- Sarai (city)
Sarai ( also transcribed as Saraj or Saray) was the name of two cities, which were successively capital cities of the Golden Horde, the Mongol kingdom which ruled Russia and much of central Asia in the 13th and 14th centuries. They were among the largest cities of the medieval world, with a population estimated by the 2005 Britannica at 600,000.
"Old Sarai", or "Sarai Batu", "Sarai Berke" or "Sarai-al-Maqrus" (al-Maqrus is Arabic for "the blessed") was established by Mongol ruler Batu Khan in the mid-1240s, on a site east of the Akhtuba river, near to the modern village of Selitrennoye.
This site was most probably located on the Akhtuba River, a channel of the lower Volga River, near the contemporary village of Selitrennoye in Kharabali District, Astrakhan Oblast, Russia, about 120 km north from Astrakhan.
Sarai was the seat of Batu and his successor Berke. Under them Sarai was the capital of a great empire. The various Rus' princes came to Sarai to pledge allegiance to the Khan and receive his patent of authority (yarlyk).
New Sarai (called Sarai-al-Jadid on coins) was at modern Kolobovka, formerly Tsarev, an archeological site also on the Akhtuba channel 85 km east of Volgograd, and about 180 km northwest of Old Sarai or, maybe on the site of Saqsin (which may have itself been built on the site of the Khazar capital, Atil). The bishops of Krutitsy resided in Tsarev from 1261 to 1454. It had probably succeeded Sarai Batu as the capital of the Golden Horde by the mid 1300s.
Both cities were sacked several times. Timur sacked New Sarai around 1395, and Meñli I Giray of the Crimean Khanate sacked New Sarai around 1502. Sarai was finally destroyed after 1556 when Ivan IV of Russia conquered the Astrakhan Khanate.
In 1623-1624, a Russian merchant, Fedor Afanasyevich Kotov, travelled to Persia via the lower Volga. He described the site of Sarai: Here by the river Akhtuba stands the Golden Horde. The khan's court, palaces, and courts, and mosques are all made of stone. But now all these buildings are being dismantled and the stone is being taken to Astrakhan. Since Old Sarai lies at 120 km from Astrakhan and New Sarai at 300 km, it is difficult to decide to which of these two cities this description applies.
After the destruction of New Sarai, Russia established the fortress city of Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd) to control the area.
Sarai Juk (Little Sarai) was a city on the Ural River. It is often conflated with the other Sarais in historical and modern accounts. This town was the main city of the Nogai Horde, one of the successors of the Golden Horde. Although sacked by the Ural Cossacks in 1580, it was later used as the headquarters by some Kazakh khans.
- ^ Etymology dictionary
- ^ Atwood, Christopher P. (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York, NY: Facts on File
- ^ VASILIEVITCH, K.V. et al., Atlas Istorii SSSR 1, Glavnoe Upravlenie.., Moskva, 1948, p. 12
- ^ MacKenzie, David, Michael W. Curran. (2002). A History of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Beyond. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. ISBN 0-534-58698-8
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sarai — Sarai, Saraj or Sarah can refer to: Places Saraj (Resen), an historic estate in Resen built by Ahmed Niyazi Bey Bal Sarai, a village in Amritsar District of Punjab, India Sarai (city), the capital city of the Golden Horde Saraj municipality, a… … Wikipedia
Sarai Alamgir Tehsil — Sarai Alamgir Tehsil … Wikipedia
Sarai Alamgir — The River Jhelum and the bridge from Sarai Alamgir side … Wikipedia
Sarai Saleh — Town and union council Country Pakistan Region Khyber Pakhtunkhwa District Haripur District Tehsil … Wikipedia
Sarai Kale Khan — is a historic locality and a Gujjar village of Basista / Bosatta Gotra (clan), migrated from Khanpur village situated in South Delhi in 16th 17th Century . During past, it was known as Moocho waali Sarai (Inn of Moustaches) because every male… … Wikipedia
Sarai Aquil — city Coordinates Country India State Uttar Pradesh … Wikipedia
Sarai Mir — city Coordinates Country India State Uttar Pradesh … Wikipedia
Sarai-khas — village Coordinates Country India State Punjab … Wikipedia
Sarai — (Гургаон,Индия) Категория отеля: 3 звездочный отель Адрес: B1/B South City 1 Near Signature Towers, 1220 … Каталог отелей
Sarai — Original name in latin Sarai Name in other language SARAI, Sarai, САРАИ, Сараи State code RU Continent/City Europe/Moscow longitude 53.74577 latitude 41.02126 altitude 119 Population 6439 Date 2012 01 17 … Cities with a population over 1000 database