Kashmiri Muslim tribes from Hindu Lineage


Kashmiri Muslim tribes from Hindu Lineage

Kashmiri Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of Kashmiri cultural anthropology. Hindu and Muslim Kashmiri people living in the state of Jammu AND Kashmir in India, and other parts of the world possess a wide range of likeness and parallel that lead to tracking Kashmiri kinship and descent. .

Kashmiri Descent groups

A significant section of the Kashmiri community or people from the Kashmir region speaking Kashmiri language form a descent group social group whose members claim common ancestry. With patrilineal descent,Kashmiri individuals belong to their father's descent group.

Both the Kashmiri Hindus and Muslim society reckons descent patrilineally .For instance, certain property and titles may be inherited through the male line, however there are instances also where certain inheritances may accrue and others through the female line.

Kashmiri Lineages, clans, phratries and moieties

Kashmiri lineage as a descent group demonstrate a common descent from an apical ancestor. Kashmiri Hindu and Muslim Lineages are patrilineal, traced through fathers .The prevalence of common clan , family, and surnames among contemporary Hindu and Muslim Kashmiri groups is indicative of a common descent group .

Several Kashmiri Pundit and Muslim clan are a descent group that claims common descent from an apical ancestor (but often cannot demonstrate it, or "stipulated descent"). Examples of other such clans are Scottish, Irish, Tlingit, Chechen, Chinese and Japanese clans.

Kashmiri Hindu and Muslim phratry are a descent group containing at least two clans which have a supposed common ancestor.

Therefore Kashmiri society divided into exactly two descent groups, and each could be called a moiety, after the French word for "half".

Etymology

The name "Kashmir" means "desiccated land" (from the Sanskrit: "Ka" = water and "shimeera" = desiccate). According to Hindu mythology, Sage Kashyapa drained a lake to produce the land now known as Kashmir.

Conversion of Hindus in the valley

Early history

For a better understanding of the common kinship of Muslim and Hindu Kashmiris a brief introduction to the history of the region is important . According to Mahabharata evidence [MBH 7.4.5.] , the Kambojas had ruled over Kashmir during epic times and that it was a Republican system of government under the Kamboj [MBH 7/91/39-40.] . The capital city of Kashmir during epic times was Rajapura i.e Karna-Rajapuram-gatva-Kambojah-nirjitastava [ Mahabharata 7.4.5] . Epic Rajapura has been identified with modern Rajauri [Watters, Yuan Chawang, Vol I, p 284.] . Later, the Panchalas are stated to have established their sway. The name "Peer Panjal", which is a part of modern Kashmir, is a witness to this fact. Panjal is simply a distorted form of the Sanskritic tribal term Panchala. The Muslims had prefixed the word " peer " to it in memory of one Siddha Faqir and the name thence-after is said to have changed into Peer Panjal. See Link: [http://www.koausa.org/Crown/fountain.html] .

The Mauryan emperor Ashoka is often credited with having founded the city of Srinagar. Kashmir was once a Buddhist seat of learning, perhaps with the Sarvāstivādan school dominating. East and Central Asian Buddhist monks are recorded as having visited the kingdom. In the late 4th century AD, the famous Kuchanese monk Kumārajīva, born to an Indian noble family, studied Dīrghāgama and Madhyāgama in Kashmir under Bandhudatta. He later becoming a prolific translator who helped take Buddhism to China. His mother Jīva is thought to have retired to Kashmir. Vimalākṣa, a Sarvāstivādan Buddhist monk, travelled from Kashmir to Kucha and there instructed Kumārajīva in the "Vinayapiṭaka".

Muslim rule

In the 13th century, Islam first became the dominant religion in Kashmir. The Muslims and Hindus of Kashmir lived in relative harmony, since the Sufi-Islamic way of life that ordinary Muslims followed in Kashmir complemented the Rishi tradition of Kashmiri Pandits. This led to a syncretic culture where Hindus and Muslims revered the same local saints and prayed at the same shrines. Famous Sufi saint Bulbul Shah was able to persuade the king of the time Rinchan Shah who was prince of Kashgar Ladakh, through his intellectual power to adopt Islamic way of life and the foundation of Sufiana composite culture was laid when Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists were co-existing in the atmosphere of love and brotherhood.

Some Kashmiri rulers, such as Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, were tolerant of all religions in a manner comparable to Akbar. However, several Muslim rulers of Kashmir were intolerant to other religions.

The Histories

The metrical chronicle of the kings of Kashmir, called "Rajatarangini," has been pronounced by Professor H.I.Wilson to be the only Sanskrit composition yet discovered to which the appellation "history" can with any propriety be applied. It first became known to the Muslims when, on Akbar's invasion of Kashmir in 1588, a copy was presented to the emperor. A translation into Persian was made at his order. A summary of its contents, taken from this Persian translation, is given by Abul Fazl in the "Ain-i-Akbari". The "Rajatarangini" was written by Kalhana about the middle of the 12th century. His work, in six books, makes use of earlier writings that are now lost.

The "Rajatarangini" is the first of a series of four histories that record the annals of Kashmir. Commencing with a rendition of traditional history of very early times, the "Rajatarangini" comes down to the reign of Sangrama Deva, ("c."1006 AD). The second work, by Jonaraja, continues the history from where Kalhana left off, and, entering the Muslim period, gives an account of the reigns down to that of Zain-ul-ab-ad-din, 1412. P. Srivara carried on the record to the accession of Fah Shah in 1486. The fourth work, called "Rajavalipataka", by Prajnia Bhatta, completes the history to the time of the incorporation of Kashmir in the dominions of the Mogul emperor Akbar, 1588.

Common Hindu and Muslim clan names

The Settlement commissioner , Kashmir and Jammu State Walter R Lawrence ICS recorded the Gotras and Kram system of the Kashmiri Pandits in 1895 .Owing to Conversions of Kashmiri Pandits from Hinduism to Islam in Kashmir many of the names from the Hindu gotras and Krams are common to Kashmiri Muslims .

Conversion of Kashmiri Hindus to Islam

After the advent of Islam into Kashmir a traditional centre of Buddhist and Hindu religions conversion of Hindus to Islam has resulted in numerically significant population of the Kashmiri Muslims being descendants of Hindus . The prevalence of common Kashmiri Pandit family names among contemporary Kashmiri Muslims is indicative of Hindu lineage.

Kashmiri Pandit family names Common family names among Kashmiri Pandits include: Handoo, Aga, Atal, Bandhu, Bhan, Bagati, Bhat/Butt/Bhatt, Budki(Burki), Chowdhury, Dhar(Dar), Dass(Das), Dassi, Dulloo, Ganju(Ganjoo), Kaw, Gurtu,Hak, Haksar, Hangal, Hangoo, Hoon, Jaju, Jalali, Kachru(Kachroo), Kak, Kar, Kappu, Katju, Kaul(Koul), Kaw, Kemmu, Khar, Kasid Kher, Khosa, Kitchlu(Kitchlew), Kunzru, Langoo, Malla, Mantoo, Mattoo, Mukoo,Muthoo, Misri, Natu, Nehru, Ogra, Pandit, Pandita, Parimoo, Qasba, Raina, Rayu, Razdan, Reu, Sadhu, Sapru, Shah, Shivpuri, Shrunglu, Shunglu, Tangnu, Thusoo, Tikoo,Wakhlu, Wanchoo/Wanchu, Wantoo/Wantu, Warikoo, Wattal, Wattoo, Zalpuri, Zaroo and Zutshi.

Many of these names are also shared by Kashmiri Muslims.

Kashmiri Muslim tribes from Hindu Lineage

Handoo

Bagati

Bhan

Bhatt

Butt

Burki

Dhar(Dar)

Dar (tribe)

Sapru

Kitchlew

Qasba

Muslim Khatris

cquote|Conversions from Hindus in Kashmir also happened among the Khatris .
There are still Khatris in Srinagar known as Bohras and engaged in trade, who are cut off from Communion with the Khatris of the Punjab , and there are certain Musalman tribes who trace their origins to Khatri ancestors " [ The Valley of Kashmir by Walter R Lawrence Page 302 published by Asian Educational Services ]

hekh

Lohar

Mian

References

See also

* History of Jammu and Kashmir
* Dynasties of ancient Kashmir
* Azad Kashmir
* Kashmiri Pandit
* Butt
* Sikandar Butshikan
* Sudhun
* Sahaj Ram Sapru
* List of Kashmiris


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