to a Roman Catholic, cannot by itself be cause for removal from the line of succession. Thus when the future George IV attempted to marry the Roman Catholic Maria Fitzherbert in 1785 without seeking permission from George III he did not disqualify himself from inheriting the throne in due course. [Bodganor, p. 55]
The individuals closest to the throne who are disqualified from the succession on the grounds of being born out of wedlock are the Hon
Benjamin Lascellesand the Hon Emily Lascelles, who would have otherwise ranked fortieth and forty-first in the line of succession respectively, after their father, Viscount Lascelles. Lord Lascelles subsequently legitimated them by marrying their mother, but they still remain ineligible to succeed to the Crown.
Rules relating to eligibility established by the Bill of Rights are retained under the Act of Settlement. The preamble to the Act of Settlement notes that the Bill of Rights provides "that all and every person and persons that then [at the time of the Bill of Right's passage] were, or afterwards should be reconciled to, or shall hold communion with the see or Church of Rome, or should profess the popish religion, or marry a papist, should be excluded." The Act of Settlement continues, providing "that all and every Person and Persons who shall … is, are or shall be reconciled to or shall hold Communion with the See or Church of Rome or shall profess the Popish religion or shall marry a papist shall be subject to such Incapacities" as the Bill of Rights established.
The precise meaning of the aforementioned clauses is subject to contention. Under one interpretation, the religion of an individual at the precise moment of succession is relevant. Under another interpretation, anyone who has been a Roman Catholic at any time since 1689 ("then … or afterwards") is forever ineligible to succeed. The former interpretation allows a Roman Catholic to convert to Protestantism and succeed to the Throne just before his predecessor dies; the latter does not. In either case, however, other religions are not affected; it is clear that any non-Catholic may convert to Protestantism and succeed to the Throne.
The Act of Settlement further provides that anyone who marries a Roman Catholic at any time would be forever ineligible to succeed to the Throne. (Some suggest that the religion of one's spouse at the precise time of succession is all that matters. This interpretation, however, is not borne out by a literal reading of the Act, which uses the phrase "shall marry," not "shall be married.") The Act does not require that the spouse be Protestant; it only bars those who marry Roman Catholics. Furthermore, an individual is not barred because his or her spouse converts to Roman Catholicism after marriage.
The highest individual ineligible to succeed because he or she married a Roman Catholic is the Earl of St Andrews, who would have otherwise ranked twenty-third in the line of succession. The highest individual ineligible to succeed because he or she is not a Protestant is Lord Downpatrick (Lord St Andrews' son), who would have otherwise ranked twenty-fourth.
Any changes made to the succession law in the United Kingdom would not have effect in the other
Commonwealth Realms, unless specifically enacted by the Parliaments thereof. The Commonwealth Realms, of which the United Kingdom is one, are independent nations, all under a single monarch. The rules of succession are now the same in all of these Realms, but it is possible for a Realm to adopt rules of succession independently of other Realms. The Statute of Westminster 1931provides, "it would be in accord with the established constitutional position of all the members of the Commonwealth in relation to one another that any alteration in the law touching the Succession to the Throne or the Royal Style and Titles shall hereafter require the assent as well of the Parliaments of all the Dominions (now Commonwealth Realms) as of the Parliament of the United Kingdom." This provision, however, is a part of the Preamble of the Act. Since it does not follow an enacting clause, it has no legal force. Therefore, each Commonwealth Realmis permitted to amend its own succession laws, insofar as it applies to that Realm, with the convention set out in the preamble only applying as a guideline, though one central to the symmetrical relationship of the Realms under the Crown. The prospect of creating different succession laws in the United Kingdom and the Realms is widely regarded as an obstacle to making any change to the laws of succession in any one Realm.
Several calls have been made to change the law of succession. Most commonly, individuals have asserted that granting precedence to male children or excluding non-Protestants is discriminatory. In 1998, "
The Guardian" challenged the succession law in court, purporting that it violated the European Convention on Human Rights, which provides, "The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or other status." The Convention, however, nowhere lists the right to succeed to the Crown as a human right; therefore, the challenge was rejected. Most recently, in December 2004, a Private Member's Bill, the Succession to the Crown Bill, was introduced in the Lords.
The Blair government blocked all attempts to revise the succession laws, claiming it would raise too many constitutional issues (i.e., necessity for concurrent legislation in the Commonwealth Realms), and it is unnecessary at this time, since the first four people in the line of succession are male. This could change rapidly, however, once princes William and Harry get married and have children. The birth of a daughter, particularly to William, would add great urgency to the debate, and it would become awkward if she were followed by a son. The issue has not yet arisen under the Brown government.
Changing the succession to absolute primogeniture would result in HRH The Princess Royal (Anne) being fourth in line, followed by her son and daughter, taking the place of HRH The Duke of York (Andrew) and his two daughters.
Upon the death of a Sovereign, his or her heir immediately and automatically succeeds, without any need for confirmation or further ceremony. [Letter from
Tony Newtonas Lord President of the Councilto Tony Bennindicated this was the effect of the Act of Settlement after Benn had indicated he inteded to block the next accession at the Privy Council. Quoted by Peter Hennessy, and by Vernon Bogdanorin "The Monarchy and the Constitution" p.45] Nevertheless, it is customary for the accession of the Sovereign to be publicly proclaimed.
Formerly, the new Sovereign proclaimed his or her own succession. After Elizabeth I died, however, an
Accession Councilproclaimed the succession of James I, who was in Scotland at the time, to the throne of England (he was already King James VI of Scotland at the time). This precedent has been followed in each case since; now, the Accession Council normally meets in St. James's Palace. Proclamations since James I's have usually been made in the name of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Privy Council, the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and citizens of the City of Londonand "other principal Gentlemen of quality," though there have been variations in some proclamations. Elizabeth II's proclamation was the first to also make mention of representatives of members of the Commonwealth.
After an appropriate period of mourning has passed, the Sovereign is also crowned. Coronations are held in
Westminster Abbey. The Archbishop of Canterburynormally officiates, though the Sovereign may designate any other bishop of the Church of England. A coronation is not necessary for a Sovereign to rule; for example, Edward VIII was never crowned, yet was the undoubted king during his short reign.
Alternate Successions of the English Crown
Line of succession to the British throne
History of the British line of succession
British monarchs family tree
List of monarchs in the British Isles
Treason Act 1702
*Blackstone, W. (1765). "Commentaries on the Laws of England." Oxford: Clarendon Press.
*Bogdanor, Vernon (1995). "The Monarchy and the Constitution." Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198293348.
*Bryant, A. (1975). "A Thousand Years of British Monarchy." London: Collins.
* [http://www.geocities.com/noelcox/Succession_Law.htm Cox, N. (1999). "The Law of Succession to the Crown in New Zealand." "Waikato Law Review." (Vol. 7, pp. 49-72).]
* [http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/britfaq.html Demoskoff, Y. (2004). "Frequently Asked Questions for Alt.talk.royalty: British Royal and Noble Families."]
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