- Wild Hunt
The Wild Hunt is an ancient folk myth prevalent across Northern, Western and Central Europe. The fundamental premise in all instances is the same: a phantasmal, spectral group of huntsmen with the accoutrements of hunting, horses, hounds, etc., in mad pursuit across the skies or along the ground, or just above it.
The hunters may be the dead or the fairies (often in folklore connected with the dead). The hunter may be an unidentified lost soul, a deity or spirit of either gender, or may be a historical or legendary figure like Theodoric the Great, the Danish king Valdemar Atterdag, the Welsh psychopomp Gwyn ap Nudd or the Germanic Woden (or other reflections of the same god, such as Alemannic Wuodan in Wuotis Heer ("Wuodan's Host") of Central Switzerland, Swabia etc.)
It has been variously referred to as Wilde Jagd (German: "wild hunt/chase") or Wildes Heer (German: "wild host"), Herlaþing (Old English: "Herla's assembly"), Woden's Hunt, Herod's Hunt, Cain's Hunt, the Devil's Dandy Dogs (in Cornwall), Gabriel's Hounds (in northern England), Ghost Riders (in North America), Mesnée d'Hellequin (Old North French: "household of Hellequin"), Cŵn Annwn (Welsh: "hounds of Annwn"), divoká honba or štvaní (Czech: "wild hunt", "baiting"), Dziki Gon or Dziki Łów (Polish), Oskoreia or Åsgårdsreia (Norwegian: "ride of Asgard"), Estantiga (from Hoste Antiga, Galician: "the old army"), Hostia, Compaña and Santa Compaña ("troop, company") in Galicia, and güestia in Asturias.
Seeing the Wild Hunt was thought to presage some catastrophe such as war or plague, or at best the death of the one who witnessed it. Mortals getting in the path of or following the Hunt could be kidnapped and brought to the land of the dead. A girl who saw Wild Edric's Ride was warned by her father to put her apron over her head to avoid the sight. Others believed that people's spirits could be pulled away during their sleep to join the cavalcade.
In Germany, where it was also known as the "Wild Army", or "Furious Army", its leader was given various identities, including Wodan (or "Woden"), Knecht Ruprecht (cf. Krampus), Berchtold (or Berchta), and Holda (or "Holle"). The Wild Hunt is also known from post-medieval folklore.
The ritual re-enactment of the Wild Hunt was a cultural phenomenon among many Gallic and Germanic peoples. In its Germanic manifestations the Harii painted themselves black to attack their enemies in the darkness. The Heruli, nomadic, ecstatic wolf-warriors, dedicated themselves to Wodan.
The Norse god Odin in his many forms, astride his eight-legged steed Sleipnir, came to be associated with the Wild Hunt in Scandinavia because of his aspect of berserking. Odin acquired the aspect of the Wild Huntsman, along with Frigg. The passage of this hunt was also referred to as Odin's Hunt. People who saw the passing hunt and mocked it were cursed and would mysteriously vanish along with the host; those that joined in sincerity were rewarded with gold (H. A. Guerber, 1922). In the wake of the passing storm, with which the Hunt was often identified, a black dog would be found upon a neighboring hearth. To remove it, it would need to be exorcised similar to the custom for removing changelings. However, if it could not be removed by trickery; it must be kept for a whole year and carefully tended.
Otto Höfler (1934) and other authors of his generation emphasized the identification of the hunter with Odin, looking for the traces of an ecstatic Odin cult in more recent customs from German-speaking areas.
In view of this, John Lindow of the University of California, Berkeley (Lindahl et al. 2002:433) notes that more recent scholarship "would argue a basis in an Indo-European warrior cult in which young warriors imbued with the life force fight with the characteristics of animals, especially, those of wolves, and are initiated into a warrior band [...]."
Bhagavata Purana mentions a similar situation: "This particular time is most inauspicious because at this time the horrible-looking ghosts and constant companions of the lord of the ghosts are visible. Lord Shiva, the king of the ghosts, sitting on the back of his bull carrier, travels at this time, accompanied by ghosts who follow him for their welfare."
In England, the historical figures St. Guthlac (683–714) and Hereward the Wake (died ca. 1070) were reported to have participated in the Wild Hunt; and, in the Peterborough Chronicle, there is an account of the Wild Hunt's appearance at night, beginning with the appointment of a disastrous abbot for the monastery, Henry d'Angely, in 1127:
...many men both saw and heard a great number of huntsmen hunting. The huntsmen were black, huge, and hideous, and rode on black horses and on black he-goats, and their hounds were jet black, with eyes like saucers, and horrible. This was seen in the very deer park of the town of Peterborough, and in all the woods that stretch from that same town to Stamford, and in the night the monks heard them sounding and winding their horns.
"Reliable witnesses" were said to have given their number as "twenty or thirty", and it is said, in effect, that this went on for nine weeks, ending at Easter. Orderic Vitalis (1075–c. 1142), an English monk at St Evroul-en-Ouche, in Normandy, reported a similar cavalcade seen in January 1091,[where?] which he said were "Herlechin's troop" (familia Herlechini; cf. Harlequin).
While these earlier reports of Wild Hunts were recorded by clerics and portrayed as diabolic, in late medieval romances, such as Sir Orfeo, the hunters are rather from a faery otherworld, where the Wild Hunt was the hosting of the fairies; its leaders also varied, but they included Gwydion, Gwynn ap Nudd, King Arthur, Nuada, King Herla, Woden, the Devil and Herne the Hunter. Many legends are told of their origins, as in that of "Dando and his dogs" or "the dandy dogs": Dando, wanting a drink but having exhausted what his huntsmen carried, declared he would go to hell for it. A stranger came and offered a drink, only to steal Dando's game and then Dando himself, with his dogs giving chase. The sight was long claimed to have been seen in the area. Another legend recounted how King Herla, having visited the Fairy King, was warned not to step down from his horse until the greyhound he carried jumped down; he found that three centuries had passed during his visit, and those of his men who dismounted crumbled to dust; he and his men are still riding, because the greyhound has yet to jump down.
The myth of the Wild Hunt has through the ages been modified to accommodate other gods and folk heroes, among them King Arthur and, more recently, in a Dartmoor folk legend, Sir Francis Drake. At Cadbury Castle in Somerset an old lane near the castle was called King Arthur's Lane and even in the 19th century the idea survived that on wild winter nights the king and his hounds could be heard rushing along it.
In certain parts of Britain, the hunt is said to be that of hell-hounds chasing sinners or the unbaptised. In Devon these are known as Yeth (Heath) or Wisht Hounds, in Cornwall Dando and his Dogs or the Devil and his Dandy Dogs, in Wales the Cwn Annwn, the Hounds of Hell, and in Somerset as Gabriel Ratchets or Retchets (dogs). In Devon the hunt is particularly associated with Wistman's Wood.
According to H. A. Guerber: "The object of this phantom hunt varied greatly, and was either [that of] a visionary boar or wild horse, white-breasted maidens who were caught and borne away bound only once in seven years, or the wood nymphs, called Moss Maidens, who were thought to represent the autumn leaves torn from the trees and whirled away by the wintry gale." Whatever the case, the Hunt was most often seen in the autumn and winter, when the winds blew the fiercest.
An abundance of different tales of the Wild Hunt are recorded in Germany. In most tales, the identity of the hunter is not made clear, in others, it is:
- a mythological figure named Waul, Waur, Waurke, Wod, Wode, Wotk, or Wuid, who is thought to be derived from the ancient Germanic god of the wind and the dead, Wodan;
- a mythological figure named Frie, Fuik, Fu, Holda or Holle, who is thought to be derived from the Germanic goddess Freya or Frigg;
- an undead noble, most often called Count Hackelberg or Count Ebernburg, who is cursed to hunt eternally because of misbehaviour during his lifetime, and in some versions died from injuries of a slain boar's tusk.
Sometimes, the tales associate the hunter with a dragon or the devil. The hunter is most often riding a horse, seldom a horse-drawn carriage, and usually has several hounds in his company. If the prey is mentioned, it is most often a young woman, either guilty or innocent. The majority of the tales deal with some person encountering the Wild Hunt. If this person stands up against the hunters, he will be punished. If he helps the hunt, he will be awarded money, gold or, most often, a leg of a slain animal or human, which is often cursed in a way that makes it impossible to be rid of it. In this case, the person has to find a priest or magician able to ban it, or trick the Wild Hunt into taking the leg back by asking for salt, which the hunt can not deliver. In many versions, a person staying right in the middle of the road during the encounter is safe.
In Scandinavia, Odin's hunt was heard but rarely seen, and a typical trait is that one of Odin's dogs was barking louder and a second one fainter. Beside one or two shots, these barks were the only sounds that were clearly identified. When Odin's hunt was heard, it meant changing weather in many regions, but it could also mean war and unrest. According to some reports, the forest turned silent and only a whining sound and dog barks could be heard.
It is clear that the belief in Odin's hunt remained most widespread in the Swedish region of Götaland, where numerous toponyms testify to very early worship of Odin. It is also notable that the Odin of folklore retains a considerable number of external traits from his origins in Norse mythology. Moreover, it appears that the beliefs in Odin maintained a strong position in the region from pagan times until modern times.
Although the figure of the wild huntsman no doubt emanates from pagan Germanic culture, it should be noted that the recent legends do not spontaneously connect the name Odin with a divinity. During the centuries, Odin has been euhemerized into a legendary character, who is often demon-like and dangerous, without any clear connection to the All-father of Norse mythology, instead being drawn from a earlier "Black God of the Hunt" A horned God of death . In western Sweden and sometimes in the east as well, it has been said that Odin was a nobleman or even a king who had hunted during the Sundays and therefore was doomed to hunt down and kill supernatural beings until the end of time.
According to certain accounts, Odin does not ride, but travels in a wheeled vehicle, specifically a one-wheeled cart.
There are several examples of origin legends where Odin appears. In Gärdlösa on Öland, there is a story that Odin once went across the Alvar of Högrum and tied his horse to a crag of rock. The crag was splintered when the strong horse pulled in the cord, and then the horse threw himself on the ground, and so the bottomless swamp of Gladvattnet was created.
If houses were built on former roads, they could be burnt down, because Odin did not change his plans if he had formerly travelled on a road there. Not even charcoal kilns could be built on disused roads, because if Odin was hunting the kiln would be ablaze.
One tradition maintains that Odin did not travel further up than an ox wears his yoke, so if Odin was hunting, it was safest to throw oneself onto the ground in order to avoid being hit. In Älghult in Småland, it was safest to carry a piece of bread and a piece of steel when going to church and back during Christmas. The reason was that if one met the rider with the broad-rimmed hat, one should throw the piece of steel in front of oneself, but if one met his dogs first, one should throw the pieces of bread instead.
In Danish tradition the hunted is a female troll, old elf, or jötunn-like figure named Slattenpat, which literally means "Wobbly-boob". The ugly-looking Slattenpat runs away putting her long pendulous breasts over her shoulders in order to run faster. Eventually she is caught up by the wild hunt and killed by the leader.
In Galicia (Spain) it was the Estadea or Santa Compaña, who could always be seen followed by a black dog named Urco, a similarity with Odin´s dogs. There´s a tradition of going to San Andrés de Teixido, "quen non vai de morto vai de vivo", those who don´t go alive go when dead, as part of the Santa Compaña.
Leader of the Wild Hunt
- Basque Country (Spain): Ehiztari beltza, Mateo-Txistu, Abade-txakurrak.
- Belarus: King Stakh.
- Brittany: King Arthur.
- Catalonia (Spain): Count Arnau (el comte Arnau), a legendary nobleman from Ripollès, who for his rapacious cruelty and lechery is condemned to ride to hounds for eternity while his flesh is devoured by flames. He is the subject of a classic traditional Catalan ballad.
- England: Woden; Herla, a form of Woden (later de-heathenised as a Brythonic King who stayed too long at a fairy wedding feast and returned to find centuries had passed and the lands populated by Englishmen); Wild Edric, a Saxon rebel; Hereward the Wake; King Arthur; Herne the Hunter; St. Guthlac; Old Nick; Jan Tregeagle, a Cornish lawyer who escaped from Hell and is pursued by the devil's hounds. On Dartmoor, Dewer, Old Crockern or Sir Francis Drake.
- France: Artus, King Arthur (Brittany); Lord of Gallery (Poitou).
- Galicia (Spain): the Estadea (from estadear, "to make obstentation"), the only spectre of the company who can speak.
- Germany: Wodan, Berchtold, Dietrich of Berne, Holda, Perchta, Wildes Gjait. The Squire of Rodenstein and Hans von Hackelberg (both Sabbath-breakers).
- Guernsey: Herodias (Rides with witches at sea)
- Ireland: Fionn mac Cumhaill and the Fianna; Manannan—also known as The Fairy Cavalcade.
- Lombardy (Italy): King Beatrik, la Dona del Zöch (Lombard:the Lady of the Game).
- Netherlands: Wodan, Gait met de hunties/hondjes (Gait with his dogs), Derk met de hunties/hondjes (Derk with his dogs), Derk met de beer (Derk with his boar/bear), het Glujende peerd (the glowing horse). Ronnekemère, Henske met de hondjes/Hänske mit de hond (Henske with his dogs), Berend van Galen (Beerneken van Galen, Bèrndeken van Geulen, Bommen Berend or Beerneken, the bishop of Münster, Germany).
- Scandinavia: Odin; King Vold (Denmark); Valdemar Atterdag (Denmark); the witch Guro Rysserova and Sigurdsveinen (Norway).
- Wales: Arawn or Gwyn ap Nudd, the Welsh god of the Underworld.
One of the origins postulated for the modern Harlequin is Hellequin, a stock character in French passion plays. Hellequin, a black-faced emissary of the devil, is said to have roamed the countryside with a group of demons chasing the damned souls of evil people to Hell. The physical appearance of Hellequin offers an explanation for the traditional colours of Harlequin's mask (red and black).
Works inspired by the legend
- The Wild Hunt is mentioned as one of the seven spectres during the casting of the magic bullets in Karl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz.
- One of Franz Liszt's twelve Études Transcendentales (1838, 1851), is given the title Wilde Jagd.
- In Arnold Schönberg's oratorio Gurrelieder, the Wild Hunt appears in the third part.
- Circa 1948, Stan Jones transposed the Wild Hunt into a country song "Riders in the Sky: A Cowboy Legend" which tells the story to a group of cowboys who chase the devil's herd of cattle through the night skies, tormented by madness and thirst. Many artists have produced cover versions and musical parodies of this song.
- Black metal band Bathory used Arbo's painting of "The Wild Hunt" as the cover of their 1988 album Blood Fire Death.
- Viking metal band Falkenbach used Heine's painting of "Wodan's Wild Hunt" as the cover of their 1996 album, ...En Their Medh Riki Fara....
- Swedish band Therion had a song "The Wild Hunt" on their 1998 album Vovin.
- Neurosis frontman Steve Von Till has a song entitled "The Wild Hunt" on his solo album If I should Fall to the Field, including a reference to Odin in the lyrics.
- French Celtic black metal band Aes Dana's 2001 full-length album is called La Chasse Sauvage ("The Wild Hunt"), and the first track carries the same name.
- Swedish folk musician The Tallest Man on Earth released his second album The Wild Hunt on April 13, 2010. The title track's lyrics include several references to the folktale.
- Omnia's Crone of War album, released in 2004, features a track called "The Wylde Hunt". Another band, Sava, released a track titled "The Wylde Hunt" as well.
- Heidevolk's album Walhalla Wacht has the song "Het Wilde Heer" ("The Wild Hunt") on it.
- William Butler Yeats evoked the Wild Hunt in "The Hosting of the Sidhe", the opening poem in his collection inspired by Gaelic faery lore, The Celtic Twilight (1893, 1903).
- In The Age of Misrule (series) by Mark Chadbourn, The Wild Hunt begins as an enemy of the Brothers and Sisters of Dragons, the heroes of the series. However, after being defeated, their leader, most often referred to as Cernunnos, bestows both of the Sisters of Dragons with special gifts/powers. He also helps the group later in the series.
- In Philip Pullman's novel Count Karlstein, the Wild Hunt is featured as a major plot element, only here it is composed entirely of huge phantom hounds and just one huntsman: the evil demon Zamiel, who is actually named "the Demon Huntsman" in the novel.
- Uładzimir Karatkievič's 1964 The Wild Hunt of King Stakh, which was made into a The Wild Hunt of King Stakh (film)|movie of the same name in 1979 in the Soviet Union.
- John Masefield's "The Hounds of Hell".
- Cormac McCarthy references the Wild Hunt in his novel Suttree. The novel's protagonist encounters the procession while hallucinating from hunger in the Appalachian Mountains.
- The Wild Hunt appears frequently in modern fantasy fiction, as in Alan Garner (in The Moon of Gomrath), Peter Beagle (in Tamsin), Uladzimir Karatkievich (in The Wild Hunt of King Stakh), Susan Cooper in The Dark is Rising, Guy Gavriel Kay's trilogy The Fionavar Tapestry, Laurell K. Hamilton's (Merry Gentry series), J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (as the Dead Men of Dunharrow), Buffy the Vampire Slayer (Novel Child of the Hunt) and Robert Jordan's Wheel of Time series, among many others. A version of the hunt (in which huntsmen are commissioned to destroy re-animated giants) is the inciting incident of the Dark Horse Comics limited series Hellboy: The Wild Hunt, written by Mike Mignola. See also "The Sorceress: Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel," in which the Wild Hunt members are portrayed as werewolves being led by Cernunnos, the Horned God. In Jim Butcher's book of the Dresdenverse Dead Beat, the central plot behind the book has to do with Harry Dresden's search for an infamous necromancer's book containing the enchantment with which to summon the Erlking and begin the Wild Hunt, but the Hunt is extended to include any animal, including humans. In Charles de Lint's novel Jack, the Giant Killer, the Hunt is re-imagined in the modern world as riding Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
- In the White Wolf supplement for Vampire: The Masquerade A Players Guide to the Sabbat the wild hunt is called to hunt down traitors of the Sabbat.
- Wild Hunt is an enemy in several Shin Megami Tensei games, including Strange Journey.
- In the Witcher game, the protagonist is dogged by the leader of the Wild Hunt, and fights the Wild Hunt multiple times in game. All though the Wild Hunt does not appear in the sequel, it is frequently referred to as a major plot point.
- In the Elder Scrolls roleplaying video games, the carnivorous Wood Elves may, under great duress, return to their original, formless nature in the Wild Hunt, slaying all before them but being lost to their thinking selves forever.
- In the 1992 computer game Darklands, defeated witches and Satan worshippers can call down the Wild Hunt out of revenge to pursue the player's party of characters.
- Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
- (Ghost) Riders in the Sky: A Cowboy Legend
- Mallt-y-Nos, a Welsh version of the legend
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Schön, Ebbe. (2004). Asa-Tors hammare, Gudar och jättar i tro och tradition (Fält & Hässler, Värnamo). ISBN 91-89660-41-2 pp. 201-205.
- ^ Katharine M.Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, s.v. "Wild Hunt", p 437. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
- ^ Katherine M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 49-50 University of Chicago Press, London, 1967
- ^ "In the Middle Ages the wild hunt was also called Cain's hunt, Cain being another progenitor of the Wandering Jew": Venetia Newall, "The Jew as a witch figure", in Katharine Mary Briggs, and Newall, eds. The Witch Figure: Folklore Essays by a Group of Scholars in England 2004:103f.
- ^ Encyclopaedia of the Celts: Devil's Dandy Dogs - Diuran the Rhymer.
- ^ Called so in the north of England, according to Robert Chambers, The Book of Days: a miscellany of popular antiquities, vol. II, 1883, s.v. "October 11: Spectre-dogs";
"...He oftentimes will start,
For overhead, are sweeping Gabriel's Hounds,
Doomed, with their impious lord, the flying hart
To chase for ever through aërial grounds," (William Wordsworth), "Though narrow be that old man's cares" (1807), quoted in Edwin Sidney Hartland English Fairy and Other Folk Tales, 1890, "Spectre-Dogs"; "Gabriel's hounds are wild geese, so called because their sound in flight is like a pack of hounds in full cry", observes Robert Hendrickson, in Salty Words, 1984:78.
- ^ See S.H. Houston, "Ghost Riders in the Sky" Western Folklore, 23.3 1964:153-162.
- ^ The origin of this name is uncertain, and the reference to Asgard is reckoned to be a corruption by some scholars (a Dano-Norwegian misinterpretation).
- ^ See, for example, Chambers's Encyclopaedia, 1901, s.v. "Wild Hunt": "[Gabriel's Hounds]...portend death or calamity to the house over which they hang"; "the cry of the Seven Whistlers... a death omen".
- ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Infringement of fairy privacy", p 233. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
- ^ Ronald Hutton, The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles: Their Nature and Legacy, p 307, ISBN 0-631-18946-7
- ^ Bhagavata Purana 3.14.23-24
- ^ a b Garmonsway, G.N., The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Dent, Dutton, 1972 & 1975, p. 258.
- ^ Noted by Harold Peake, "17. Horned Deities", Man 22, February 1922, p. 28.
- ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 49. University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
- ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 50–1. University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
- ^ Westwood, Jennifer (1985), Albion. A Guide to Legendary Britain. London : Grafton Books. ISBN 0-246-11789-3. p. 8.
- ^ Westwood, Jennifer (1985), Albion. A Guide to Legendary Britain. Pub. Grafton Books, London. ISBN 0-246-11789-3. P. 155 - 156.
- ^ Westwood, Jennifer (1985), Albion. A Guide to Legendary Britain. Pub. Grafton Books, London. ISBN 0-246-11789-3. P. 32.
- ^ Hoffmann-Krayer, Eduard; Baechtold-Staeubli, Hanns, ed (2002) (in German). Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens. Waage- Zypresse, Nachträge. Handwörterbuecher zur Deutschen Volkskunde. 1. de Gruyter. pp. 191ff. ISBN 3110065975. http://www.google.de/books?id=cqdVHI1lHGkC&pg=PA191.
Neumann, Siegfried; Tietz, Karl-Ewald; Jahn, Ulrich (1999). Neumann, Siegfried; Tietz, Karl-Ewald. ed (in German). Volkssagen aus Pommern und Rügen. Bremen-Rostock: Edition Temmen. pp. 407, 29ff. ISBN 3-86108-733-2.
Simrock, Karl (2002 reprint of 1878 edition) (in German). Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie mit Einschluß der Nordischen. Elibron Classics. Adamant. pp. 191, 196ff. ISBN 1421204282. http://www.google.de/books?id=_UHobawczmEC&pg=PA197&dq=%22wilde+jagd%22+wode&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1980&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=2010&as_brr=3&cd=1#v=onepage&q=%22wilde%20jagd%22%20&f=false.
- ^ Schön, p. 204, referring to a report from Voxtorp in Småland.
- ^ Uładzimir Karatkievič. King Stach's Wild Hunt
- ^ K. M. Briggs, The Fairies in English Tradition and Literature, p 51. University of Chicago Press, London, 1967.
- ^ Joaquim Maideu, "Llibre de cançons: crestomatia de cançons tradicionals catalanes", p. 50. ISBN 84-7602-319-7.
- ^ Hole, Christina. Haunted England: A Survey of English Ghost Lore. p.5. Kessinger Publishing, 1941.
- ^ English Folklore
- ^ Woden, Odin and the Runes
- ^ Looking for the Lost Gods of England
- ^ Harlequin Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Harlequin
- ^ Herne the Hunter - Cernunnos - tribe.net
- ^ De Nugis Curialium by Walter Map.
- ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Wild Hunt", p 436. ISBN 0-394-73467-X.
- ^ Ruben A. Koman, Dalfser Muggen Profiel, Bedum 2006. 
- ^ Hutton, Ronald, "Paganism in the Lost Centuries", p 169, Witches, Druids, and King Arthur, 3rd ed. 2006 ISBN 1-85285-397-2.
- ^ Carlo Ginzburg, Storia Notturna – Una decifrazione del sabba, Biblioteca Einaudi
- ^ Grantham, B., Playing Commedia, A Training Guide to Commedia Techniques, (Nick Hern Books) London, 2000
- ^ On-line text
- ^ Charles de Lint. Jack the Giant-killer. Ace Publishing, 1987. ISBN 0-441-37969-9.
- Jean-Claude Schmitt, Ghosts in the Middle Ages: The Living and the Dead in Medieval Society (1998), ISBN 0-226-73887-6 and ISBN 0-226-73888-4
- Kris Kershaw, "The One-Eyed God: Odin and the Indo-Germanic Mannerbunde", Journal of Indo-European Studies, (2001).
- Carl Lindahl, John McNamara, John Lindow (eds.) Medieval Folklore: A Guide to Myths, Legends, Tales, Beliefs, and Customs, Oxford University Press (2002), p. 432f. ISBN 0-19-514772-3
- Otto Höfler, Kultische Geheimbünde der Germanen, Frankfurt (1934).
- Ruben A. Koman, 'Dalfser Muggen'. - Bedum : Profiel. - With a summary in English, (2006).
- Margherita Lecco, Il Motivo della Mesnie Hellequin nella Letteratura Medievale, Alessandria (Italy), Edizioni dell'Orso, 2001
- Ari Berk and William Spytma, "Penance, Power, and Pursuit: On the Trail of the Wild Hunt"
- Sluagh Sidhe "Wild Hunt traditions in Ireland"
- Liam Rogers, "The Wild Hunt" 1999
- Kveldulf Hagen Gundarsson, "The Folklore of the Wild Hunt and the furious host"[dead link] 1992
- Animated Interpretation of The Wild Hunt by Christian Madsen 2008
- The Wild Hunt: Live roleplaying movie inspired in part by the legend.
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