Agdistis


Agdistis

Agdistis (Gr. polytonic|Ἀγδίστις) was a deity of Greek, Roman and Anatolian mythology, possessing both male and female sexual organs, con­nected with the Phrygian worship of Attis and Cybele.Citation
last = Schmitz | first = Leonhard | author-link = | contribution = Agdistis | editor-last = Smith | editor-first = William | title = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology | volume = 1 | pages = 67 | publisher = | place = Boston | year = 1867 | contribution-url = http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0076.html
] Her androgyny was seen as symbolic of a wild, uncontrolled nature and, as a trait threatening to the gods, was condemned and destroyed by them.

Mythography

According to Pausanias, on one occasion Zeus unwittingly begot by the Earth a superhuman being which was at once man and woman, and was called Agdistis. In other versions, there was a rock, called "Agdo", on which the Great Mother slept. Zeus couldn't get the Great Mother pregnant, so he impregnated the rock, which brought forth Agdistis.Citation | last = | first = | author-link = | contribution = Agdistis | editor-last = Turner | editor-first = Patricia | title = Dictionary of Ancient Deities | volume = 1 | pages = 24 | publisher = Oxford University Press | place = Oxford | year = | contribution-url = ]

The gods were afraid of the multi-gendered Agdistis. One deity (in some versions Liber, in others Dionysus) put a sleeping draught in Agdistis's drinking well. After the potion had put Agdistis to sleep, the deity tied his foot to his male genitalia (polytonic|αἰδοῖα) with a strong rope. When he awoke and tried to free himself, Agdistis ripped his penis off, castrating himself. The blood from his severed genitals fertilized the earth, and from that spot grew an almond tree. Once when Nana, daughter of the river-god Sangarius, was gathering the fruit of this tree, she put some almonds (or, in some accounts, a pomegranate) into her bosom; but here the almonds disappeared, and she became pregnant with Attis. [Pausanias, "Description of Greece" vii. 17. § 5] In some versions, Attis was born directly out of the almond.

Attis was of such extraordinary beauty that when he had grown up Agdistis fell in love with him. His relatives, however, destined him to become the husband of the daughter of the king of Pessinus, and he went accordingly. In some versions, the king betroths Attis to his daughter to punish Attis for his incestuous relationship with his mother. At the moment when the marriage song had commenced, Agdistis appeared, and all of the wedding guests were instantly driven mad, and both Attis and the king of Pessinus castrated themselves. Agdistis now repented her deed, and obtained from Zeus the promise that the body of Attis should not become decomposed or disappear. This is the most po­pular account of an otherwise mysterious affair, which is probably part of a symbolical worship of the creative powers of nature. A hill of the name of Agdistis in Phrygia, at the foot of which Attis was believed to be buried, is also mentioned by Pausa­nias. [Pausanias, "Description of Greece" i. 4. § 5]

A story somewhat different is given by Arnobius, in which Attis is beloved by both Agdistis and Cybele. [Arnobius, "Adversus Gentes" ix. 5. § 4; comp. Mimic. Felix, 21] cite book | last = Lancellotti | first = Maria Grazia | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Attis, Between Myth and History: King, Priest, and God | publisher = Brill Publishers | date = 2002 | location = Amsterdam | pages = 20, 92 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=oE8vW4BX9kwC | doi = | id = | isbn = 90-0-412851-4]

The cult of Agdistis

According to Hesychius [Hesychius of Alexandria, "s.v."] and Strabo, [Strabo, xii. p. 567; comp. x. p. 469] Agdistis is the same as Cybele, who was worshiped at Pessinus under that name. In many ancient inscriptions, Agdestis is clearly distinct from Cybele, but in many others she is listed as merely an epithet of Cybele.cite book | last = Gasparro | first = Giulia Sfameni | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Soteriology and Mystic Aspects in the Cult of Cybele and Attis | publisher = Brill Publishers | date = 1985 | location = Amsterdam | pages = 34 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=K_EUAAAAIAAJ | doi = | id = | isbn = 90-0-407283-7]

Although a primarily an Anatolian goddess, the cult of Agdistis covered a good deal of territory. By 250 BC it had spread to Egypt, and later to Attica: notably it could be found in Piraeus as early as the 3rd or 4th century BC, Rhamnus around 80 BC (where there was a sanctuary of Agdistis), and Lesbos and Panticapeum some time later on. Inscriptions honoring her have been found at Mithymna and Paros. In the 1st century BC, her shrine in Philadelphia in Asia Minor required a strict code of behavior. At that location and others she is found with "theoi soteres". Citation
last = Walton | first = Francis Redding | author-link = | contribution = Agdistis | editor-last = Hornblower | editor-first = Simon | title = Oxford Classical Dictionary | volume = | pages = | publisher = Oxford University Press | place = Oxford | year = 1996 | contribution-url =
] Inscriptions found at Sardis from the 4th century BC indicate that priests of Zeus were not permitted to take part in the mysteries of Agdistis. [cite book | last = Turcan | first = Robert | authorlink = | coauthors = Antonia Nevill | title = The Cults of the Roman Empire | publisher = Blackwell Publishing | date = 1996 | location = Oxford | pages = 31-34 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=Q6sSsAR0ZO8C | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-631-20047-9]

Scholars have theorized that Agdistis is part of a continuum of androgynous Anatolian deities, including an ancient Phrygian deity probably named "Andistis" and one called "Adamma", stretching all the way back to the ancient kingdom of Kizzuwatna in the 2nd millennium BC. There is also some epigraphic evidence that in places Agdistis was considered a healing goddess of wholly benevolent nature.

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Agdistis — ? Agdistis Agdistis linnaei[1] …   Википедия

  • Agdistis — (griechisch Ἄγδιστις) ist ein ursprünglich aus dem phrygischen Mythos von Attis stammendes dämonisches Zwitterwesen. Nach Pausanias[1] ließ Zeus im Schlaf seinen Samen auf die Erde fallen, aus dem der hermaphroditische Agdistis entstand. Die …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Agdistis — (en griego antiguo: Ἄγδιστις) era una deidad mitológica de los griegos, los romanos y de la región de Anatolia. Era un personaje andrógeno que fue visto como un símbolo que poseía una naturaleza salvaje y sin control y como rasgo distintivos de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Agdistis — AGDISTIS, is, entstund aus einem zufalle im Schlafe, als Jupiter sich vergeblich Gedanken auf die Cybele gemacht hatte. Weil er aber beyderley Geschlechtes war, so nahmen ihm die Götter das eine, und ließen ihn also bloß ein Frauenzimmer bleiben …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon

  • Agdistis — n. 1. Asiatic epithet for Rhea or Cybele. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Agdistis — Agdistis, mystisches Götterwesen, vom Zeus im Traume mit Kybele gezeugt, u. als Mannweib geboren; die Götter entmannten ihn u. aus der entfloßnen Manneskraft entstand ein Mandel od. Granatbaum, aus dessen Früchten dann Atys (s.d.) geboren wurde.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Agdistis — Agdistis, Beiname der Kybele (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Agdistis — Agdistis, myth., mit dem asiatischen Atysdienste verbunden, symbolisirt die zeugende und empfangende Erde in häßlichen Darstellungen …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Agdistis — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Agdistis désigne : Agdistis est un genre de Lépidoptère Agdistis est l équivalent phrygien de la déesse Cybèle Catégorie : Homonymie …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Agdistis —    In Phrygian mythology a bisexual monster which lost its male organs when Dionysus made it drunk and tied them to a tree. When Agdistis awoke the organs were torn off, and from the blood the first almond tree grew. One of the fruits impregnated …   Who’s Who in non-classical mythology


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.