 Orbital inclination change

Orbital inclination change is an orbital maneuver aimed at changing the inclination of an orbiting body's orbit. This maneuver is also known as an orbital plane change as the plane of the orbit is tipped. This maneuver requires a change in the orbital velocity vector (delta v) at the orbital nodes (i.e. the point where the initial and desired orbits intersect, the line of orbital nodes is defined by the intersection of the two orbital planes).
Contents
Efficiency
In general, inclination changes require the most^{[citation needed]} delta v to perform, and most mission planners try to avoid them whenever possible to conserve fuel. This is typically achieved by launching a spacecraft directly into the desired inclination, or as close to it as possible so as to minimize any inclination change required over the duration of the spacecraft life.
Maximum efficiency of inclination change is achieved at apoapsis, (or apogee), where orbital velocity is the lowest. In some cases, it may require less total delta v to raise the satellite into a higher orbit, change the orbit plane at the higher apogee, and then lower the satellite to its original altitude.^{[1]}
For the most efficient example mentioned above, targeting an inclination at apoapsis also changes the argument of periapsis. However, targeting in this manner limits the mission designer to changing the plane only along the line of apsides.^{[citation needed]}
Inclination entangled with other orbital elements
An important subtlety of performing an inclination change is that Keplerian orbital inclination is defined by the angle between ecliptic North and the vector normal to the orbit plane, (i.e. the angular momentum vector). This means that inclination is always positive and is entangled with other orbital elements primarily the argument of periapsis which is in turn connected to the longitude of the ascending node. This can result in two very different orbits with precisely the same inclination.
Calculation
In a pure inclination change, only the inclination of the orbit is changed while all other orbital characteristics (radius, shape, etc.) remains the same as before. Deltav () required for an inclination change () can be calculated as follows:
where:
 is the orbital eccentricity
 is the argument of periapsis
 is the true anomaly
 is the mean motion
 is the semimajor axis
For more complicated manoeuvres which may involve a combination of change in inclination and orbital radius, the amount of delta v is the vector difference between the velocity vectors of the initial orbit and the desired orbit at the transfer point.
Circular orbit inclination change
Where both orbits are circular (i.e. = 0) and have the same radius the Deltav () required for an inclination change () can be calculated using:
Where:
 is the orbital velocity and has the same units as Δv_{i} ^{[1]}
Other ways to change inclination
Some other ways that inclination^{[clarification needed]} have been proposed:^{[by whom?]}
 aerodynamic lift (for bodies with an atmosphere, such as the Earth)
 tethers
 solar sails
Transits of other bodies such as the moon can also be done.
See also
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Braeunig, Robert A. "Basics of Space Flight: Orbital Mechanics". http://www.braeunig.us/space/orbmech.htm#maneuver.
Categories: Celestial mechanics
 Orbits
 Astrodynamics
 Orbital maneuvers
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