- Disneyland Resort Paris
"'Disneyland Resort Paris is a
holidayand recreation resortin Marne-la-Vallée, a new townin the eastern suburbs of Paris, France. The complex is located convert|32|km|mi|0|sp=us from the centre of Paris and lies for the most part on the territory of the commune of Chessy.
Disneyland Resort Paris features two
theme parks, an entertainmentdistrict and seven Disney-owned hotels. Operating since April 12, 1992, it was the second Disney resort to open outside the United States(following Tokyo Disney Resort), and the first to be owned and operated by Disney. With 14.5 million visitors in the fiscal year of 2007, it is one of Europe's leading tourist destinations.
Disneyland Resort Paris is owned and operated by French company
Euro Disney S.C.A., a public companyof which 39.78% of its stockis held by The Walt Disney Company, 10% by the Saudi Prince Alwaleedand 50.22% by other shareholders. The resort is run by chairmanand CEOPhilippe Gas.
The complex was a subject of
controversyduring the periods of negotiation and construction, when a number of prominent French figures voiced their opposition and protestswere held by French labour unionsand others. A further setback followed the opening of the resort as park attendance, hotel occupancy and revenues fell below projections. Partly as a result of this, the complex was renamed from Euro Disney Resort to Disneyland Paris in 1995. In July of that year, the company saw its first quarterly profit.
A second theme park,
Walt Disney Studios Park, was opened to the public on March 16, 2002.
Background & development
Following the success of
Disneylandin Anaheim, Californiaand the Walt Disney World Resortin Florida, plans to build a similar theme parkin Europeemerged in 1972. Upon the leadership of E. Cardon Walker, Tokyo Disneylandopened in 1983 in Japanwith instant success, forming a catalyst for international expansion.
In late 1984 the heads of Disney's theme park division, Dick Nunis and Jim Cora, presented a list of approximately 1,200 possible European locations for the park.cite book|last=Lainsbury |first=Andrew|coauthors=|title=Once Upon an American Dream: The Story of Euro Disneyland |year=2000 |publisher=University Press of Kansas|id=ISBN 070060989X-1|pages=]
By March 1985, the number of possible locations for the park had been reduced to four; two in France and two in
Spain. ["Monsieur Mickey or Señor Miqui?: Disney Seeks a European Site." — BusinessWeek, July 15, 1985"] Both of these nations saw the potential economic advantages of a Disney theme park and competed by offering financing deals to Disney.cite book|last=Anthony |first=Robert|coauthors=|title=Euro Disney: The First 100 Days |year=1993 |publisher=Harvard Business School|id=ASIN B0006R2N8Y-1|pages=]
Both Spanish sites were located near the
Mediterranean Seaand offered a subtropicalclimate similar to Disney's parks in Californiaand Florida. Disney had also shown interest in a site near Toulonin southern France, not far from Marseille. The pleasing landscape of that region, as well as its climate, made the location a top competitor for what would be called Euro Disneyland. However, thick layers of bedrockwere discovered beneath the site, which would render construction too difficult. Finally, a site in the rural town of Marne-la-Valléewas chosen because of its proximity to Parisand its central location in Western Europe. This location was estimated to be no more than a four-hour drive for 68 million people and no more than a two-hour flight for a further 300 million. Michael Eisner, Disney's CEOat the time, signed the first letter of agreement with the French government for the convert|20|km2|acre|-1|sp=us|adj=on site in December 1985, and the first financial contracts were drawn up during the following spring. Construction began in August 1988, and in December 1990, an information centre named "Espace Euro Disney" was opened to show the public what was being constructed. Plans for a theme park next to Euro Disneyland based on the entertainment industry, Disney-MGM Studios Europe, quickly went into development, scheduled to open in 1996 with a construction budget of US$2.3 billion. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE3DB1238F936A35751C0A967958260| New York Times, February 5 1991 " COMPANY NEWS; Euro Disney Park"] ]
Hotels, recreation and restaurants
In order to control a maximum of the
hotelbusiness, it was decided that 5,000 Disney-owned hotel rooms would be built within the complex. In March 1988, Disney and a council of architects ( Frank Gehry, Michael Graves, Robert A.M. Stern, Stanley Tigermanand Robert Venturi) decided on an exclusively American theme in which each hotel would depict a region of the United States. At the time of the opening in April 1992, seven hotels collectively housing 5,800 [Bron: [http://corporate.disneylandparis.com/about-our-company/the-narrative-of-numbers/index.xhtml Disneyland® Resort Paris in Figures] ] rooms had been built. By the year 2017, Euro Disney, under the terms specified in its contract with the French government, will be required to finish constructing a total of 18,200 hotel rooms at varying distances from the resort. ["Business America", 2 December 1991.]
An entertainment, shopping and dining complex based on Walt Disney World's Downtown Disney was designed by Frank Gehry. With its towers of oxidised silver and bronze-coloured
stainless steelunder a canopy of lights, it opened as " Festival Disney". [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975357-3,00.html Voila! Disney Invades Europe. Will the French Resist? - Time, April 20 1992] ]
For a projected daily attendance of 55,000, Euro Disney planned to serve an estimated 14,000 people per hour inside the Euro Disneyland park. In order to accomplish this, 29
restaurants were built inside the park (with a further 11 restaurants built at the Euro Disney resort hotels and 5 at Festival Disney). Menus and prices were varied with an American flavour predominant and Disney's precedent of not serving alcoholic beverages was continued in the park. 2,100 patioseats (30% of park seating) were installed to satisfy Europeans’ expected preference of eating outdoors in good weather. In test kitchens at Walt Disney World, recipeswere adapted for European tastes. Walter Meyer, executive cheffor menu development at Euro Disney and executive chef of food projects development at Walt Disney World noted, “A few things we did need to change, but most of the time people kept telling us, ‘Do your own thing. Do what’s American’.” [“Disney Magic Spreads Across the Atlantic; Popular US Theme Park Prepares for Opening of Euro Disneyland Resort Near Paris in April, 1992,” Nation’s Restaurant News (October 28, 1991), p.3.]
Unlike Disney's American
theme parks, Euro Disney aimed for permanent employees (an estimated requirement of 12,000 for the theme park itself), as opposed to seasonal and temporary part-timeemployees. Casting centres were set up in Paris, London, Amsterdam, and Frankfurtin an effort to reflect the multinational aspect of Euro Disney’s visitors. However, it was understood by the French government and Disney that “a concentrated effort would be made to tap into the local French labour market”cite book|last=Anthony |first=Robert|coauthors=|title=Euro Disney: The First 100 Days |year=1993 |publisher=Harvard Business School|id=ASIN B0006R2N8Y-1|pages=] . Disney sought workers with sufficient communication skills, spoke two European languages (French and one other), and were socially outgoing. Following precedent, Euro Disney set up its own Disney Universityto train workers. 24,000 people had applied by November 1991.cite book|last=Anthony |first=Robert|coauthors=|title=Euro Disney: The First 100 Days |year=1993 |publisher=Harvard Business School|id=ASIN B0006R2N8Y-1|pages=]
The prospect of a Disney park in France was a subject of
debateand controversy. Critics, who included prominent French intellectuals, denounced what they considered to be the cultural imperialism, or ‘neoprovincialism’ of Euro Disney and felt it would encourage in France an unhealthy American type of consumerism. For others, Euro Disney became a symbol of America within France. On June 28, 1992 a group of French farmers blockaded Euro Disney in protest of farm policies the United States supported at the time. A journalist in the French newspaper Le Figarowrote, “I wish with all my heart that the rebels would set fire to [Euro] Disneyland."cite web | author= | year=| title="Thunderbird Case Studies; 'EuroDisneyland'" | work= www.thunderbird.edu | url=http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:_OZmL6CkLn0J:www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/pdf/about_thunderbird/case_series/a15990007.pdf| accessdate= March 5| accessyear=2007] Ariane Mnouchkine, a Parisian stage director, named the concept a “cultural Chernobyl;” [ [http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/article/0,13005,901020325-218398,00.html Happily Ever After? - Time, March 18 2002] ] a phrase which would be echoed in the media and grow synonymous with Euro Disney's initial years.
In response, French
philosopher Michel Serresnoted, “It is not America that is invading us. It is we who adore it, who adopt its fashions and above all, its words.” Euro Disney S.C.A.'s then-chairman Robert Fitzpatrick responded, "We didn’t come in and say O.K., we’re going to put a beretand a baguetteon Mickey Mouse. We are who we are."cite book|last=Anthony |first=Robert|coauthors=|title=Euro Disney: The First 100 Days |year=1993 |publisher=Harvard Business School|id=ASIN B0006R2N8Y-1|pages=]
Topics of controversy further included Disney's American managers requiring English to be spoken at all meetings and Disney's appearance code for members of staff, which listed regulations and limitations for the use of
make up, facial hair, tattoos, jewelleryand more. French labour unions mounted protests against the appearance code, which they saw as “an attack on individual liberty.” Others criticised Disney as being insensitive to French culture, individualism, and privacy, because restrictions on individual or collective liberties were illegal under French law, unless it could be demonstrated that the restrictions are requisite to the job and do not exceed what is necessary. Disney countered by saying that a ruling that barred them from imposing such an employment standard could threaten the image and long-term success of the park. “For us, the appearance code has a great effect from a product identification standpoint,” said Thor Degelmann, Euro Disney’s personnel director and a native Californian. “Without it we couldn’t be presenting the Disney product that people would be expecting.” [Anne Ferguson, "Maximising the Mouse." "Management Today", September, 1989, pp. 60.]
On April 12, 1992, "Euro Disney Resort" and its theme park, "Euro Disneyland", officially opened. Visitors were warned of chaos on the roads and a government survey indicated that half a million people carried by 90,000 cars might attempt to enter the complex. French radio warned traffic to avoid the area. By midday, the parking lot was approximately half full, suggesting an attendance level below 25,000. Speculative explanations ranged from people heeding the advice to stay away to the one-day strike that cut the direct
RERrailway connection to Euro Disney from the centre of Paris.cite web | author= | year=| title="Thunderbird Case Studies; 'EuroDisneyland'" | work= www.thunderbird.edu | url=http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:_OZmL6CkLn0J:www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/pdf/about_thunderbird/case_series/a15990007.pdf| accessdate= March 5| accessyear=2007]
Financial, attendance and employment problems
In May 1992, entertainment magazine
The Hollywood Reporterreported that about 25% of Euro Disney's workforce — approximately 3,000 men and women — had resigned their jobs because of unacceptable working conditions. It also reported that the park's attendance was far behind expectations. Euro Disney S.C.A. responded in an interview with The Wall Street Journal, in which Robert Fitzpatrick claimed only 1,000 people had left their jobs.
In response to the financial situation, Fitzpatrick ordered that the Disney-MGM Studios Europe project would be put on hiatus until a further decision could be made. Prices at the hotels were reduced.
Despite these efforts, in May 1992 daily park attendance was around 25,000 (some reports give a figure of 30,000) instead of the predicted 60,000. The Euro Disney Company stock price spiralled downwards and on July 23, 1992, Euro Disney announced an expected net loss in its first year of operation of approximately 300 million
French francs. During Euro Disney's first winter, hotel occupancy was such that it was decided to close the Newport Bay Club hotel during the season. Initial hopes were that each visitor would spend around US$33 per day, but near the end of 1992, analysts reckoned spending to be around 12% lower. [ [http://www.faqs.org/faqs/disney-faq/disneyland-paris/ Disneyland Paris (Euro Disney) Frequently Asked Questions - 1996, Andre Willey/Tom Drynda] ]
Efforts to improve attendance included serving alcoholic beverages with meals inside the Euro Disneyland park, in response to a presumed European demand, which began June 12, 1993. [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CEEDF1E3FF931A25755C0A965958260| New York Times, June 12 1993 "Euro Disney Adding Alcohol"] ]
In January 1994, Sanford Litvack, an
attorneyfrom New York Cityand former Assistant Attorney General during the Jimmy Carterpresidency, was assigned to be Disney's lead negotiatorregarding Euro Disney's future. On February 28, Litvack made an offer (without the consent of Eisner or Frank Wells) to split the debts between Euro Disney's creditors and Disney. After the banks showed interest, Litvack informed Eisner and Wells. On March 14, the day before the annual shareholders meeting, the banks capitulated to Disney's demands. The creditorbanks bought US$500 million worth of Euro Disney shares, forgave 18 months of interestand deferred interest payments for three years. Disney invested US$750 million into Euro Disney and granted a five-year suspension of royalty payments. In June that same year, Saudi ArabianPrince Al-Waleed Bin Talal Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud cut a deal whereby the Walt Disney Company bought 51% of a new US$1.1 billion share issue, the rest being offered to existing shareholders at below-market rates, with the Prince buying any that were not taken up by existing shareholders (up to a 24.5% holding).
In 2002, Euro Disney S.C.A. and the Walt Disney Company announced another annual profit for Disneyland Resort Paris. However, it has incurred a net loss in the three years following, and the park is approximately US$2 billion in debt as of 2007. In 2005, the Walt Disney Company agreed to write-off all debt to the Walt Disney Company made by Euro Disney S.C.A.
On May 31, 1995, a new attraction opened at the theme park. Space Mountain - De la Terre à la Lune had been planned since the inception of Euro Disneyland, but was reserved for a revival of public interest. With a redesign of the attraction (which had premiered at Walt Disney World's
Magic Kingdomin 1975) including a ' cannon' launchsystem and an on-ride soundtrack, the US$100 million attraction was dedicated in a ceremony attended by celebritiessuch as Elton John, Claudia Schifferand Buzz Aldrin.
On July 25, 1995, Euro Disney S.C.A. reported its first ever quarterly profit of US$35.3 million. On November 15, the results for the
fiscal yearending September 30 were released; in one year the theme park's attendance had climbed from 8.8 million to 10.7 million — an increase of 21%. Hotel occupancy had also climbed from 60 to 68.5%. After debt payments, Disneyland Resort Paris ended the year with a net profit of US$22.8 million.
Disneyland Resort Paris and its assets have been subject to a number of name changes, initially an effort to overcome the negative publicity that followed the inception of Euro Disney.
Michael Eisner noted,:cquote|As Americans, the word ‘Euro’ is believed to mean glamorous or exciting. For Europeans it turned out to be a term they associated with business, currency, and commerce. Renaming the park ‘Disneyland Paris’ was a way of identifying it with one of the most romantic and exciting cities in the world. [ [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:-uFIMZUo3usJ:www.angelfire.com/alt/dansnyder/InternationalMarketing.PDF Individual Term Paper International Marketing, Dan Snyder April 30, 2002] ]
1until May 1994
2June 1994 until September
3October 1994 until February 2002
Disneyland Resort Paris encompasses convert|4800|acre|km2 [ [http://stocks.us.reuters.com/stocks/fullDescription.asp?rpc=66&symbol=DIS Walt Disney Co DIS (NYSE), Reuters.com] ] (19 km²), including theme parks, resort hotels, nightclubs, a golf course, a railway station and more.
The Disneyland Park is based on a
formulapioneered by Disneylandin California and further employed at the Magic Kingdomin Florida and Tokyo Disneylandin Japan. Occupying 566,560 m² (140 acres), it is the largest Disney park based on the original in California.
On March 16, 2002, the
Walt Disney Studios Parkopened its doors to the public. At 270,000 square metres, it is a continuation on an earlier, never realised concept; the Disney-MGM Studios Europe.
The April 2007 issue of trade magazine "Park World" reported the following [http://www.connectingindustry.com/pdfs/TEA-ERAAttendance06.pdf attendance estimates] for 2006 compiled by Economic Research Associates in partnership with TEA (formerly the
Themed Entertainment Association):
*Disneyland Park, 10.6 million visits (No. 5 worldwide);
*Walt Disney Studios, 2.2 million visits.
Disney Villageentertainment district contains a variety of restaurants, bars, shops, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Dinner Show, and other venues and stays open after the parks close. Golf Disneylandfeatures 9-hole and 18-hole courses.
The complex features seven Disneyland Resort Paris hotels. The Disneyland Hotel is located over the entrance of the Disneyland Park and is marketed as the most prestigious hotel on property. A body of water known as
Lake Disneyis surrounded by Disney's Hotel New York, Disney's Newport Bay Cluband Disney's Sequoia Lodge. Disney's Hotel Cheyenneand Disney's Hotel Santa Feare located near Lake Disney, Disney's Davy Crockett Ranchis located in a woodland area outside the resort perimeter.
Disneyland Resort Paris includes six Associated Hotels which are not managed by Euro Disney S.C.A. but provide free shuttle buses to the parks:
Marriott's Village d'lle-de-France, RadissonSAS Hotel, a Holiday InnHotel, Vienna International Dream Castle Hotel, MyTravel's Explorers Hotel and a Kyriad Hotel.
railway station, Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy, with connection to the suburban RERnetwork and the TGVhigh-speed rail network is located between the theme parks and Disney Village. Thalysno longer operates from Marne-la-Vallée train station, but there are daily services from Londonon the Eurostar. On June 10, 2007, a new TGV line, LGV Est, began service between Paris and Strasbourg.
Free shuttle buses provide transport to all Disney hotels (except Disney's Davy Crockett Ranch) and Associated Hotels.
* [http://www.disneylandparis.com/ Disneyland Resort Paris (official site)]
* [http://www.eurodisney.com/en/ Euro Disney S.C.A., operating company of Disneyland Resort Paris (official site)]
* [http://www.socal-sandiego.com/Schools/SDSU/Disney_FIN_654.html How Euro Disney was financed]
* [http://corporate.disneylandparis.com/about-our-company/video-of-the-resort/index.xhtml Official "Video of the Resort"]
* [http://en.blog.disneyland15.com/ Official Blog of the 15th Anniversary of Disneyland Resort Paris]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Disneyland Resort Paris — Disneyland Paris 48° 52′ 09″ N 2° 46′ 53″ E / 48.869075, 2.78133333333333 … Wikipédia en Français
Disneyland Resort Paris — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Disneyland Park Parque temático de Disney Disneyland Paris en una vista general. Ubicación París … Wikipedia Español
Disneyland Resort Paris — Ort Marne la Vallée, Val d’Europe, Frankreich Eröffnung 12. April 1992 Besucher 15 Millionen (Summe Disneyland und Disney Studios) (2010) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Disneyland Resort Paris 15th Anniversary — Disneyland Paris Disneyland Park Walt Disney Studios Park Disney Village Resort hotels Disneyland Hotel … Wikipedia
Hotels de Disneyland Resort Paris — Hôtels de Disneyland Resort Paris Disneyland Resort Paris est la première destination touristique privée européenne. Afin d offrir aux visiteurs la possibilité d allonger leur séjour sans quitter le complexe, Disney a prévu dès l origine du… … Wikipédia en Français
Hôtels De Disneyland Resort Paris — Disneyland Resort Paris est la première destination touristique privée européenne. Afin d offrir aux visiteurs la possibilité d allonger leur séjour sans quitter le complexe, Disney a prévu dès l origine du projet, la présence d hôtels thématisés … Wikipédia en Français
Hôtels de disneyland resort paris — Disneyland Resort Paris est la première destination touristique privée européenne. Afin d offrir aux visiteurs la possibilité d allonger leur séjour sans quitter le complexe, Disney a prévu dès l origine du projet, la présence d hôtels thématisés … Wikipédia en Français
Hôtels de Disneyland Resort Paris — Disneyland Paris est la première destination touristique privée européenne. Afin d offrir aux visiteurs la possibilité d allonger leur séjour sans quitter le complexe, Disney a prévu dès l origine du projet, la présence d hôtels thématisés à l… … Wikipédia en Français
Kyriad Disneyland Resort Paris (Paris Suburbs) — Kyriad Disneyland Resort Paris country: France, city: Paris Suburbs (Disneyland) Kyriad Disneyland Resort Paris Kyriad Disneyland Resort offers comfortable accommodation and convenient facilities to make your stay a pleasant one.Location Set in… … International hotels
Explorers Hotel At Disneyland Resort Paris (Paris Suburbs) — Explorers Hotel At Disneyland Resort Paris country: France, city: Paris Suburbs (Disneyland) Explorers Hotel At Disneyland Resort Paris Location Explorers Hotel At Disneyland Resort is situated just 8 minutes drive away from the Disney Parks. The … International hotels