Albert, Prince Consort


Albert, Prince Consort

Infobox British Royalty|royal|consort
name =Prince Albert
title =Prince Consort of the United Kingdom



caption =
reign =10 February 1840 – 14 December 1861
spouse =Victoria
issue =Victoria, German Empress and Queen of Prussia
Edward VII
Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
full name = Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel
"German: Franz Albrecht August Karl Immanuel"
titles ="HRH" The Prince Consort
"HRH" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
"HDSH" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
"HDSH" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield
royal house =House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
father =Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
mother =Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
date of birth =birth date|1819|8|26|df=y
place of birth =Schloss Rosenau, Coburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
date of death =death date and age|1861|12|14|1819|8|26|df=y
place of death =Windsor Castle, Berkshire, England
date of burial =23 December 1861; 18 December 1862
place of burial =St. George's Chapel, Windsor; Frogmore, Windsor|

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, later "HRH" The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

He was the only husband of a British Queen to have formally held the title of Prince Consort. Upon Queen Victoria's death in 1901, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the territory of the branch of the Saxon ducal family to which Albert belonged, succeeded the House of Hanover on the British throne. [Queen Victoria was a member of the House of Hanover, as, in general, royal houses are determined patronymically rather than by matrimony.]

Early life

Albert was born in Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Germany, as the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's aunt, Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, had married Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the fourth son of King George III of the United Kingdom. She was the mother of the future Queen Victoria. Thus Albert and his future wife were first cousins. They were also born in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. [Weintraub, p.20]

Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from a local river. [Weintraub, p.21] His godparents were Emperor Franz I of Austria; his maternal grandfather, Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg; Prince Albert of Saxony, Duke of Teschen; Emanuel, Count von Mensdorff-Pouilly; and his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. [Hobhouse, p.2]

Albert and his elder brother, Ernest, spent their youth in a close companionship scarred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. Their mother was exiled from court and married, as her second husband, her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig-Baiersdorf. She probably never saw her children again and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. [Hobhouse, p.4 and Weintraub, pp.25–28] The following year, their father married his own niece and their cousin, Princess Mary of Württemberg, but the marriage was not close, and Mary had little, if any, input into her stepchildren's lives. [Weintraub, pp.40–41]

The brothers were educated at first by private tutors and later at the University of Bonn, like many other princes. There Albert studied law, political economy, philosophy, and art history, played music and excelled in gymnastics, especially fencing and riding. [Weintraub, pp.60–62] His teachers included Fichte and Schlegel. [Weintraub, pp.56–60]

Marriage

By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and the heir to the British throne, his cousin Princess Victoria of Kent (as she was then titled), had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle, Leopold, created King of the Belgians in 1831. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, the Duchess of Kent, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. The visit did not by any means suit Victoria's uncle, William IV, who disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and favoured Prince Alexander, second son of William II of the Netherlands. Victoria was well-aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. [Weintraub, pp.43–49] She wrote of Albert, " [He] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful." Alexander, on the other hand, was "very plain". [Victoria quoted in Weintraub, p.49]

Victoria, writing to her uncle Leopold, thanked him "for the prospect of "great" happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy." [Weintraub, p.51] The parties undertook no formal engagement, but the family and their retainers widely assumed that the match would take place. [Weintraub, pp.53, 58, 64, and 65]

After Victoria came to the throne on 20 June 1837, her letters show her interest in Albert's education for the part he would have to play though she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. [Weintraub, p.62] In the winter of 1838–1839 the prince travelled in Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser, Baron Stockmar. [Hobhouse, pp.17–18 and Weintraub, p.67]

In October 1839, he and Ernest went again to England to visit the Queen, with the object of finally settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. [Fulford, pp.42–43; Hobhouse, p. 20 and Weintraub, pp.77–81] Her intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November. [Fulford, p.45; Hobhouse, p. 21 and Weintraub, p.86] The couple married on 10 February 1840 at the Chapel Royal, St. James's Palace. [Fulford, p.52 and Hobhouse, p.24] Just before the marriage, Albert was naturalised by Act of Parliament, [ [http://www.gazettes-online.co.uk/ViewPDF.aspx?pdf=19826&gpn=302 The London Gazette, 14 February 1840, Page 2] ] appointed to the Privy Council, and granted the style of "Royal Highness" by an Order-in-Council. [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1840 Royal Styles and Titles – 1840 Order-in-Council] ] At first, Albert was not popular with the British public. He was perceived to be from an impoverished and undistinguished minor state, barely larger than a small English county. [Fulford, p.45] The British Prime Minister at the time, Lord Melbourne, advised the Queen against granting her husband the title of "King Consort". Parliament even refused to countenance making Albert a peer, partly because of anti-German feeling and a desire to exclude Albert from any political role. [Weintraub, p.88] Melbourne led a minority government and the opposition took advantage of the marriage to weaken his position further. They opposed the ennoblement of Albert and granted him a smaller annuity than previous consorts, [Weintraub, pp.8–9 and 89] £30,000 instead of the usual figure of £50,000. [Fulford, p.47 and Hobhouse, pp.23–24] On the issue of Parliament refusing to grant him a peerage, Albert wrote, "It would almost be step downwards, for as a Duke of Saxony, I feel myself much higher than as a Duke of York or Kent." [Quoted in Jagow, Kurt (ed.) "The Letters of the Prince Consort, 1831–61" (London, 1938).] Although he was formally titled "HRH Prince Albert", he was popularly known as "HRH the Prince Consort" for the next seventeen years. On 29 June 1857, Queen Victoria formally granted him the title Prince Consort by an Order-in-Council. [http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/prince_highness_docs.htm#1857 Royal Styles and Titles – 1857 Order-in-Council] ]

The position in which the prince was placed by his marriage, while one of distinguished honour, also offered considerable difficulties; in Albert's own words, "I am very happy and contented; but the difficulty in filling my place with the proper dignity is that I am only the husband, not the master in the house." [Albert to William von Lowenstein, May 1840, quoted in Hobhouse, p.26]

Family and public life

Within two months of the marriage, Victoria was pregnant. Albert started to take on public roles, for example becoming President of the Society for the Extinction of Slavery (slavery had been abolished throughout the British Empire already but was still lawful in the United States and the colonies of France), and help Victoria privately with her government paperwork. [Weintraub, pp.102–105] In June 1840, Albert and the pregnant Victoria were shot at by Edward Oxford, who was later judged insane, while on a public carriage ride. Neither was hurt and Albert was praised in the newspapers for his courage and coolness during the attack. [Weintraub, pp.106–107] Albert was gaining public support as well as political influence, which showed itself practically when, in August, Parliament passed the Regency Act 1840, which designated him Regent in the event of Victoria's death before their child reached the age of majority. [Weintraub, p.107] Their first child, Victoria, named after her mother, was born in November. Eight other children would follow over the next seventeen years. All nine of their children survived to adulthood, a rarity then even among royalty, which is credited to Albert's enlightened influence on the healthy running of the nursery. [Hobhouse, p.28]

Two further shootings occurred on 29 and 30 May 1842; Albert and Victoria were again unhurt. The culprit, John Francis, was detained and condemned to death, though later reprieved. [Weintraub, pp.134–135] Some of their early unpopularity came about because of their stiffness and adherence to protocol in public, though in private the couple were more easy-going. [Weintraub, p.141] In early 1844, Victoria and Albert were apart for the first time since their marriage when he returned to Coburg on the death of his father. [Weintraub, p.154]

By 1844, Albert had managed the modernization of the royal finances and through various economies had sufficient capital to purchase Osborne House on the Isle of Wight as a private residence for their growing family. [Hobhouse, p.131 and Weintraub, p.158] Over the next few years a house modelled in the style of an Italianate villa was built. [Weintraub, p.181] Albert designed the layout of the grounds, and modernised the estate and farm. [Hobhouse, pp.127, 131] Indeed, he had a peculiar talent for the management of landed estates; his model farm at Windsor was in every way worthy of the name. [Hobhouse, pp.121–127] The estates of the Duchy of Cornwall, the hereditary property of the Prince of Wales, improved so greatly under Albert's stewardship that the rent receipts rose from £11,000 to £50,000 per year.

As the prince became better known, public distrust began to give way. In 1847, but only after a close contest with Earl Powis, he was elected chancellor of the University of Cambridge. [Hobhouse, p.65 and Weintraub, pp.182–184] The following year, Powis was killed accidentally by his own son during a pheasant shoot. [Weintraub, p.186] Albert used his position to campaign for reformed and more modern university curricula. [Hobhouse, p.65 and Weintraub, pp.187 and 207]

Victoria and Albert enjoyed a wet summer holiday in the west of Scotland at Loch Laggan in 1847, but heard from their doctor, Sir James Clark, that his son had enjoyed dry, sunny days further east at Balmoral Castle. The tenant of Balmoral, Sir Robert Gordon, died suddenly in early October, and Albert began negotiations to take over the lease of the castle from the owner, Earl Fife. [Weintraub, pp.189–191]

Revolutions spread throughout Europe in 1848 as the result of a widespread economic crisis. Throughout the year, Victoria and Albert complained about Foreign Secretary Palmerston's independent foreign policy, which they believed destabilized foreign European powers further. [Weintraub, pp.193, 212, 214 and 264–265] Albert was concerned for many of his royal relatives, a number of whom were deposed, and he and Victoria, who gave birth to their daughter Louise during the year, spent some time in the relative safety of Osborne, away from London. Though there were sporadic demonstrations in England, no effective revolutionary action took place, and Albert even gained public acclaim for a speech in which he expressed paternalistic, yet well-meaning and philanthropic, views. "Wealth is an accident of society", he said, those that enjoyed its benefits had a duty to those who were, through accident, deprived of it. [Weintraub, pp.192–201] In May, Albert purchased the lease for Balmoral, having never visited it, and in September he, his wife and the older children went there for the first time. [Weintraub, pp.203 and 206] They came to relish the privacy it afforded. [Extracts from the Queen's journal of the holidays were published in 1868 as "Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands".]

Great Exhibition of 1851

A man of relatively cultured and liberal ideas, Albert not only led reforms in university education, welfare, the royal finances and slavery—he had a special interest in applying science and art to the manufacturing industry. The Great Exhibition of 1851 arose from the annual exhibitions of the Society of Arts, of which Albert was President, and owed the greater part of its success to his intelligent and unwearied efforts to promote it. He had to fight for every stage of the great project. In the House of Lords, Lord Brougham denied the right of the crown to hold the exhibition in Hyde Park; in the House of Commons, members prophesied that foreign rogues and revolutionists would overrun England, subvert the morals of the people, filch their trade secrets from them, and destroy their faith and loyalty towards their religion and their sovereign.

Prince Albert served as president of the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, and every post brought him abusive letters, accusing him, as a foreigner, of being intent upon the corruption of England. He was not the man to be baulked by talk of this kind and quietly persevered, trusting always that bringing the best manufactured products of foreign countries under the eyes of the mechanics and artisans would improve British manufacturing.

The Queen opened the exhibition on 1 May 1851, and it proved a colossal success. A surplus of £180,000 was raised, which went to purchase land in South Kensington and establish a number of educational and cultural institutions there, including what would later be named the Victoria and Albert Museum. [Hobhouse, p.110] This area of London was referred to as "Albertopolis" by sceptics. [Hobhouse, p.x and Weintraub, p.263]

Other public activities

In 1852, Albert obtained the freehold of Balmoral, and as usual embarked on an extensive program of improvements. [Hobhouse, p.145] The same year, he was appointed to several of the offices left vacant by the death of the Duke of Wellington, which included the mastership of Trinity House and the colonelcy of the Grenadier Guards. [Weintraub, pp.270–274 and 281–282] With Wellington out of the way, Albert was able to propose and campaign for modernisation of the army, which was long overdue. [Hobhouse, pp.42–43, 47–50 and Weintraub, pp.274–276] Thinking that the military was unready for war, and that Christian rule was preferable to Islamic rule, Albert counselled a diplomatic solution to conflict between the Russian and Ottoman empires. Palmerston was more bellicose, favouring a policy which would prevent further Russian expansion. Palmerston was manoeuvred out of the cabinet in December 1853, but at about the same time a Russian fleet attacked the Ottoman fleet at anchor at Sinop. The London press depicted the attack as a criminal massacre, and Palmerston's popularity surged as Albert's fell. [Weintraub, pp.288–293] Within two weeks, Palmerston was re-appointed as a minister. Absurd rumours circulated that Albert had been arrested for treason as public outrage at the Russian action continued. [Weintraub, pp.294–302] By March 1854, Britain and Russia were embroiled in the Crimean War. Early British optimism soon faded as the press reported that British troops were ill-equipped and mismanaged by aged generals using out-of-date tactics and strategy. The conflict dragged on as the Russians were as poorly prepared as their opposers. The Prime Minister, the Earl of Aberdeen, resigned and Palmerston succeeded him. [Weintraub, pp.303–322, 328] A negotiated settlement eventually put an end to the war with the Treaty of Paris (1856). During the war, Albert arranged to marry his fourteen-year-old daughter, Victoria, to Prince Frederick William of Prussia, though Albert delayed the marriage until Victoria was seventeen. Albert hoped that his daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state. [Weintraub, pp.326 and 330]

A commission was set up to investigate the failings of the British military during the war. As Lord Hardinge was delivering the report of the commission to Victoria and Albert, Hardinge collapsed with a stroke. Albert helped him to a sofa, where despite being paralysed on one side, he continued to deliver his report, apologising for the interruption. Hardinge died a few months later. [Weintraub, p.334]

Prince Albert involved himself in promoting many public, educational institutions. Chiefly at meetings in connection with these he found occasion to make the speeches collected and published in 1857. One of his memorable speeches was the address he delivered as president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science when it met at Aberdeen in 1859. His espousal of science spawned opposition from the Church. His proposal of a knighthood for Charles Darwin, after the publication of "On the Origin of Species", was rejected. [Weintraub, p.232]

The education of his family and the management of his domestic affairs furnished the prince with another very important sphere of action, in which he employed himself with conscientious devotion. He felt keenly the departure of his eldest daughter for Prussia when she married her fiancé at the beginning of 1858, [Weintraub, p.355] but thought that his intensive educational programme was largely lost on his eldest son, the Prince of Wales. [Weintraub, p.367]

During a trip to Coburg in the autumn of 1860, Albert was driving alone in a carriage drawn by four horses, which suddenly bolted. As the horses continued to gallop toward a stationary wagon waiting at a railway crossing, Albert jumped for his life from the carriage. One of the horses was killed in the collision, and Albert was badly shaken though his only physical injuries were cuts and bruises. He told his brother and eldest daughter that he sensed his time had come. [Weintraub, pp.392–393]

In 1861, Victoria's mother and Albert's aunt, the Duchess of Kent, died and Victoria was grief-stricken; Albert took on most of the Queen's duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble. [Hobhouse, pp.150–151 and Weintraub, p.401] In August, Victoria and Albert visited the Curragh Camp, Ireland, where the Prince of Wales was doing army service. It was there that the Prince of Wales was introduced, by his fellow officers, to Nellie Clifden, an Irish actress. [Weintraub, p.404]

Death

By November, Victoria and Albert had returned to Windsor, and the Prince of Wales had returned to Cambridge, where he was a student. Two of Albert's cousins, King Pedro V of Portugal and Prince Frederick of Portugal both died of typhoid fever. [Weintraub, p.405] On top of this sad news, Albert was informed of gossip in the London gentlemen's clubs and the foreign press of the Prince of Wales' continued involvement with Nellie Clifden. Albert and Victoria were horrified by their son's indiscretion, and fearful of blackmail or scandal or, worse, pregnancy. [Weintraub, p.406] Albert was at a low ebb, and almost constantly ill. Nevertheless, during the autumn of 1861 he stayed as busy as ever with the arrangements for the projected international exhibition. When the Trent Affair, the forcible removal of Confederate envoys from a British ship by Union forces, threatened war between the United States and Britain, Albert was gravely ill but intervened quietly to soften the British diplomatic response. [Hobhouse, pp.154–155; Martin, vol. V, pp. 418–426 and Weintraub, pp.408–424] On 9 December, one of Albert's doctors, William Jenner, diagnosed typhoid fever. Congestion of the lungs supervened, and he died at 10.50 p.m. on 14 December 1861 in the Blue Room at Windsor Castle in the presence of the Queen and five of their nine children. [Darby and Smith, p.3; Hobhouse, p.156 and Weintraub, pp.425–431] [Though the contemporary diagnosis was typhoid fever, modern writers have pointed out that Albert was ill for at least two years before his death, which may indicate that a chronic disease, such as renal failure or cancer, was the cause of death (see for example, Hobhouse, pp.150–151).]

Legacy

The Queen's grief was overwhelming, and the sympathy of the whole nation erased the tepid feelings the public had for him during his lifetime. Queen Victoria wore black in mourning for him for the rest of her long life, and his rooms in all his houses were kept as they had been, even with hot water brought in the morning, and linen and towels changed daily. [Darby and Smith, pp.1–4 and Weintraub, p.436] Such practices were not uncommon in the houses of the very rich. [Weintraub, p.438] Victoria withdrew from public life and her seclusion eroded some of Albert's work in attempting to re-model the monarchy as a national institution setting a moral, if not political, example. [Weintraub, pp.441–443] Prince Albert is credited with introducing the principle that the British Royal Family should remain above politics. [Hobhouse, pp.viii, 39] Before his marriage to Victoria, she supported the Whigs; early in her reign Victoria managed to thwart the formation of a Tory government by Sir Robert Peel by refusing to accept substitutions which Peel wanted to make among her ladies-in-waiting. [Hobhouse, p.34]

Albert's body was temporarily entombed in St. George's Chapel, Windsor. [Darby and Smith, p.21 and Hobhouse, p.158] The magnificent mausoleum at Frogmore, in which his remains were deposited a year after his death, was not fully completed until 1871. [Darby and Smith, p.28 and Hobhouse, p.162] The sarcophagus, in which both he and the Queen were eventually to lie, was carved from the largest block of granite that had ever been quarried in Britain. [Darby and Smith, p.25] Despite Albert's request that no effigies of him should be raised, many public monuments were erected all over the country, and across the British Empire. [Darby and Smith, pp.2, 6, 58–84] The most notable are the Royal Albert Hall and Albert Memorial in London. The plethora of memorials erected to Albert became so great that Charles Dickens told a friend that he sought an "inaccessible cave" to escape from them. [Charles Dickens to John Leech, quoted in Darby and Smith, p.102 and Hobhouse, p.169]

After his death, the first biographies of Albert were often heavy on eulogy. Theodore Martin's "magnum opus" five-volume biography was authorised by Queen Victoria, who supervised the work, and her influence shows in its pages. Nevertheless, it is an accurate and exhaustive account. [Fulford, pp.ix–x] Lytton Strachey's "Queen Victoria" (1921) was discredited in part by his repetition of gossip that Albert was illegitimate, and that he did not love the Queen but married her in pursuit of power. Such calumnies were soundly dismissed by mid-twentieth century biographers such as Hector Bolitho and Roger Fulford. [e.g. Fulford, pp.22–23, 44] More recent biographers, such as Stanley Weintraub, portray Albert as a figure in a tragic romance, who died too soon and was mourned by his lover for a lifetime. [Weintraub, Stanley (September 2004; online edition January 2008). [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/274 "Albert (Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha) (1819–1861)"] . "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press. Accessed 7 October 2008 (Subscription required)]

His name lives on in the Queen's institution of the Albert Medal, in reward for gallantry in saving life, and in the Order of Victoria and Albert. Another award struck in his honour is the Albert Medal presented by the Royal Society of Arts. Numerous landmarks are named after Prince Albert from Lake Albert in Africa to the Royal Albert Bridge built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel over the river Tamar. The city of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan was named after him.

Military

Four regiments of the British Army were named after Albert; the first, the 11th (Prince Albert's Own) Hussars, in March 1840, shortly before he became its colonel. The 13th Foot – later the Somerset Light Infantry – took the honorific of Prince Albert's Light Infantry in 1842, and Prince Albert's Own Leicestershire Regiment of Yeomanry Cavalry was renamed in 1844. The Prince Consort's Own Rifle Brigade, of which he had been Colonel-in-Chief, was renamed in memory of him in 1862, shortly after his death.

He and Queen Victoria showed a keen interest in the establishment and development of Aldershot in Hampshire as a garrison town in the 1850s, having a wooden "Royal Pavilion" built there which they would often stay in when attending reviews of the army. [Hobhouse, pp.48–49] Albert established and endowed "The Prince Consort's Library" there, which still exists today. [Hobhouse, p.53]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

*26 August 1819 – 12 November 1826: "His Ducal Serene Highness" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield
*12 November 1826 – 6 February 1840: "His Ducal Serene Highness" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
*6 February 1840 – 29 June 1857: "His Royal Highness" Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
*29 June 1857 – 14 December 1861: "His Royal Highness" The Prince Consort
**"in use since February 1840"

Arms

Prince Albert was granted the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom, with a three point label bearing a red cross in the centre, quartered with the Arms of Saxony. [Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999) [1981] . "Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe". London: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-85605-469-1. pp.30, 32]

Children

Prince Albert advanced the fortunes of his family, the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha. His 40 grandchildren included four reigning monarchs: King George V of the United Kingdom, Kaiser William II of Germany, Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, and Carl Eduard, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; Albert's many descendants include royalty and nobility throughout Europe.

Ancestry

ahnentafel-compact5
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boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;
1= 1. Albert, Prince Consort
2= 2. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
3= 3. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
4= 4. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
5= 5. Countess Augusta Caroline Reuss of Ebersdorf
6= 6. Emil, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
7= 7. Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
8= 8. Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
9= 9. Princess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
10= 10. Henry XXIV, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf
11= 11. Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg
12= 12. Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
13= 13. Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Meiningen
14= 14. Frederick Francis I, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
15= 15. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha
16= 16. Francis Josias, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
17= 17. Princess Anna Sophie of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
18= 18. Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
19= 19. Duchess Antoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Blankenburg
20= 20. Henry XXIX, Count Reuss of Ebersdorf
21= 21. Countess Sophie Theodora of Castell-Remlingen
22= 22. George Augustus, Count of Erbach-Schönberg
23= 23. Countess Ferdinanda of Stolberg-Gedern
24= 24. Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
25= 25. Princess Luise Dorothea of Saxe-Meiningen
26= 26. Anton Ulrich, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
27= 27. Princess Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Philippsthal
28= 28. Duke Louis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
29= 29. Princess Charlotte Sophie of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
30= 30. Prince John Augustus of Saxe-Gotha
31= 31. Countess Luise Reuss of Schleiz

ee also

*John Brown
*List of coupled cousins
*Royal Albert Memorial Museum

References

ources

*Darby, Elizabeth; Smith, Nicola (1983). "The Cult of the Prince Consort" New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03015-0
*Fulford, Roger (1949). "The Prince Consort". London: Macmillan.
*Hobhouse, Hermione (1983). "Prince Albert: His Life and Work". London:Hamish Hamilton. ISBN 0-241-11142-0
*Jagow, Kurt (ed.) (1938). "The Letters of the Prince Consort, 1831–61" London.
*Martin, Theodore (1874–80). "The Life of H. R. H. the Prince Consort" 5 volumes, authorized by Queen Victoria
*Weintraub, Stanley (1997). "Albert: Uncrowned King" London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-5756 9

External links

* [http://hdl.handle.net/1802/2737 The collected compositions of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort] , edited by W. G. Cusins; from Sibley Music Library Digital Scores Collection
*NRA|P302

s-ttl|title=Prince-consort of the United Kingdom
("officially HRH The Prince Consort from 1857")
years=1840–1861
s-ttl|title=Private Secretary to the Sovereign
"(unofficial)"
years=1840–1861
s-ttl|title=Lord Warden of the Stannaries
years=1842–1861
s-ttl|title=Chancellor of the University of Cambridge
years=1847–1861
s-ttl|title=Great Master of the Order of the Bath
years=1843–1861

Persondata
NAME= Prince Albert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Prince Consort of the United Kingdom
DATE OF BIRTH=26 August 1819
PLACE OF BIRTH=Rosenau Castle, Coburg
DATE OF DEATH=14 December 1861
PLACE OF DEATH=Windsor Castle, Berkshire


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  • Albert, prince consort of Great Britain and Ireland — orig. Franz Albrecht August Karl Emanuel, prince von Sachsen Coburg Gotha born Aug. 26, 1819, Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Saxe Coburg Gotha died Dec. 14, 1861, Windsor Castle, Berkshire, Eng. Prince consort of Queen Victoria of Britain and… …   Universalium

  • Prince consort — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Prince et Consort (homonymie). Albert, Prince consort du Royaume Uni …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Prince consort — Prince Prince, n. [F., from L. princeps, cipis, the first, chief; primus first + capere to take. See {Prime}, a., and {Capacious}.] 1. The one of highest rank; one holding the highest place and authority; a sovereign; a monarch; originally… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • prince consort — noun a prince who is the husband of a reigning female sovereign • Hypernyms: ↑prince, ↑consort • Instance Hyponyms: ↑Albert, ↑Prince Albert, ↑Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel * * * ˌprince ˈconsort [ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Prince consort — A prince consort, generally speaking, is a common term for the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself also is a king in his own right.Current examples include the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (husband of Elizabeth II, prince consort in …   Wikipedia

  • Prince-Consort — Als queen consort (dt. Königsgemahlin, Gemahlin des Königs) bezeichnet man im englischen Sprachgebrauch im Gegensatz zur queen regnant (dt. regierende Königin) eine Königin bzw. Queen, welche diesen Status nicht aus eigenem Recht, sondern… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Prince Consort — Als queen consort (dt. Königsgemahlin, Gemahlin des Königs) bezeichnet man im englischen Sprachgebrauch im Gegensatz zur queen regnant (dt. regierende Königin) eine Königin bzw. Queen, welche diesen Status nicht aus eigenem Recht, sondern… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Prince consort — Als queen consort (dt. Königsgemahlin, Gemahlin des Königs) bezeichnet man im englischen Sprachgebrauch im Gegensatz zur queen regnant (dt. regierende Königin) eine Königin bzw. Queen, welche diesen Status nicht aus eigenem Recht, sondern… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Prince Consort Essay — The Prince Consort Essay was a surface printed postage stamp essay, created in 1850 as an example of the surface printed stamps that Henry Archer proposed to print and perforate under contract with the British government at a lower price than the …   Wikipedia

  • Prince Consort — Albert of Saxe Coburg Gotha (Queen Victoria’s husband) …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games


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