- Parallax scanning
Parallax scanning depth enhancing imaging methods rely on discrete parallax differences between depth planes in a scene. The differences are caused by a parallax scan. When properly balanced (tuned) and displayed, the discrete parallax differences are perceived by the brain as depth.
A continuously moving parallax scan records a pattern of sequential parallax views on a single strip of film or video tape. The lens's optical axis sweeps in the plane of the nominal X and Y axes around the nominal optical Z axis, pivoting on the optical convergence point (out along the Z axis), so that it passes through positions having parallax in relation to the optical convergence point. The circular scanning of the lens's optical axis traces out a coaxial cone pattern with the convergence point as its apex. Early tests revealed that the brain will translate parallax scanned information into depth information at scanning frequencies of between 3 - 6 Hz, and that the ideal frequency is 4.31 Hz.
Human Visual Perception
In his 1995 book, Foundations of Vision, Brian Wandell states, "
Perceptionis an interpretation of the retinal image, not a description. Information in the retinal image may be interpreted in many different ways. Because we begin with ambiguous information, we cannot make deductions from the retinal image, only inferences. ....we have learned that the visual system succeeds in interpreting images because of statistical regularities present in the visual environment and hence in the retinal image. These regularities permit the visual system to use fragmentary information present in the retinal image to draw accurate inferences about the physical cause of the image. For example, when we make inferences from the retinal image, the knowledge that we live in a three-dimensional world is essential to the correct interpretation of the image. Often, we are made aware of the existence of these powerful interpretations and their assumptions when they are in error, that is, when we discover a visual illusion."
While it is not possible to create a stereo image on a standard display without special equipment, it is possible to create an image with enhanced texture and depth. The parallax scanning lens technology creates
autostereoscopicmoving images with enhanced texture and depth on standard displays (television, movie screens and computer monitors) without the necessity of special screens or the use of viewing glasses. Images can be recorded on normal film or videotape using industry standard camera systems. The image depth enhancement is accomplished entirely by the lens using parallax scanning technology.
Psycho-physical Research It is known that the act of visual perception is a cognitive exercise and not merely a stimulus response. In other words, perception is a learned ability which we develop in infancy. Kenneth Ogle of the Mayo Clinic, reported 1967 that left and right-eye information can be presented alternatively to the left and right eyes, resulting in depth perception as long as the time interval does not exceed 100 msec. Visual researcher David Marr has suggested that perceptual fusion of binocular information occurs in a short-term memory buffer by means of some sort of visual depth mapping. In 1984, Edwin Jones of the University of South Carolina reported that the human brain can accept and process parallax information without regard to the direction of the parallax, i.e. horizontal, diagonal or vertical. A. P. McLaurin of the University of South Carolina, has stated that if visual information is in fact compared in a temporary memory and does not have to be received simultaneously, there is no reason why
stereoscopicinformation that is appropriately sequenced at the proper rate cannot be observed by the single eye.
In August ‘98, the University of Virginia - Cognitive Science Department received an Innovation Award from the Virginia Center for Innovative Technology (CIT) to fund a research project to study the perceptual aspects of parallax scanning on the human visual system. This project and its subsequent report were completed in March ‘99.
The UVA report titled Perceived depth is enhanced with parallax scanning, was the first independent study of the parallax scanning technologies. Dr. Dennis Proffitt and Tom Banton’s work confirm that parallax scanning enhances perceived depth in images, especially when the object depth is large (See UVA Report). The more depth in the scene, the more parallax scanning enhances its perception by a viewer on a standard television screen without the aid of special glasses.
[http://www.inv3.com/UVA.pdf UVA Report]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Galvanometer — D Arsonval/Weston galvanometer movement with the moving coil shown in red. A galvanometer is a type of ammeter: an instrument for detecting and measuring electric current. It is an analog electromechanical transducer that produces a rotary… … Wikipedia
Kyle Rayner — Superherobox| caption=Kyle as he appears after the War and during Countdown to Final Crisis . Art by Talent Caldwell and J.D.Smith character name=Green Lantern publisher=DC Comics debut= Green Lantern (vol. 3) #48 (January 1994) creators=Ron Marz … Wikipedia
photography, technology of — Introduction equipment, techniques, and processes used in the production of photographs. The most widely used photographic process is the black and white negative–positive system (Figure 1 >). In the camera the lens projects an image of… … Universalium
Queen's Medal — Die Royal Medal, auch The Queen s Medal genannt, ist eine von der Royal Society verliehene Auszeichnung für Wissenschaftler, die innerhalb des Commonwealth of Nations besonders wichtige Beiträge zur Weiterentwicklung der Wissenschaften geleistet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Royal Medal — Die Royal Medal, auch The Queen s Medal genannt, ist eine von der Royal Society verliehene Auszeichnung für Wissenschaftler, die innerhalb des Commonwealth of Nations besonders wichtige Beiträge zur Weiterentwicklung der Wissenschaften geleistet… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Spirit DataCine — is a telecine and/or a motion picture film scanner. This device is able to transfer 16mm and 35mm motion picture film to NTSC or PAL standards or one of many High definition television standards. With the data transfer option a Spirit DataCine… … Wikipedia
Color television — Title card for NBC, promoting their broadcast in RCA color . Color television is part of the history of television, the technology of television and practices associated with television s transmission of moving images in color video. In its most… … Wikipedia
Cathode ray tube — Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. Three Electron guns (for red, green, and blue phosphor dots) 2. Electron beams 3. Focusing coils 4. Deflection coils 5. Anode connection 6. Mask for separating beams for red,… … Wikipedia
optics — /op tiks/, n. (used with a sing. v.) the branch of physical science that deals with the properties and phenomena of both visible and invisible light and with vision. [1605 15; < ML optica < Gk optiká, n. use of neut. pl. of OPTIKÓS; see OPTIC,… … Universalium
Mathematics and Physical Sciences — ▪ 2003 Introduction Mathematics Mathematics in 2002 was marked by two discoveries in number theory. The first may have practical implications; the second satisfied a 150 year old curiosity. Computer scientist Manindra Agrawal of the… … Universalium