- Azerbaijan (Iran)
:"This article is about the region in Iran; for other uses, see
Azerbaijan (disambiguation)."Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (PerB|آذربایجان; "Āzarbāijān"; _az. آذربایجان , Kurdish: آذربایجان ), also Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; "Āzarbāijān-e Irān"), is a regionin northwestern Iran. It is also historically known as " Atropatene" and " Aturpatakan".
Etymology and usage
The name Azerbaijan itself is derived from "
Atropates", [ Atroapates. Encyclopedia Iranica. [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f1/v3f1a020.html] ] the Satrap(governor) of Medea in the Achaemenid empire, who ruled a region found in modern Iranian Azarbaijan called " Atropatene". Atropates name is believed to be derived from the Old Persianroots meaning "protected by fire." [Encyclopædia Iranica, [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v3f1/v3f1a020.html "ATROPATES"] M. L. Chaumont.] The name is also mentioned in the Avestan Frawardin Yasht: "âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide" which translates literally to: We worship the Fravashiof the holy Atare-pata. [ [http://www.avesta.org/ka/yt13sbe.htm FRAWARDIN YASHT ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels") Translated by James Darmesteter (From Sacred Books of the East, American Edition, 1898)] ] َAccording to the Encyclopedia of Islam, the name of the province was pronounced as: "In Middle Persian the name of the province was called Āturpātākān, older new-Persian Ādharbādhagān آذربادگان/آذرآبادگان, Ādharbāyagān, at present Āzerbāydjān/Āzarbāydjān, Greek ᾿Ατροπατήνη, Byzantine Greek ᾿Αδραβιγάνων, Armenian Atrpatakan, Syriac Adhorbāyghān.". [Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, V. "Azerbaijan" Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill ] The name Atropat in Middle Persian was transformed to Adharbad and is connected with Zoroastrianism. A famous Zoroastrian priest by the name Adarbad Mahraspandan is well known for his counsels. [ R. C. Zaehner, The Teachings of the Magi, London, 1956, p. 101 [http://www.avesta.org/mp/adarbad1.htm] ] Azerbaijan, due to its numerous fire-temples has also been quoted in a variety of historic sources as being the birth place of the prophet Zoroasteralthough modern scholars have not yet reached an agreement on the location of his birth. [ G. Gnoli, Zoroaster's time and homeland, Naples, 1980]
Iranian Azerbaijan is generally considered the northwest portion of Iran compromising the provinces of Zanjan Fact|date=July 2008,
East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijanand Ardabil. It shares borders with the Republic of Azerbaijan, [ [http://www.iranica.com/articles/ot_grp5/ot_archeology_viii_20040616.html M. N. POGREBOVA, Encyclopedia Iranica, ARCHEOLOGY. viii. NORTHERN AZERBAIJAN (REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN), June 16, 2004] ] Armenia, Turkey, and Iraq and a population of about 25 million. Azerbaijan is famous for its great natural beauty. There are 17 rivers and two lakes in the region. Cotton, nuts, textiles, tea, machinery and electrical equipments are main industries. The northern, alpine region, which includes Lake Urmia, is mountainous, with deep valleys and fertile lowlands.
The region is bounded in the north by
Armeniaand the Republic of Azerbaijanand in the West by Lake Urmiaand Kurdish-inhabited areas of Iran, and in the East by the Talyshstanand Gilan.
Grains, fruits, cotton, rice, nuts, and tobacco are the staple crops of the region.
Industries and handicrafts
Industries include machine tools, vehicle factories, oil refinery, petrochemical complex, food processing, cement, textiles, electric equipment, and sugar milling. Oil and gas pipelines run through the region. Wool, carpets, and metal ware are also produced.
Azerbaijan, the main Turkic-speaking area and one of the richest and one of the most densely populated regions of Iran, presents a picture of ethnic distinctiveness and homogeneity that is perhaps misleading. Not only are there various linguistic, religious, and tribal minority groups, and Azerbaijanis themselves have settled widely outside the region. [
Encyclopaedia Iranica, page 243 = accessed January 9, 2007] ] The Azeris are followers of Shi'aIslam. Azeris make up the majority of the population in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan. The Azeri (also known as Azerbaijani) population of Iranis mainly found in the northwest provinces: East Azarbaijan, West Azarbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, and in some regions of Kordestan, Hamadan and Markazi. Many others live in Tehran, Karajand other regions.Azarbaijanis]
Provinces and cities
Iranian Azerbaijan is divided into the provinces of East Azarbaijan (1996 pop. 3,325,540), West Azarbaijan (1996 pop. 2,496,320), Ardabil. (1996 pop. 1,168,011), Zanjan (1996 pop. 900,890) [ [http://www.statoids.com/uir.html Provinces of Iran - 1996 Census figures, page last updated: 2006-04-19, accessed April 2, 2007] ] [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/iran_provinces.htm] The chief cities include
Tabriz(the capital of East Azarbaijan), Urmia(the capital of West Azerbaijan), Ardabil(the capital of Ardabil), Maragheh, Marand, Zanjan, and Khoy(Khvoy).
The oldest kingdom known in Iranian Azerbaijan is that of the Mannea who ruled a region southeast of
Lake Urmiacentered around modern Saqqez. The Manneans were a confederation of Iranian and non-Iranian groups. According to Professor Zadok:
According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the
By the 8th century BC, Azerbaijan, as well as
Hamadan, Tehran, and Esfahanhad been settled by Medes. Azerbaijan later formed the province of "Media Minor" in the Persian Empire.
Alexander the Greatconquered Persia, he appointed (328 BC) as governor the Persian general Atropates, who eventually established an independent dynasty. The region, which came to be known as Atropateneor Media Atropatene (after Atropates), was much disputed. In the 2nd century BC, it was liberated from Seleuciddomination by Mithradates Iof Arsacid dynasty, and was later made a province of the Sassanid Empireof Ardashir I. Under the Sassanids, Azerbaijan was ruled by a "marzubān", and, towards the end of the period, belonged to the family of Farrukh-Hormuzd. Heraclius, the Byzantine emperor, briefly held the region in the 7th century until peace was made with the Sassanids. After the Islamic Conquest of Iran, Arabinvaders converted most of its people to Islamand made it part of the caliphate.
During the Islamic invasion of Azerbaijan, the name of the general of Iran, was Rustam the son of Farrukh Hurmuz also known as Rustam Farrokhzad. Rustam himself was born in Azerbaijan and lead the Sassanid army into battle.
He is also mentioned in the Shahnameh:چو نامه بخوانی تو با مهتران/برانداز و برساز لشکر بران
همی تاز تا آذرآبادگان/ دیار بزرگان و آزادگان
همیدون گله هرچه داری ز اسب/ببر سوی گنجور آذرگشسب
The Sassanid Persian army was defeated in the battle of Qadisiya and Rustam was killed in the same battle. In 642 A.D., Piruzan, the Persian commander fought the Muslims in Nahavand, which was a gateway to the provinces of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Albania. The battle was fiece but the Sassanid troops failed in battle. This opened the gateway for Muslims into Azerbaijan. Muslims settled in Azerbaijan like many parts of Iran. According to the historian Kasravi, the Muslims also settled in Azerbaijan more numerously than other provinces due to its wide and green pastures. Local revolts against the Caliphate were common and the most famous of these revolts was that Persian Khurramite movement.
Abbasid and Seljuqids
After the revolt of
Babak Khorramdinwho was a Zoroastrian of neo-Mazdakite background, the grip of the Abbasidcaliphate on Azerbaijan weakened, allowing native dynasties to rise in Azerbaijan. Later on Azerbaijan was taken by the Kurdish Daisamand the Daylamite Marzuban. The Daylamites were succeeded by the Kurdish Rawadids. After confrontations with the local Kurdish populations who had already established their own dynasties and emirates in vast areas of Azerbaijan, the Seljuksdominated the region in the 11th and early 12th centuries, at which point Turkification of the native populations began. In 1136, Azerbaijan fell to the lot of the Atabakan-e-Azerbaijan and Atabakan-e-Maragheh. It was invaded by the Khwarizm Shah Jalal ad-din until the advent of the Mongol invasions.
Mongol and Turkmen Period
Mongolsunder Hulagu Khanestablished their capital at Maragheh. The Safina-yi Tabrizis a book that describes the general intellectual condition of Tabriz during the Ilkhanidperiod. After being conquered by Timurin the 14th century, Tabrizbecame an important provincial capital of the Timurid empire. Later, Tabriz became the capital of the Qara Qoyunlu empire.
Safavid, Afghan interlude, Afshars and Qajar
It was out of
Ardabil(ancient Artavilla) that the Safavid dynastyarose to renew the state of Persia and establish Shi'ism as the official religion of Iran.After 1502, Azarbaijan became the chief bulwark and military based of the Safavids. In the meantime, between 1514 and 1603, the Ottomans frequently occupied Tabriz and other parts of the province. The Safavid control was restored by Shah Abbas but during the Afghan invasion (1722-8) the Ottomans recaptured Azerbaijan and other western provinces of Iran, until Nadir Shahexpelled them. In the beginning of the reign of Karim Khan Zand, the Afghan Azad Khan revolted in Azerbaijan and later the Dumbuli Kurds of khoyand other tribal chiefs ruled various parts of the territory. With the advent of the Qajars, Azerbaijan became the traditional residence of the heirs-apparent. At this time, the final northern frontier of Iran with Russia (along the Araxes) was established in 1828 ( Turkmanchay Treaty). After 1905 the representatives of Azerbaijan were very active in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.It was during this period that the Turkificationof Azari language accelerated. Gradually, Original Azari language, which was closely related to Persian, gave way to the language of Ruling Mongols.
The Russian (Tsarist) army occupied Iranian Azerbaijan in 1909, and again in 1912-1914 and 1915-1918 period,the Ottoman forces occupied her in 1914-1915 and 1918-1919 periods, the Bolshevik forces occupied Iranian Azerbaijan and other parts of Iran in 1920-1921, [ [http://www.iran-bulletin.org/ibMEF-2-completed/TheGilan%20Republic.htm Younes Parsa Benab, "The Gilan Soviet Republic and Azadistan in Iranian Azerbaijan (1917-1921)", accessed April 2, 2007] ] and the Soviet forces occupied Iranian Azerbaijan in
1941, createing a very short-lived autonomous, Soviet-supported state in May 1946, which was dissolved after reunification of Iranian Azerbaijan with Iran in November of the same year. Iranian Nationalism is partly the product of Azari Intellectuals. [For more information see: Ali Morshedizad,Roshanfekrane Azari va Hoviyate Melli va Ghomi (Azari Intellectuals and Their Attitude to Natinal and Ethnic Identity (Tehran: Nashr-e Markaz publishing co., 1380)] [http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?topic_id=1409&fuseaction=va2.browse&sort=Collection&item=1945%2D46%20Iranian%20Crisis Cold War International History Project Virtual Archive 2.0 Collection: 1945-46 Iranian Crisis] ] . Azerbaijani provinces have played a major in the cultural and economic life of Iran in both the Pahlavi era as well as the Islamic revolution.
Azerisare culturally very close to the rest of the Iranians though their language is Turkic. The people of Azerbaijan have similar DNA to other Iranian peoples [http://www.gen.cam.ac.uk/Research/balloux.htm "Maziar Ashrafian Bonab"] — "Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge" (retrieved 9 June 2006)] [ [http://www.isna.ir/Main/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-727489&Lang=P "Cambridge Genetic Study of Iran"] — "ISNA (Iranian Students News Agency)", 06-12-2006, news-code: 8503-06068 (retrieved 9 June 2006)] as well as their religion which is Shi'a Islam, which sets them apart from other Turkic speakers (who are mostly Sunni Muslims). Azeriscelebrate Nouruzfor the turn of the new Iranian year, the arrival of spring. Azerbaijan has a distinct music in Iran. Many local dances and folk music continue to survive among the various peoples of the provinces. Although Azerbaijanilanguage is not an official language it is widely used, mostly in an oral tradition, among the Azeris in Iran. Many poets that came from Azerbaijan wrote poetry in both Persian and Azerbaijani. Renowned poets in Azerbaijani languageare Nasimi, Shah Ismail I(who was known with the pen-name Khatai), Fuzuli, and Mohammad Hossein Shahriar. Fuzuli and Nasimi were probably born outside what is now Iranian Azerbaijan. Azerbaijaniwas the dominant language of the ruling dynasties of the Turkic rulers of the area such as the Ak Koyunluand later it was used in the Safavidcourts for a short time, until Persian was adopted, however, Turkic was used especially among the Kizilbashwarriors.Fact|date=February 2007 As a longstanding province of Iran ( Persia), Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literatureby Iran's greatest authors and poets. Examples:
گزیده هر چه در ایران بزرگان
زآذربایگان و ری و گرگان
All the nobles and greats of Iran,
Choose from Azerbaijan, Ray, and
Vis o Ramin"
از آنجا بتدبیر آزادگان
بیامد سوی آذرآبادگان
From there the wise and the free,
set off to Azerbaijan
به یک ماه در آذرآبادگان
ببودند شاهان و آزادگان
For a month's time, The Kings and The Free,
Would choose in Azerbaijan to be
Colleges and Universities
Sahand University of Technology
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
University of Tabriz
Urmia University of Medical Sciences
Ardabil University of Medical Sciences
Mohaghegh Ardabili University
* Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS)
Azarbaijan University of Tarbiat Moallem
Tabriz Islamic Arts University
University of Maragheh
Iranian theory regarding the origin of the Azerbaijanis
History of the name Azerbaijan
Ancient Azari language
Azeri cartoon controversy in the Iran newspaper
External links" [http://www.az.wikipedia.org Azerbaijani language edition] " of
* [http://www.bartleby.com/65/az/AzerbjIrn.html "Azerbaijan" ("Columbia Encyclopedia", 6th edition; 2001-05)]
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