Infobox Military Test Site
name=Amchitka Underground Test Site
caption=Cannikin warhead being lowered into test shaft
map_caption=Location of the site
Nuclear testing range
United States Department of Energy
remediation=2001–2025 (DoE estimate)
Amchitka (pronEng|æmˈtʃɪtkə) (Amchixtax̂ [Bergsland, K "Aleut Dictionary" Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, 1994] in Aleut) is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the
Rat Islandsgroup of the Aleutian Islandsin southwest Alaska. It is about convert|68|km|mi|0|spell=us long, and varies from 3 to 6 km (2–3.75 mi) in width.cite web |url=http://www.dec.state.ak.us/air/am/rad/doc/Am_LTHMR97.pdf |title=Long Term Hydrological Monitoring Program |first=S. H. |last=Faller |coauthors=D. E. Farmer |publisher=Department of Energy |year=1997 |accessdate=2006-10-11|format=PDF] It has a maritime climate, with many storms, and mostly overcast skies.
The island was populated for more than 2,500 years by the
Aleutpeople, but has had no permanent population since 1832. It was included in the Alaska Purchaseof 1867, and has since been part of the United States. During World War II, it was used as an airfield by US forces in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands.
Amchitka was selected by the
United States Atomic Energy Commissionto be the site for underground detonations of nuclear weapons. Three such tests were carried out: "Long Shot", an 80 kilotonblast in 1965; "Milrow", a 1 megatonblast in 1969; and "Cannikin" in 1971ndash at "under 5 megatons", the largest underground test ever conducted by the United States. The tests were highly controversial, with environmental groups fearing that the "Cannikin" explosion, in particular, would cause severe earthquakes and tsunamis.
Amchitka is no longer used for nuclear testing, although it is monitored for the leakage of radioactive materials.
Amchitka is the southernmost of the Rat Islands group in the Aleutian Chain, located between coord|51|21|N|178|37|E and coord|51|39|N|179|29|E.cite web |url=http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/806659-8KjQem/native/806659.PDF
first=Ahmed |last=Hassan |coauthors=Karl Pohlmann, Jenny Chapman
title=Modeling Groundwater Flow and Transport of Radionuclides at Amchitka Island's Underground Nuclear Tests: Milrow, Long Shot, and Cannikin
accessdate=2006-10-09|format=PDF] It is bounded by the
Bering Seato the north and east, and the Pacific Oceanto the south and west.
The eastern part of the island is a lowland plateau, with isolated pondscite web |title=Amchitka Independent Assessment Science Plan |last=Powers |first=Charles W. |coauthors="et al" |publisher=CRESP Amchitka Oversight Committee |url=http://www.instrm.org/Amchitka_Final_Report/finalreport/01Append_intro/ApprovedAmchitkaSciencePlan.pdf] and gently rolling hills. There is low but abundant vegetation, consisting of mosses, lichens, liverworts, ferns, grasses, sedges, and crowberry. The centre of the island is mountainous, and the western end is barren and vegetation is sparse.
Amchitka has a maritime climate, often foggy and windswept, with cloud cover 98 percent of the time. While temperatures are moderated by the ocean, storms are frequent.cite conference |first=Michael O. |last=Giblin |coauthors=David C. Stahl, Jodi A. Bechtel |title=Surface remediation in the Aleutian Islands: A case study of Amchitka Island, Alaska |booktitle=WM '02 Conference, Tucson AZ, February 24–28, 2002 |url=http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/833145-KwaGYY/native/833145.pdf |accessdate=2006-10-07|format=PDF] Geologically, the island is volcanic, being a part of a small crustal block on the Aleutian Volcanic Arc that is being torn apart by oblique
subduction. It is "one of the least stable tectonic environments in the United States."cite web |url=http://www.geotimes.org/mar02/feature_amchitka.html
first=John |last=Eichelberger |coauthors=Jeff Freymueller, Graham Hill, Matt Patrick
title=Nuclear Stewardship: Lessons from a Not-So-Remote Island
The human history of Amchitka dates back at least 2,500 years, with the
Aleutpeople. [Miller states "at least 9,000 years" (see Miller, Pam, "Nuclear Flashback")] Human remains, thought to be of an Aleut and dating from about 1000 AD, were discovered in 1980.cite web |url=http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/14mar20010800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2003/pdf/03-29766.pdf |title=Federal Register: Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 7, Anchorage, AK
Amchitka is said to have been seen and named St Makarius by Bering in 1741, was sighted by Billings in 1790, and visited by Shishmaref in 1820.cite book |last=Baker |first=Marcus |title=Geographic Dictionary of Alaska (Bulletin of the United States Geological Survey, no 187, Series F, Geography, 27) |publisher=Government Printing Office |location=Washington |year=1902 |url=http://www.dggs.dnr.state.ak.us/scan2/b/text/B0187.PDF |accessdate=2006-10-09|format=PDF]
In 1783, 15
Japanese castaways led by Daikokuya Kōdayūlanded on the island. Within three years, six died there. The castaways were under the protection of Russian workers whose leader was Nevisimov (ネビジモフ), an employee of a furrier in Moscow named Vassily Yakovlevic Zhigarev(ヴァシリー・ヤコブレヴィチ・ジガーレフ). The Japanese voluntarily started to work with Aleut people and observed a relationship between Russians and Aleuts.After they got back to Japan, one castaway, Isokichi (磯吉), told a Japanese scholar : "Russians robbed furs that Aleuts got. If they got angry at Russians and did not get any furs or got few furs, the man got beaten nearly to death. If one man did not obey orders by Russians, he would be killed." The furs were divided into thirds between the Russian Empire, Vassily Zhigarev, and the workers. Together with some Russians, nine castaways (and a cat) escaped from the island in 1787 on a new ship that they built from driftwood and nails.
Russian trappers and traders established settlements on the islands, exploiting the indigenous people,cite web |url=http://columbia.thefreedictionary.com/Aleutian+Islands |title=Aleutian Islands |publisher=Columbia University Press |year=2005 |accessdate=2006-10-08] whose population on the island quickly fell. From 1832, the island was never permanently inhabited, and by the time of World War II, an abandoned Russian fishing village was all that remained.cite web |url=http://www.lm.doe.gov/documents/sites/ak/amchitka/factsheet/amchitka.pdf |title=Amchitka, Alaska, Site Fact Sheet |publisher=Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management |accessdate=2006-10-07|format=PDF] The islands were surveyed by the North Pacific Exploring Expedition in 1855, and were included in the
Alaska Purchaseof 1867. In 1913, President William Taftset aside the Aleutian chain, including Amchitka, as a wildlife preserve. The Native residents of Atka leased the island for fox hunting in 1920, and continued to use the island until the Japanese invasion of the western Aleutians in 1942.
According to what Aleut people told Japanese castaways, otters were decreasing year by year and their share in return of furs they made also were decreasing as Russian ships stopped coming to the island. The castaways felt that the people had a sense of crisis to their situation.
Negotiations and revolt
In May of 1784, according to
Hokusa bunryaku(北槎聞略) written by Katsuragawa Hoshūinterviewing Daikokuya Kōdayū, local people revolted against the Russians. There were some negotiations with higher Aleut people about necessities that the Russians had run out of and that they had given to Aleuts in return for furs. After that, by Nevizimov's order, two Russians, Stepano(ステッパノ) and Kazhimov(カジモフ), killed the chieftain's daughter and Nevizimov's mistress, Oniishin(オニイシン), because Russians had doubted that Oniishin pushed islanders' back. That evening, hundreds of Aleuts started gathering on a mountain and marched to the Russians' houses. Five Russians opened fire, and Aleuts ran away. They attempted another attack the next day. They yelled and moved more quickly towards the house. Nevertheless, as Russians opened fire, they started to run away again. After they ran, Russians noticed that all the men were discussing their act on a mountain. The Russians took around forty women and children hostage while the men were not in the village. The Aleuts surrendered. Four higher Aleut people had been executed.After the incident, the Aleuts began to move from Amchitka to neighboring islands.The leader of the Russians, Nevizimov was jailed after the whole incident was reported to Russian officials.Yamashita, Tsuneo "Daikokuya Kodayu"(Japanese) 2004. Iwanami, Japan ISBN 4004308798]
World War II
In June 1942, the Japanese occupied some of the western Aleutian islands, and hoped to occupy Amchitka.cite book |last=Conn |first=Stetson |title=Guarding the United States and its outposts |publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History |year=2000 |id=CMH 4-2, Library of Congress no 62-60067 |url=http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/Guard-US/ch10.htm |accessdate=2006-10-09] Eager to remove the Japanese, the
Joint Chiefs of Staffagreed to move quickly to regain the territory. American planners decided to build a series of airfields to the west of Umnak, from which bombers could attack the invading forces.cite book |last=MacGarrigle |first=George L. |title=The Campaigns of World War II: Aleutian Islands |publisher=U.S. Army Center of Military History |year=2003 |month=October |id=CMH Pub 72-6, paper, GPO S/N 008-029-00232-9 |url=http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/brochures/aleut/aleut.htm |accessdate=2006-10-07]
The U.S. Army established bases at Adak and 13 other locations. At the War Department's suggestion, an initial reconnaissance of Amchitka was carried out in September 1942, which found that it would be difficult to build an airstrip on the island. Nevertheless, planners decided on December 13 that the airfield "had to be built" to prevent the Japanese from doing the same. A further reconnaissance mission visited Amchitka from 17–19 December, and reported that a fighter strip could be built in two to three weeks, and a main airfield in three to four months.
The plan would go ahead. American forces made an unopposed landing on Amchitka on
January 12, 1943, although the destroyer USS|Worden|DD-352|3 grounded and sank with the loss of 14 lives. Despite facing difficult weather conditions and bombing from the Japanese,the airfield was usable by February 16. The Alaska Command was now convert|80|km|mi|0|abbr=on away from their target, Kiska. The military eventually built numerous buildings, roads, and a total of three airstrips on the island, some of which would later be renovated and used by the Atomic Energy Commission.cite web |url=http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4019027 |title=Environmental Statement Cannikin |publisher=Atomic Energy Commission |accessdate=2006-10-11] At its peak, the occupancy of Amchitka reached 15,000 troops.
The Aleutian Islands campaign was successfully completed on
August 24, 1943. In that month, a strategic intercept station was established on the island, which remained until February 1945.cite web |url=http://www.nsa.gov/cch/cch00005.cfm |title=Pre-1952 Historical Timeline |publisher=National Security Agency |accessdate=2006-10-07] The Army abandoned the site in August 1950.cite web |url=http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/758922-sfDXiQ/webviewable/758922.pdf |title=Amchitka Island, Alaska: Potential U.S. Department of Energy site responsibilities (DOE/NV-526) |month=December |year=1998 |publisher=Department of Energy |accessdate=2006-10-09|format=PDF] The site later hosted an Air Force weather station in the 1950s, a White Alice telecommunication system in 1959 to 1961, and a temporary relay station in the 1960s and 1970s.
Plans for nuclear testing
The Department of Defense initially considered the island for nuclear testing planned for 1951. Requiring information about the cratering potential of
nuclear weapons, plans were made to detonate two 20-kiloton devices. After drilling approximately 34 test holes, the site was deemed unsuitable, and the project was moved to the Nevada test site.
In the late 1950s, scientists realised that improved seismological knowledge was necessary for the detection of Soviet underground nuclear explosions.cite journal |last=Barth |first=Kai-Henrik |year=2003 |title=The politics of seismology: Nuclear testing, arms control, and the transformation of a discipline |journal=Social Studies of Science |volume=33 |issue=5 |pages=743–781 |doi=10.1177/0306312703335005 |accessdate=2006-10-08 ] The 1.7
kiloton"Rainier" test (part of Operation Plumbbob, performed elsewhere) produced strong seismic signals, but looked much like an ordinary earthquake. In 1959, Dr. James R. Killian, the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, formed the Panel on Seismic Improvement (which subsequently recommended the program that came to be known as Vela Uniform), with the twin goals of improving seismic instruments and deploying them globally, and researching in more depth the seismic effects of nuclear explosions.cite book |last=Van der Vink |first=Gregory E. |coauthors="et al" |title=Nuclear testing and nonproliferation: The role of seismology in deterring the development of nuclear weapons |publisher=The Iris Consortium |year=1994 |month=February |url=http://www.iris.iris.edu/HQ/Bluebook/chapter2.lessons.html |accessdate=2006-10-08] The project was subsequently initiated by the Eisenhower administration.
Long Shot test
To conduct the Vela Uniform test on the island, "Long Shot", the Department of Defense occupied Amchitka from 1964 to 1966, with the AEC providing the device, measuring instruments, and scientific support. The goal was "to determine the behavior and characteristics of seismic signals generated by nuclear detonations and to differentiate them from seismic signals generated by naturally occurring earthquakes."cite web |url=http://web.em.doe.gov/closure/pbs/nv.html |title=Project Baseline Report (NVNO0227)
Although it would not be publicly announced until
18 March, 1965, senior Alaskan officials were notified the previous February.cite book |last=Kohlhoff |first=Dean W. |title=Amchitka and the Bomb |publisher=University of Washington Press |month=November |year=2002 |id=ISBN 0-295-98255-1] After the devastating Great Alaska Earthquake of 27 March, 1964, the governor expressed concern about the psychological effects of the test on the populace. He was quickly reassured.
"Long Shot" was detonated on
October 29, 1965, and the yield was 80 kilotons. It was the first underground test in a remote area, and the first test managed by the DoD. While there was no surface collapse, tritiumand kryptonwere found at the surface following the test;cite web |url=http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/press/reports/nuclear-flashback.pdf
first=Pam |last=Miller |title=Nuclear Flashback: Report of a Greenpeace Scientific Expedition to Amchitka Island, Alaska – Site of the Largest Underground Nuclear Test in U.S. History |accessdate=2006-10-09|format=PDF] this was not made public until 1969.
Milrow and Cannikin tests
Though performed as part of the Nuclear Weapons Testing Program, " [the] purpose of the "Milrow" test was to test an island, not a weapon."cite web |url=http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/film.aspx?ID=26
title=The Milrow Test (DOE Historical Test Film 800040)
accessdate=2006-10-09] It was a "calibration shot", intended to produce data from which the impact of larger explosions could be predicted, and specifically, to determine whether the planned "Cannikin" shot could be performed safely. "Milrow" was detonated on
2 October, 1969, with an approximate yield of 1 to 1.2 megatons. [See Miller "Nuclear Flashback" or Schneider "Amchitka's nuclear legacy".] (
The shockwave reached the surface with an acceleration of over 35g, causing a dome of the earth's surface, approximately convert|3|km|mi|0|abbr=on in radius, to rise about 5 metres.cite journal |last=Merritt |first=Merritt |year=1971 |month=June |title=Ground Shock and Water Pressures from Milrow |journal=BioScience |volume=21 |issue=12 |pages=696–700 |doi=10.2307/1295751 |accessdate=2006-10-11] The blast "turned the surrounding sea to froth" and "forced geysers of mud and water from local streams and lakes convert|50|ft|m|0 into the air"cite web |url=http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/press/reports/nuclear-flashback.pdf
title=Nuclear Flashback: Report of a Greenpeace Scientific Expedition to Amchitka Island, Alaska – Site of the Largest Underground Nuclear Test in U.S. History |accessdate=2006-10-09|format=PDF] A "surface collapse feature," also known as a subsidence crater, was formed by material collapsing into the cavity formed by the explosion.
"Cannikin" was intended to test the design of the Spartan
anti-ballistic missile(ABM) interceptor – a high-yield warhead that "produced copious amounts of x-rays and minimized fission output and debris to prevent blackout of ABM radar systems."cite web |url=http://www.llnl.gov/50th_anniv/decades/1970s.htm
title=Accomplishments in the 1970s: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory |accessdate=2006-10-09] The test would "measure the yield of the device, measure the x-ray flux and spectrum, and assure deployment of a reliable design."cite web |url=http://www.uaf.edu/news/featured/06/amchitka/index.html
first=Doug |last=Schneider |publisher=University of Alaska Fairbanks |title=Amchitka's nuclear legacy |accessdate=2006-10-09]
A few days after the "Milrow" test, the
Don't Make A Wave Committeewas organized at a meeting in Vancouver. On the agenda was whether to fight another blast at the island, or whether to expand their efforts to fight all perceived threats against the environment. As he was leaving, one man gave the traditional farewell of the peace-activist movement, "Peace." "Make it a green peace," replied another member. The Committee would later become Greenpeace.The Greenpeace Story in: cite book |url=http://www.discovervancouver.com/GVB/grn_peace.asp
title=The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopedia
The Committee's name referred to predictions made by a Vancouver journalist named Bob Hunter, later to become Greenpeace member 000. He wrote that the test would cause earthquakes and a tsunami.cite web |url=http://society.guardian.co.uk/voluntary/story/0,7890,1476047,00.html
date=2005-05-04 |publisher=The Guardian |title=The original Mr Green |accessdate=2006-10-11] The AEC considered the likelihood of the test triggering a severe earthquake "very unlikely," unless one was already imminent on a nearby fault, and considered a tsunami "even more unlikely."
Russell Train, then Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality, argued that "experience with "Milrow" ... does not provide a sure basis for extrapolation. In the highly nonlinear phenomena involved in earthquake generation, there may be a threshold value of the strain that must be exceeded prior to initiation of a large earthquake. ... The underground explosion could serve as the first domino of the row of dominoes leading to a major earthquake. ... as in the case of earthquakes it is not possible at this time to assess quantitatively the probability of a tsunami following the explosion."cite web |url=http://supreme.justia.com/us/404/917/case.html
date=1971-11-06 |publisher=US Supreme Court |title=COMMITTEE FOR NUCLEAR RESPONSIBILITY, INC. v. SCHLESINGER , 404 U.S. 917 (1971) |accessdate=2006-10-11]
In July 1971, a group called the "Committee for Nuclear Responsibility" filed suit against the AEC, asking the court to stop the test.cite web |url=http://jcgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905376,00.html
date=1971-07-17 |publisher=TIME |title=Round 2 at Amchitka |accessdate=2006-10-09] The suit was unsuccessful, with the Supreme Court denying the injunction by 4 votes to 3,cite web |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,903217,00.html
title=The Amchitka Bomb Goes Off |date=1971-11-15 |publisher=TIME |accessdate=2006-10-09] and
Richard Nixonpersonally authorised the $200 million test, in spite of objections from Japan, Peru, and Sweden.cite web |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,877386,00.html
title=Green Light on Cannikin |date=1971-11-08 |publisher=TIME |accessdate=2006-10-09] The "Don't Make A Wave Committee" chartered a boat, in which they had intended to sail to the island in protest, but due to weather conditions they were unable to reach their destination.
"Cannikin" was detonated on
6 November, 1971. The announced yield was "less than five" megatons – the largest underground nuclear test in US history. (Estimates for the precise yield range from 4.4cite journal|title=Yields of Soviet Underground Nuclear Explosions at Novaya Zemlya, 1964–1976, from Seismic Body and Surface Waves |first=Lynn R. |last=Sykes |coauthors=Graham C. Wiggins |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |month=January |year=1986 |volume=83 |issue=2|doi=10.1073/pnas.83.2.201|pages=201|pmid=16593645] to 5.2cite web |url=http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/NMD/alaska/greely/fritz1.htm |title=The Role of National Missile Defense in the Environmental History of Alaska |first=Stacey |last=Fritz |publisher=University of Alaska Fairbanks |month=April |year=2000] Megatons). The ground lifted convert|20|ft|m|0, caused by an explosive force equivalent almost 400 times the power of the Hiroshimabomb.cite web |url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2001/12/17/MN12230.DTL&type=printable |title=Blast from the past: Researchers worry that radiation from nuclear test decades ago may be damaging marine life today
first=David |last=Perlman |date=2001-12-17 |accessdate=2006-10-11] Subsidence and faulting at the site created a new lake, over a mile wide. The explosion caused a seismic shock of 7.0 on the Richter scale, causing rockfalls and turf slides of a total of convert|35000|sqft|m2|-2. Though earthquakes and tsunamis predicted by environmentalists did not occur, a number of small tectonic events did occur in the following weeks, thought to be due to the interaction of the explosion with local tectonic stresses.cite journal|title=Seismic effects of the MILROW and CANNIKIN nuclear explosions |first=E. R. |last=Engdahl |journal=Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America |month=December |year=1972 |volume=62 |issue=6 |pages=1411–1423]
1973 and beyond
The DoE withdrew from the island in 1973, though scientists continued to visit the island for monitoring purposes. In 2001, the DoE returned to the site to remove environmental contamination. Drilling mud pits were stabilized by mixing with clean soil, covering with a polyester membrane, topped with soil and re-seeded.
Concerns have been expressed that new fissures may be opening underground, allowing radioactive materials to leak into the ocean. A 1996 Greenpeace study found that "Cannikin" was leaking both
plutoniumand americiuminto the environment, though a 2004 University of Alaska, Fairbanks study reported that "There were no indications of any radioactive leakage, and all that was really wonderful news." Similar findings are reported by a 2006 study, which found that levels of plutonium were "were very small and not significant biologically".cite journal|first=J |last=Burger |coauthors="et al" |title=Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring |journal=J Environ Radioact |month=Oct |year=2006 |pmid=17029666 |doi=10.1016/j.jenvrad.2006.08.003 |volume=91 |pages=27]
The Department of Energy continues to monitor the site as part of their remediation program. This is expected to continue until 2025, after which the site is intended to become a restricted access wildlife preserve.cite web|url=http://web.em.doe.gov/bemr96/ainp.html |title=Amchitka Island |publisher=Department of Energy |accessdate=2006-10-11]
Notes and references
* Hunter, Robert. "The Greenpeace to Amchitka An Environmental Odyssey". Vancouver, B.C.: Arsenal Pulp Press, 2004. ISBN 1551521784
* Kohlhoff, Dean. "Amchitka and the Bomb Nuclear Testing in Alaska". Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 2002. ISBN 0295982551
* Sense, Richard G., and Roger J. Desautels. "Amchitka Archaeology Progress Reports". Las Vegas, Nev: Holmes & Narver, Inc.?, 1970.
* [http://tpr.typepad.com/thepeacockreport/2006/03/energy_dept_pla.html "Energy Dept. Planning to Re-Check Alaskan Nuke Site for Potential Leaking"] , ThePeacockReport.com,
March 10, 2006
* [http://dd352.us/ Home page of USS Worden (DD 352)] A U.S. Navy destroyer that sank during the landing at Amchitka, 12 January 1943. Contains eyewitness accounts of the landings.
"The following links are to Department of Energy films about the Amitchka test facility. The videos include footage of the tests."
* [http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/film.aspx?ID=24 The Amchitka Program] ( [http://youtube.com/watch?v=s1XFHSKXLDk full video] )
* [http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/film.aspx?ID=25 Project Long Shot] ( [http://youtube.com/watch?v=EHSPqw8NdG4 full video] )
* [http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/film.aspx?ID=26 The Milrow Test] ( [http://youtube.com/watch?v=77CqV0a9vek full video] )
* [http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/film.aspx?ID=27 Project Cannikin Review] ( [http://youtube.com/watch?v=OMmFy4NdA8s full video] )
* [http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/films/other.aspx?ID=98 Amchitka Island Remediation Activities]
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