United States Ambassador to Botswana


United States Ambassador to Botswana

Until the 19th century, the area of southern Africa that is now Botswana was inhabited by the Batswana (or "Tswana") people. The name was commonly spelled and pronounced as "Bechuana" and the area was thus called Bechuanaland by Europeans.

In the late 19th century, hostilities broke out between the Shona inhabitants of Batswana and Ndebele tribes who were migrating into the territory from the Kalahari Desert. Tensions also escalated with the Boer settlers from the Transvaal. Batswana leaders Khama III, Bathoen, and Sebele appealed to the government of Great Britain for assistance, so the British Government put Bechuanaland under its protection on March 31, 1885. The northern territory remained under direct administration as the Bechuanaland Protectorate which is now the nation of Botswana, while the southern territory became part of the Cape Colony and is now part of the northwest province of South Africa.

The Bechuanaland Protectorate was one of the High Commission Territories, the others being Basutoland (now Lesotho) and Swaziland. The official with the authority of a Governor was the High Commissioner.

The British government originally expected to turn over administration of the protectorate to Rhodesia or South Africa, but Tswana opposition left the protectorate under British rule until independence in 1966. When the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910 out of the main British colonies in the region, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Basutoland, and Swaziland were not included, but provision was made for their later incorporation. However, a vague undertaking was given to consult their inhabitants, and although successive South African governments sought to have the territories transferred, Britain kept delaying, and it never occurred. The election of the National Party government in South Africa in 1948, which instituted apartheid, and South Africa’s withdrawal from the British Commonwealth in 1961, ended any prospect of incorporation of the territories into South Africa.

In June 1964, Britain accepted proposals for democratic self-government in Botswana. The seat of government was moved from Mafikeng in South Africa, to newly established in Gaberones (now Gaborone) in 1965. The 1965 constitution led to the first general elections and to independence on September 30, 1966.

The United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. An embassy in Gaberones was established on September 30, 1966—independence day for Botswana. Charles H. Pletcher was appointed as _fr. Chargé d'affaires "ad interim" pending the appointment of an ambassador.

Ambassadors

*Note: Charles H. Pletcher served as chargé d’affaires September 1966–June 1970. W. Kennedy Cromwell III served June 1970–September 1971.
*Note: Until 1979 one ambassador, resident at Gaborone, was accredited to Botswana, Swaziland, and Lesotho.
*Charles J. Nelson – Political appointee
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: June 9, 1971
**Presented credentials: November 3, 1971
**Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, March 2, 1974
*David B. Bolen – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: February 28, 1974
**Presented credentials: April 22, 1974
**Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, August 11, 1976
*Donald R. Norland – Career FSONorland was commissioned during a recess of the Senate and recommissioned after confirmation on June 24, 1977.]
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: November 17, 1976
**Presented credentials: February 23, 1978
**Terminated mission: Left Gaborone, September 8, 1979
*Note: In 1979 the first ambassador was appointed solely for Botswana.
*Horace Dawson – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: October 12, 1979
**Presented credentials: November 27, 1979
**Terminated mission: Left post August 27, 1982
*Theodore C. Maino – Political appointee
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: September 30, 1982
**Presented credentials: December 2, 1982
**Terminated mission: Left post, September 6, 1985
*Natale H. Bellochi – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: October 28, 1985
**Presented credentials: November 19, 1985
**Terminated mission: Left post, September 16, 1988
*John Florian Kordek – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: August 11, 1988
**Presented credentials: September 29, 1988
**Terminated mission: Left post, November 1, 1989
*David Passage – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: June 27, 1990
**Presented credentials: August 7, 1990
**Terminated mission: Left post, April 29, 1993
*Howard Franklin Jeter – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: July 16, 1993
**Presented credentials: September 9, 1993
**Terminated mission: Left post, June 21, 1996
*Robert Krueger – Political appointee
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: June 6, 1996
**Presented credentials: July 23, 1996
**Terminated mission: Left post December 6, 1999
*John E. Lange – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: November 16, 1999
**Presented credentials: December 15, 1999
**Terminated mission: Left post August 8, 2002
*Joseph Huggins – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: November 15, 2002
**Presented credentials: January 28, 2003
**Terminated mission: Left post, July 26, 2005
*Emil M. Skodon – Career FSOHuggins’ nomination was not acted upon by the Senate.]
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed:
**Presented credentials:
**Terminated mission:
*Katherine H. P. Canavan – Career FSO
**Title: Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
**Appointed: August 2, 2005
**Presented credentials: September 27, 2005
**Terminated mission: "Incumbent"

Notes

References

*Botswana
*Bechuanaland
*Bechuanaland Protectorate
* [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/po/com/10395.htm United States Department of State: Ambassadors to Botswana]
* [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1830.htm United States Department of State: Background notes on Botswana]
*StateDept

ee also

*Ambassadors from the United States
*Foreign relations of Botswana
*History of Botswana

External links

* [http://gaborone.usembassy.gov/ United States Embassy in Gaborone]
* [http://foia.state.gov/MMS/KOH/key_country.asp?ID=Botswana United States Department of State: Key Officers of Foreign Service Posts: Botswana]


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