Land grant


Land grant

A land grant is a gift of real estate - land or privileges - made by a government or other authority as a reward for services to an individual, especially as rewards for military service. Grants of land are also awarded to individuals and companies as incentives to develop unused land in relatively unpopulated countries; the process of awarding land grants are not limited to the countries named below.

Ancient Rome

Roman soldiers were given rewards at the end of their service including cash or land ("praemia"). Augustus fixed the amount in AD 5 at 3000 denarii and by the time of Caracalla it had risen to 5000 denarii. [ [http://www.roman-empire.net/army/army.html The Roman Army ] ]

Australia

Starting from 1788, the British crown granted land to released convicts in the colony of New South Wales. [ [http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/guides/short_guide_8_land_grants_1788-1856_9703.asp#Historicalbackground State Records NSW] , citing "Historical Records of Australia" 1.1.14, 1.1.124-8, 1.7.268, 1.12.107-125, 1.16.22.]

Males were allowed 30 acres, plus 20 acres if they were married, and 10 additional acres per child. Instructions were issued on 20 August, 1789 that non-commissioned Marine Officers were to be entitled to 100 additional acres and privates to 50 additional acres.

Governor Macquarie canceled land grants issued during the Rum Rebellion 1808-09, although some were later renewed.

Land grants started to be phased out when private tendering was introduced, and stricter limits were placed on grants without purchase. The instructions to Governor Brisbane were issued on 17 July, 1825. Eventually, on 9 January, 1831, Viscount Goderich commanded that all land was to be sold at public auction.

There were also significant land grants in the Swan River Colony, and in Van Diemen's Land from 1803.

Canada

* See Canadian Pacific Railway

Colonial America

In the New World, starting in the 16th century, land grants were given for the purpose of establishing settlements, missions, and farms. Countries granting land included Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, and Britain.

Under colonial law, a patentee had to improve the land. Under this doctrine of planting and seating, the patentee "was required to cultivate an acre of land and build a small house on the property, otherwise the patent would revert to the government." [ [http://www.rootsweb.com/~rwguide/lesson29a.htm Roots web] ] [ [http://www.squirreljumper.com/legalterms.html Squirrel-jumper web site] ]

United States

Starting with the American Revolutionary War, United States veterans often received land grants in lieu of other remuneration.

Between 1783 and 1821, Spain offered land grants to anyone who settled in their colony of Florida. When that colony was transferred to the United States, the resulting treaty agreed to honor all valid land grants. As a result, years of litigation ensued over the validity of many of the Spanish Land Grants.

Controversy over community land grant claims in New Mexico persist to this day.cite web|url=http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0459.pdf|title=Treaty of Guadalpe Hidalgo: Findings and Possible Options Regarding Longstanding Community Land Grant Claims in New Mexico|publisher=General Accounting Office|accessdate=05 June|accessyear=2008|format=PDF]

During the 19th century, four out of the five transcontinental railroads in the United States were built using land grant incentives.

Since the conclusion of the Spanish-American war, there has not been a legitimate use of Land Grants. [ [http://ag.ca.gov/newsalerts/release.php?id=1561] , California Department of Justice: Office of the Attorney General, May 22, 2008]

Notes

External links

* [http://www.floridamemory.com/Collections/SpanishLandGrants/ Online collection and history of the Spanish Land Grants in Florida; made available for public use by the State Archives of Florida.]

See also

* Land-grant university
* Sea-grant college
* Space-grant college
* Atrisco Land Grant
* United States Court of Private Land Claims
* Military Tract of 1812
* Mexican land grants in Arizona


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