- PME Aggregation Function
PME Aggregation Function (PAF) is a mechanism defined in Clause 61 of
IEEE 802.3, which allows one or more Physical Medium Entities (PMEs) to be combined together to form asingle logical Ethernetlink.
The PAF is located in the
Physical Coding Sublayer(PCS), between the Media Access Control(MAC)- PHYRate Matching function and the Transmission Convergence (TC) sublayer. It interfaces with the PMEs across the λ-interface, and to the MAC-PHY Rate Matching function using an abstract interface.
PAF is an optional function which is currently (2007) defined for two IEEE 802.3 interfaces:
2BASE-TLand 10PASS-TS, both of which are EFM copper PHYs.
PME Aggregation function has the following characteristics:
* Supports aggregation of up to 32 PMEs
* Supports individual PMEs having different data rates (max 1:4 ratio)
* Ensures low packet latency and preserves frame order
* Scalable and resilient to PME failure
* Independent of type of EFM copper PHY
* Allows vendor discretionary algorithms for fragmentation
PAF "Transmit" function works by fragmenting incoming Ethernet frames into a number of fragments, limited in size to a range between 64 and 512 Bytes. A sequential fragmentation header is prepended to each fragment, indicating if the fragment is from the start-of-packet, end-of-packet or middle of packet. A
Frame Check Sequence(FCS) is appended to each fragment, which is then transmitted by the next available active PME in the aggregated group.
The following diagram illustrates the PAF fragmentation:
PAF "Receive" function reassembles the original frames from the received fragments, which are buffered in a per-MAC fragment buffer. The algorithm uses the fragmentation header to make sure that the reassembled frames are in order.
The PME Aggregation function was first defined in IEEE
802.3ahin 2004. The original [http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/nov01/fosmark_1_1101.pdf Loop Aggregation] proposal was submitted by Klauss Fosmark from now defunct First Mile Systems in 2001.
It was later referenced by
ITU-TG.998.2 (Ethernet-based multi-pair bonding) and its ANSIequivalent NIPP-NAI T1.427.02.
PAF algorithm and fragmentation header are very similar to
MLPPPwhich works at layer 3 (IP).
PAF is an asymmetric protocol, i.e. all information required for reassembly is contained in the fragmentation header sent with each fragment. While allowing great flexibility in Transmitter and Receiver implementations it requires an overhead consuming about 5% of the bandwidth (estimation for 2BASE-TL protocol, including 64B/65B encapsulation). PAF is optimized for the Ethernet traffic.
Inverse Multiplexing for ATM(IMA) is another aggregation protocol, which unlike PAF uses fixed size cells, sending them across multiple links in a Round-Robinfashion. IMA is optimized for ATM and in the extreme cases (short Ethernet frames) may add as much as 40% overhead due to the AAL5encapsulation.
ITU-T G.998.3 (Multi-pair bonding using time-division inverse multiplexing) specification, a.k.a. G.Bond/TDIM, defines a symmetric aggregation protocol, in which both sides of a
point-to-pointlink exchange information about the aggregation, so there's no need for a separate header. G.Bond/TDIM is optimized for both Time-Division Multiplexingand packet traffic with less than 3% overhead (estimation for Ethernet traffic, including Generic Framing Procedure(GFP) encapsulation).
Ethernet in the First Mile
* [http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/802.3.html Get IEEE 802.3] - "IEEE Standard for Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications", IEEE Std 802.3-2005, December 2005.
* [http://www.ieee802.org/3/ah/ IEEE 802.3ah] - Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force archive
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