Infobox River | river_name = Scheldt
caption = The Scheldt in
France, Belgium, Netherlands
length = 350 km (217 mi)
elevation = 95 m (312 ft)
discharge = 120 m³/s (4,238 ft³/s)
watershed = 21,860 km² (8,440 mi²)
The Scheldt (Dutch: "Schelde", French "Escaut", Latin "Scaldis") is a 350 km [http://www.scheldenet.nl/?url=/nl/schelde_en_natuur2/atlas/inleiding] long
riverin northern France, western Belgiumand the southwestern part of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from an adjective corresponding to Old English "sceald" "shallow", Modern English "shoal", Low German "schol", Frisian "skol", and Swedish "skäll" "thin".
The headwaters of the Scheldt are in
Gouy, in the Aisnedepartment of northern France. It flows north through Cambraiand Valenciennes, and enters Belgiumnear Tournai. In Ghent, where it receives the Lys, its main tributary, the Scheldt turns east. Near Antwerp, the largest city on its banks, the Scheldt flows west into the Netherlandstowards the North Sea.
Originally there were two branches from that point: the
Oosterschelde(Eastern Scheldt) and the Westerschelde(Western Scheldt) but in the 19th century the river was cut off from its eastern (actually: northern) branch by a dyke that connects Zuid-Bevelandwith the mainland ( North Brabant). Today the river therefore continues into the Westerschelde estuaryonly, passing Terneuzento reach the North Sea between Breskensin Zeeuws-Vlaanderenand Vlissingen (Flushing) on Walcheren.
The Scheldt is an important
waterway, and has been made navigable from its mouth up to Cambrai. The port of Antwerp, the second largest in Europe, lies on its banks. Several canals (including the Albert Canal) connect the Scheldt with the basins of the Rhine, Meuse and Seine, and with the industrial areas around Brussels, Liège, Lille, Dunkirkand Mons.
The Scheldt flows through the following
departments of France, provinces of Belgium, provinces of the Netherlandsand towns:
Cambrai, Denain, Valenciennes
West Flanders(B): Avelgem, Kortrijk, Harelbeke, Waregem
East Flanders(B): Oudenaarde, Ghent, Dendermonde, Temse
Zeeland(NL): Terneuzen, Flushing
The Scheldt estuary has always had considerable commercial and strategic importance. In Roman days it was important for the shipping lanes to
Britannia. The Frankstook control over the region around 260and at first interfered with the Roman supply routes as pirates. Later they became allies of the Romans. With the various divisions of the Frankish Empirein the 9th century, the Scheldt eventually became the border between the West and the East Empire, later named Franceand the Holy Roman Empire.
This status quo remained intact - at least on paper - until
1528, although by then both Flanderson the left bank and Zeeland and Brabant on the right were part of the Habsburgpossessions of the Seventeen Provinces. Antwerp was the most prominent harbor of Western Europe. After this city fell back under Spanish control in 1585the Dutch Republictook control of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen, a strip of land on the left shore, and closed the Scheldt for shipping. This shifted the trade to the ports of Amsterdamand Middelburgand seriously crippled Antwerp - an important and traumatic element in the history of relations between the Netherlands and what was to become Belgium.
Access to the river was the subject of the brief 1784 '
Kettle War', and - in the French Revolutionary era shortly afterwards - the river was reopened in 1792. Once Belgium had claimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1830the treaty of the Scheldt determined that the river should remain accessible to ships headed for Belgian ports.
World War IIthe estuary once again became a contested area. Despite allied control of Antwerp, in September 1944 German forces still occupied fortified positions throughout the Scheldt estuary west and north, preventing any allied shipping to the port. In the Battle of the Scheldt, the Canadian First Armysuccessfully cleared the area, allowing supply convoys direct access to the port of Antwerpby November 1944.
Tributaries and sub-tributaries
Western Scheldtor Honte ( Vlissingen)
Kleine Nete( Lier)
Grote Nete( Lier)
Molse Nete( Geel)
Grote Gete( Zoutleeuw)
Kleine Gete( Zoutleeuw)
Ruisseau d'Ancre( Lessines)
Eastern Dender( Ath)
Western Dender( Ath)
Deûle/Deule or Feule ( Deûlémont)
Lawe( De Gorge- Stegers)
****Brette, (Biette), Blanche, ruisseau de Caucourt, fossé d'Avesnes (Loisne)
Hogneauof Honneau ( Condé-sur-l'Escaut)
* [http://sandre.eaufrance.fr/app/chainage/courdo/htm/E---004-.php?cg=E---004- The Scheldt (Escaut) at the Sandre database]
* [http://www.scheldenet.nl/platform/modules/pagefiles/popup.php?file=/nl/schelde_en_natuur2/atlas/stroomgebied/Kaart_1.gifWater basin of the Scheldt]
* [http://www.scheldenet.nl www.scheldenet.nl]
* [http://www.scheldemonitor.org ScheldeMonitor; Research studies and monitoring activities]
* [http://www.deltaworks.org Deltaworks; Flood protection works in Scheldt Delta]
* [http://www.isc-cie.com International Scheldt Commission]
* [http://www.scaldit.org Scaldit - Interreg IV B NWE project for a safer and cleaner Scheldt River Basin District (FR - BE (Walloon Region - Brussels Cap. Region - Flemish Region) - NL)]
* [http://www.ppl.nl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=82 Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] Peace Palace Library
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Scheldt — [skhel′dəskelt] river flowing from N France through Belgium and the Netherlands into the North Sea: c. 270 mi (435 km): Du. name Schelde [skhel′də] … English World dictionary
SCHELDT — an important river of Belgium and Holland, rises in the French dep. of Aisne, and flows northwards past Cambrai (its highest navigable point) and Valenciennes, entering Belgium a little S. of Tournay and continuing northward, with Oudenarde,… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Scheldt — noun a river that rises in France and flows northeast across Belgium and empties into the North Sea • Syn: ↑Scheldt River • Instance Hypernyms: ↑river • Part Holonyms: ↑France, ↑French Republic, ↑Belgium, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Scheldt — geographical name see Schelde … New Collegiate Dictionary
Scheldt — /skelt/, n. a river in W Europe, flowing from N France through W Belgium and SW Netherlands into the North Sea. 270 mi. (435 km) long. Flemish, Schelde /skhel deuh/. French, Escaut. * * * … Universalium
Scheldt — noun River flowing through France, Belgium and The Netherlands … Wiktionary
Scheldt — river, N France, Belgium and the Netherlands; 270 mi. long … Webster's Gazetteer
Scheldt — [[t]skɛlt[/t]] n. geg a river in W Europe, flowing from N France through W Belgium and SW Netherlands into the North Sea. 270 mi. (435 km) long. Flemish, Schel•de [[t]ˈsxɛl də[/t]] French,Escaut … From formal English to slang
Scheldt — /ʃɛlt/ (say shelt) noun a river flowing from northern France through western Belgium and south western Netherlands into the North Sea. About 435 km. Flemish, Schelde /ˈskɛldə (say skelduh). French, Escaut … Australian English dictionary
Scheldt (Schelde) — River that has long been an important route of transport in the Low Countries. Other rivers in the same delta are the Rhine, Waal, and Meuse (Maas). During the Revolt against Spanish rule, the northern provinces were able to maintain an effec… … Historical Dictionary of the Netherlands