- Duke of Norfolk
The coat of arms of the Dukes of Norfolk
Information Shield See below Crest and mantle See below Supporters See below Motto Sola virtus invicta, Latin for "virtue alone is unconquered".
The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, and also, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, moreover, the Earl Marshal and hereditary Marshal of England. The seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk. The dukes have historically been Roman Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England.
- 1 History
- 2 Duties and other titles
- 3 Coats of arms
- 4 Residences
- 5 List of the Dukes of Norfolk
- 6 Knights of the Garter
- 7 Family tree
- 8 See also
- 9 Further reading
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy (died 1107). Their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1307, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II then created his brother Thomas of Brotherton earl in 1312. It passed to Thomas's daughter Margaret, and then to her grandson Thomas Mowbray.
When King Richard II created Thomas Mowbray duke in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles (including Earl Marshal) that had belonged to the earls. His elderly grandmother Margaret was still alive, and so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life. Mowbray died in exile in 1399, some months after his grandmother, and his dukedom was repealed. His widow took the title countess of Norfolk.
Between 1401 and 1476, the Mowbray family held the title and estates of the Duke of Norfolk. John Mowbray, the 4th duke, died without male issue in 1476, his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne Mowbray. At the age of three, a marriage was arranged between Anne and Richard, Duke of York, the four-year-old son of King Edward IV of England. She remained Richard's child bride until she died at the age of 8.
In accordance with the marriage arrangements, Richard inherited the lands and wealth of the Mowbray family. He was also made Duke of Norfolk. However, upon the death of Edward IV, controversy over the legitimacy arose, as evidence of an earlier marriage on the part of Edward IV emerged. Soon after their father's death Richard, and his brother Edward, were declared illegitimate. Richard was sent to the Tower of London by the new king, Richard III, in mid-1483, thus ending his claim to both York and Norfolk.
For his support of Richard III's claim to the throne, John Howard, the son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret, was created 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483, in the title's third creation. From this point to the present, the title has remained in the hands of the descendants of John Howard.
The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who succeeded his father, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 2002.
Duties and other titles
In addition to the title of Duke of Norfolk, the Dukes of Norfolk also hold the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the state opening of parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family. According to The House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal, Norfolk is one of only two hereditary peers automatically admitted to the House of Lords, without being elected by the general body of hereditary peers (the other being the Lord Great Chamberlain).
Additionally, the Duke of Norfolk participates in the ceremony of the State Opening of Parliament. He is among the four individuals who precede the monarch, and one of the two of these who walk always facing the sovereign (thus backwards).
As the Earl Marshal, the Duke of Norfolk is head of the College of Arms, through which he regulates all matters connected with armorial bearings and standards, in addition to controlling the arrangements for state functions.
He is one of three claimants to the title Chief Butler of England.
The Duke of Norfolk currently holds the following subsidiary titles:
- Earl of Arundel (1289)
- Earl of Surrey (1483)
- Earl of Norfolk (1644)
- Baron Beaumont (1309)
- Baron Maltravers (1330)
- Baron FitzAlan (1627)
- Baron Clun (1627)
- Baron Oswaldestre (1627)
- Baron Howard of Glossop (1869)
All titles are in the Peerage of England, save for the Barony of Howard of Glossop which is in the peerage of the United Kingdom. All descend to heirs male except the Barony of Beaumont, which can pass in the female line. The style Earl of Arundel is used as a courtesy title by the Duke's eldest son, the present one of which is Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel. The style Lord Maltravers is used as a courtesy title by the eldest son of the Duke's eldest son (the Duke's grandson).
Coats of arms
The coat of arms of the Howard Dukes of Norfolk consist of four different elements: the arms (or shield), the crest(s), the supporters, the motto, and the batons of the Earl Marshal. Each will be addressed in turn:
- The Arms: Quarterly 1st Gules on a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent an Escutcheon Or charged with a Demi-lion rampant pierced through the mouth by an arrow within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the first (Howard); 2nd Gules three Lions passant gardant in pale Or, Armed and Langued Azure, in chief a Label of three points Argent (Thomas of Brotherton); 3rd Checky Or and Azure (Warenne); 4th Gules a Lion rampant Or, Armed and Langued Azure (Fitzalan).
- The Crests: 1st On a Chapeau Gules turned up Ermine a Lion statant gardant with tail extended Or gorged with a Ducal Coronet Argent (Thomas of Brotherton); 2nd Issuant from a Ducal Coronet Or a pair of Wings Gules each charged with a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent (Howard); 3rd On a Mount Vert a Horse passant Argent holding in the mouth a Slip of Oak fructed proper (Fitzalan).
- The Supporters: Dexter a Lion sinister a Horse both Argent the latter holding in his mouth a Slip of Oak Vert fructed proper.
- The Motto: Sola Virtus Invicta (Virtue alone is unconquered).
- The Batons: Placed behind the shield two gold Batons in Saltire enamelled at the end Sable (black), which represent the Duke of Norfolk's office as Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England.
Often, the coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk appears with the garter of the Order of the Garter surrounding the shield, as seen in the arms of Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk. However, this is by no means hereditary. His Grace, the 17th Duke of Norfolk did not become a Knight of the Garter until 22 April 1983. The current Duke of Norfolk, His Grace Edward William Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, has not been awarded the Order of the Garter. Thus, the Order of the Garter, or any order of knighthood for that matter, is not necessarily a component of the coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk.
The shield on the bend in the first quarter of the arms (shown to the right) was granted as an Augmentation of Honour by Henry VIII to Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Flodden Field. It is a modification of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland. Instead of its normal rampant position, the lion is shown with an arrow through its mouth.
The main residences commonly associated with the Dukes of Norfolk are: Framlingham Castle, Bungay Castle, as well as Clun Castle in Shropshire, which are now largely ruins; Worksop Manor, Carlton Towers, Norfolk House in London, and most notably Arundel Castle.
Framlingham Castle was originally a part of the properties of the Earls of Norfolk, but when the title fell from use, the castle was administered by the crown. In 1397, it was given to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, by King Richard II. And when the Mowbray line became extinct, it passed eventually to the Howard family. Major repairs to this castle were carried out in 1485 by John Howard. The castle would remain in the Howard family, and thus the Dukes of Norfolk, for a while, but would eventually pass from their possession. In 1553, for example, Framlingham was given to Mary Tudor, sister of King Edward VI.
Bungay Castle was also originally a part of the properties of the Earls of Norfolk. In 1483, it passed into the possession of the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, and the family continued to own it, apart from brief periods, until the late 20th century. However, the castle has been in a state of decay for quite some time. And for this reason, the 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 1987 presented the castle to the town, which had already begun restoration attempts on its own, with an endowment towards its preservation. It is now owned and administered by the Castle Trust.
Carlton Towers is in Carlton (near Goole), Yorkshire, England. It is a Victorian gothic country house designed by Edward Welby Pugin. It is the Yorkshire home of the Duke of Norfolk. Though the Duke of Norfolk's family still live in part of the house, it is now largely used for wedding receptions and similar events.
The principal seat of the Dukes of Norfolk and their ancestors for over 850 years is Arundel Castle. Built in the 11th Century by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, the castle was seized by the crown in 1102. King Henry II, who added on to the castle, in 1155 confirmed William d'Aubigny as Earl of Arundel, with the honour and the castle of Arundel. Arundel Castle is still to this day the home of The Duke and Duchess of Norfolk and their children. The Fitzalan Chapel, founded in 1390 by the 4th Earl of Arundel, is located on the western grounds outside the castle, and has been the burial place of the most recent Dukes of Norfolk.
Glossop as an occasional residence is situated in the High Peak District of Derbyshire. As the family became closely connected with Sheffield, The Farm in Glossop became increasingly used, particularly when Henry Howard lived there in the 1760s; when the fourteenth Duke, enlarged The Farm as an occasional residence; and during the time of the fifteenth Duke, Henry Granville Fitzalan-Howard, who had interest in the activities of the City. The Glossop estate was sold by the family in 1925.
List of the Dukes of Norfolk
The dukedom of Norfolk has gone through three creations: in 1397, when it was the possession of the Mowbray family; in 1477 when it was a duchy of the Duke of York; and in 1483, when it came into possession of the Howard family. Notable members of the Howard Family were Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, second and fifth wives of Henry VIII. Both women were nieces of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, who played a major role in the machinations behind their relationships, and eventually marriages to Henry VIII. Also they were the granddaughters of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He was the father of Anne's mother Lady Elizabeth Howard, later Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire and Ormond and Catherine's father Lord Edmund Howard, making the queens first cousins.
Duchess and Countess of Norfolk
- Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (c. 1320–1398), daughter and heir of Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (himself third son of Edward I), and so Countess of Norfolk. She was created Duchess of Norfolk for life in 1397, when her grandson was made Duke.
Dukes of Norfolk (1397)
- Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, 3rd Earl of Norfolk (1365–1399), grandson of the Duchess and Countess of Norfolk above, was rewarded for his services to Richard II. When Richard's rival Henry Bolingbroke usurped his throne as Henry IV in 1399, he stripped de Mowbray of his dukedom.
- Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk (1385–1405), eldest son of the 1st Duke, also incurred Bolingbroke's wrath and was executed rather than restored to the dukedom.
- John de Mowbray, 5th Earl of Norfolk, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1392–1432), second son of the 1st Duke was restored to his father's dukedom in 1425.
- John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1415–1461), only son of the 2nd Duke, was an important figure in the Wars of the Roses.
- John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1444–1476), only son of the 3rd Duke, died without male issue, so several of his titles became extinct.
- Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk (1472–1481), only daughter of the 4th Duke, succeeded him as the 8th and last Countess of Norfolk. She died without issue.
Dukes of Norfolk, second Creation (1481)
- Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1473–1483), second son of Edward IV, was created Duke when his wife, Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk, could not inherit it. He died without issue.
Dukes of Norfolk, third Creation (1483)
- John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (c. 1425–1485) was created Duke by Shrewsbury's uncle Richard III for supporting him in taking the throne from Edward V. After his death, Richard III's rival the new king Henry VII declared his dukedom forfeit.
- Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Surrey, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), eldest son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom in 1514.
- Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, 2nd Earl of Surrey (1473–1554), eldest son of the 2nd Duke, was an immensely important man in the reign of Henry VIII. He incurred the king's disfavour and his dukedom was forfeit in 1547 upon his imprisonment (he only just avoided execution because the king died). Mary I released him and restored his dukedom in 1553.
- Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517–1547), eldest son of the 3rd Duke, was executed before his father's death.
- Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1536–1572), eldest son of the Earl of Surrey, was executed for treason against Elizabeth I, at which point many of his honours were forfeit.
- Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel (1557–1595), eldest son of the 4th Duke
- Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, 3rd Earl of Surrey, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1585–1646), eldest son of the 20th Earl of Arundel, attained the favour of Charles I, who restored the Dukes' Earldom of Surrey and created him Earl of Norfolk.
- Henry Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel (1608–1652), eldest son of the 21st Earl of Arundel
- Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk (1627–1677), eldest son of the 22nd Earl of Arundel, was finally restored to his ancestral dukedom in 1660, died unmarried
- Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1628–1684), second son of the 22nd Earl of Arundel
- Lord Thomas Howard (d. 1689), second son of the 6th Duke, predeceased his eldest brother
- Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk (1655–1701), eldest son of the 6th Duke, died without issue
- Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683–1732), eldest son of Lord Thomas Howard, died without issue
- Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685–1777), second son of Lord Thomas Howard, died without issue
- Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk (1720–1786), grandson of the Hon. Charles Howard, fourth son of the 22nd Earl of Arundel
- Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk (1746–1815), only son of the 10th Duke, died without legitimate issue
- Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (1765–1842), great-grandson of the Hon. Bernard Howard, fifth son of the 22nd Earl of Arundel
- Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk (1791–1856), only son of the 12th Duke
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk (1815–1860), eldest son of the 13th Duke
- Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk (1847–1917), eldest son of the 14th Duke
- Philip Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Arundel (1879–1902), eldest son of the 15th Duke, died unmarried
- Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk (1908–1975), second son of the 15th Duke, died without male issue
- Miles Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk (1915–2002), great-grandson of Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop, second son of the 13th Duke
- Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (b. 1956), eldest son of the 17th Duke
- The heir apparent is Henry Fitzalan-Howard, Earl of Arundel (b. 1987), eldest son of the 18th Duke.
Knights of the Garter
Many of the Dukes of Norfolk have also been knights of the Order of the Garter. The following list is of those Dukes of Norfolk, along with their year of investiture, that were also Knights of the Order of the Garter across all creations of the title.
- 1383 – Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
- 1421 – John Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
- 1451 – John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk
- 1472 – John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
- 1475 – Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, 1st Duke of Norfolk
- 1510 – Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk
- 1559 – Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk; degraded 1572
- 1685 – Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk
- 1834 – Bernard Edward Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk
- 1848 – Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk
- 1886 – Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk
- 1937 – Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk
- 1983 – Miles Francis Stapleton Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk
Thomas of Brotherton,
1st Earl of Norfolk
Duchess of Norfolk
2nd Countess of Norfolk
Lady Margaret de Mowbray
died after 1437
Thomas de Mowbray,
4th Earl of Norfolk
John de Mowbray,
2nd Duke of Norfolk
1st Duke of Norfolk
John de Mowbray,
3rd Duke of Norfolk
2nd Duke of Norfolk
John de Mowbray,
4th Duke of Norfolk
3rd Duke of Norfolk
Anne de Mowbray,
8th Countess of Norfolk
Richard of Shrewsbury,
1st Duke of Norfolk
Earl of Surrey
4th Duke of Norfolk
20th Earl of Arundel
21st Earl of Arundel
22nd Earl of Arundel
5th Duke of Norfolk
6th Duke of Norfolk
Hon. Edward Howard
Hon. Bernard Howard
7th Duke of Norfolk
Lord Thomas Howard
8th Duke of Norfolk
9th Duke of Norfolk
10th Duke of Norfolk
11th Duke of Norfolk
12th Duke of Norfolk
13th Duke of Norfolk
14th Duke of Norfolk
1st Baron Howard of Glossop
15th Duke of Norfolk
edit] See also
- Dukes of Norfolk family tree
- Norfolk Herald Extraordinary
- Earl Marshal
- Earl of Norfolk
- Arundel Castle
- Bungay Castle
- Framlingham Castle
- Carlton Towers
- Baron Howard of Glossop
- Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent
- Earl of Carlisle
- Robinson, John Martin. The Dukes of Norfolk: A Quincentennial History. Oxford University Press, 1982.
- ^ C. Given-Wilson, ‘Mowbray, Thomas (I), first duke of Norfolk (1366–1399)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
- ^ Brooke-Little, J.P., FSA (1978) . Boutell's Heraldry (Revised Edition ed.). London: Frederick Warne LTD. p. 125. ISBN 0-7232-2096-4.
- ^ http://www.castles-abbeys.co.uk/Framlingham-Castle.html
- ^ "Bungay Suffolk Town Guide". Bungay-suffolk.co.uk. http://www.bungay-suffolk.co.uk/history/castle.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- ^ "Arundel Castle". Arundel Castle. http://www.arundelcastle.org/index.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
- An Online Gotha - Norfolk
- The River Adur (land ownership, Norfolk Bridge, etc)
- "Catholic Dukes of Norfolk". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
Extant dukedoms in the peerages of the British Isles*
Cornwall • Norfolk • Somerset • Richmond • Grafton • Beaufort • St Albans • Bedford • Devonshire • Marlborough • Rutland • Rothesay • Hamilton • Buccleuch • Lennox • Queensberry • Argyll • Atholl • Montrose • Roxburghe • Brandon • Manchester • Northumberland • Leinster • Wellington • Sutherland • Abercorn • Westminster • Gordon • Fife • Gloucester • Kent • Edinburgh • York • Cambridge
* Extant dukedoms, listed by precedence, from highest to lowest
Dukes of Norfolk House of Plantagenet (1397–1399)Margaret, 1st Duchess (1397–1399) House of Mowbray (1397–1481) House of Plantagenet (1481–1483)Richard, 1st Duke (1481–1483) House of Howard (1483–1572, 1660—)John, 1st Duke (1483–1485) • Thomas, 2nd Duke (1514–1524) • Thomas, 3rd Duke (1524–1547, 1553–1554) • Thomas, 4th Duke (1554–1572) • Thomas, 5th Duke (1660–1677) • Henry, 6th Duke (1677–1684) • Henry, 7th Duke (1684–1701) • Thomas, 8th Duke (1701–1732) • Edward, 9th Duke (1732–1777) • Charles, 10th Duke (1777–1786) • Charles, 11th Duke (1786–1815) • Bernard, 12th Duke (1815–1842) • Henry, 13th Duke (1842–1856) • Henry, 14th Duke (1856–1860) • Henry, 15th Duke (1860–1917) • Bernard, 16th Duke (1917–1975) • Miles, 17th Duke (1975–2002) • Edward, 18th Duke (2002—)
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