- Pulitzer Prize for Music
Pulitzer Prizefor Music was first awarded in 1943. Joseph Pulitzerdid not call for such a prize in his will, but had arranged for a music scholarship to be awarded each year. This was eventually converted into a full-fledged prize: "For a distinguished musical compositionof significant dimension by an American that has had its first performance in the United States during the year.” Because of the requirement that the composition had its world premiere during the year of its award, the winning work had rarely been recordedand sometimes had received only one performance. [http://newmusicbox.net/page.nmbx?id=14tp11] In 2004the terms were modified to read: “For a distinguished musical composition by an American that has had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.” [http://www.pulitzer.org/resources/musannounce.html]
1965, the jury voted to give the prize to Duke Ellington, but the Pulitzer Board refused to accept the ruling and chose to give no award that year. Ellington responded: "Fate is being kind to me. Fate doesn't want me to be too famous too young." (He was then sixty-seven years old.) [http://www.slate.com/id/2140177/] Despite this joke, Nat Hentoffreported that when he spoke to Ellington about the subject, he was "angrier than I'd ever seen him before," and Ellington said, "I'm hardly surprised that my kind of music is still without, let us say, official honor at home. Most Americans still take it for granted that European-based music—classical music, if you will—is the only really respectable kind." [http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/?id=110005313]
1996, after years of internal debate, the Pulitzer Prize board announced a change in the criteria for the music prize "so as to attract the best of a wider range of American music." [http://www.slate.com/id/2140177/] The result was that the following year Wynton Marsalis became the first jazz artist to win the Pulitzer Prize. However, his victory was controversial because according to the Pulitzer guidelines, his winning work, a three hour long oratorio about slavery, " Blood on the Fields," should not have been eligible. Although a winning work was supposed to have had its first performance during that year, Marsalis' piece premiered on April 1, 1994 and its recording, released on Columbia Records, was dated 1995. Yet, the piece won the 1997 prize. Marsalis' management had submitted a "revised version" of "Blood on the Fields" which was "premiered" at Yale Universityafter the composer made seven small changes. [http://www.earbox.com/inter008.html] When asked what would make a revised work eligible, the chairman of that year's music jury, Robert Ward, said: "Not a cut here and there...or a slight revision," but rather something that changed "the whole conception of the piece." After being read the list of revisions made to the piece, Ward acknowledged that the minor changes should not have qualified it as an eligible work, but he said that "the list you had here was not available to us, and we did not discuss it." [http://www.gregsandow.com/marsalis.htm]
The first woman to receive the award was
Ellen Taaffe Zwilichwho won in 1983. Zwilich was also the first woman to receive a Doctor of Musical Arts degree in composition at the Juilliard School of Music. [http://www.american.edu/heintze/Pul1.htm]
1992the music jury, which that year consisted of George Perle, Roger Reynolds, and Harvey Sollberger, selected a piece by Ralph Shapeyfor the award. However, the Pulitzer Board rejected that decision and chose to give the prize to the jury's second choice, Wayne Peterson. The music jury responded with a public statement stating that they had not been consulted in that decision and that the Board was not professionally qualified to make such a decision. The Board responded that the "Pulitzers are enhanced by having, in addition to the professional's point of view, the layman's or consumer's point of view," and they did not rescind their decision. [http://www.american.edu/heintze/Pul1.htm]
George Walker was the first African American composer to win the Prize, which he received for his work "Lilacs" in
1996. Walker is a graduate of the Oberlin Conservatorywhich he entered at the age of fourteen, and graduated at eighteen with the highest honors in his Conservatory class. He was the first black graduate at the renowned Curtis Institute of Music, where he received an Artist Diplomas degree, and he was the first black recipient of a Doctoral degree at the Eastman School of Music.
After winning the award in
2003, John Adams expressed "ambivalence bordering on contempt" since he felt that the prize had "lost much of the prestige it still carries in other fields" because "most of the country's greatest musical minds" have been ignored in favor of academicmusic. [http://www.earbox.com/inter008.html]
Donald Martino, the 1974winner, said, "If you write music long enough, sooner or later, someone is going to take pity on you and give you the damn thing. It is not always the award for the best piece of the year; it has gone to whoever hasn't gotten it before." [http://www.boston.com/ae/music/articles/2004/06/01/changes_to_definition_of_pulitzer_for_music_spark_dissonance/] John Corigliano, the winner in 2001, said that although the Pulitzer Prize for Music was intended to be for music that meant something to the world, it had become a very different kind of award: "by composers for composers" and "mired in a pool of rotating jurors." [http://www.earbox.com/inter008.html] Indeed, in 1998, after researching the Pulitzer Prize for Music, music critic Kyle Gannwrote that the awards panel often included "the same seven names over and over as judges": Gunther Schuller, Joseph Schwantner, Jacob Druckman(now deceased), George Perle, John Harbison, Mario Davidovsky, and Bernard Rands. Gann concluded that since all of these composers are white men, and generally have same "narrow Eurocentric aesthetic" that the prize has been unfairly biased. [http://www.kylegann.com/downtown.html]
2004, responding to criticism, Sig Gissler, the administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes at the Columbia University School of Journalism, announced that they wanted to "broaden the prize a bit so that we can be more assured that we are getting the full range of the best of America's music..." Jay T. Harris, a member of the Pulitzer governing board said: "The prize should not be reserved essentially for music that comes out of the European classical tradition." [http://www.opinionjournal.com/la/?id=110005313]
The announced rule changes included altering the jury pool to include performers and presenters, in addition to composers and critics. Entrants are now no longer required to submit a score. Recording will also be accepted, although scores are still "strongly urged." Gissler said, "The main thing is we're trying to keep this a serious prize. We're not trying to dumb it down any way shape or form, but we're trying to augment it, improve it...I think the critical term here is 'distinguished American musical compositions.'" [http://music.yahoo.com/read/news/12176377]
The Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board officially announced: "After more than a year of studying the Prize, now in its 61st year, the Pulitzer Prize Board declares its strong desire to consider and honor the full range of distinguished American musical compositions—from the contemporary classical symphony to jazz, opera, choral, musical theater, movie scores and other forms of musical excellence...Through the years, the Prize has been awarded chiefly to composers of classical music and, quite properly, that has been of large importance to the arts community. However, despite some past efforts to broaden the competition, only once has the Prize gone to a jazz composition, a musical drama or a movie score. In the late 1990s, the Board took tacit note of the criticism leveled at its predecessors for failure to cite two of the country's foremost jazz composers. It bestowed a Special Citation on
George Gershwinmarking the 1998 centennial celebration of his birth and Duke Ellingtonon his 1999 centennial year. Earlier, in 1976, a Special Award was made to Scott Joplinin his [sic] bicentennial year. While Special Awards and Citations continue to be an important option, the Pulitzer Board believes that the Music Prize, in its own annual competition, should encompass the nation's array of distinguished music and hopes that the refinements in the Prize's definition, guidelines and jury membership will serve that end.” [http://www.pulitzer.org/resources/musannounce.html]
Reaction among Pulitzer Prize in Music winners has varied.
Gunther Schullersaid, "This is a long overdue sea change in the whole attitude as to what can be considered for the prize. It is an opening up to different styles and not at all to different levels of quality." Other former winners disagreed. Stephen Hartkepublicly criticized the changes, and John Harbisoncalled them "a horrible development." Lewis Spratlansaid, "The Pulitzer is one of the very few prizes that award artistic distinction in front-edge, risk-taking music. To dilute this objective by inviting the likes of musicals and movie scores, no matter how excellent, is to undermine the distinctiveness and capability for artistic advancement." [http://www.boston.com/ae/music/articles/2004/06/01/changes_to_definition_of_pulitzer_for_music_spark_dissonance/]
music critic Greg Sandowresponded: "What's really going on here...is a last-ditch defense of the obsolete and snobbish idea that only classical music can be art...I wonder if Hartke, Harbison, and others aren't (whether they know it or not) simply trying to protect their turf, trying to preserve some distinction, some chance at prestige and momentary fame, that might elude them if the Pulitzer prize were given simply for artistic merit." [http://www.artsjournal.com/sandow/2004/07/pulitzer_prizes.html] The hope was that the rules changes would "level the playing field" [http://music.yahoo.com/read/news/12176377] , but in 2004 Sandow reported that the Pulitzer board's nomination materials sent "a pretty clear message [that] classical works with notated scores are still our first priority." [http://www.artsjournal.com/sandow/2006/11/pultizer_follies.html]
However, in 2006, a posthumous "Special Citation" was given to
jazzcomposer Thelonious Monk, [http://www.pulitzer.org/year/2006/special-citation/] and in 2007 the prize went to Ornette Coleman, a free jazz composer.
* 2008: David Lang, "The Little Match Girl Passion"
Ornette Coleman, " Sound Grammar"
Yehudi Wyner, "Chiavi in Mano", ( piano concerto)
Steven Stucky, "Second Concerto for Orchestra"
Paul Moravec, "Tempest Fantasy"
* 2003: John Adams, "
On the Transmigration of Souls"
Henry Brant, "Ice Field"
John Corigliano, "Symphony No. 2 for string orchestra"
Lewis Spratlan, "Life is a Dream", opera(awarded for concert version of Act II)
Melinda Wagner, "Concerto for Flute, Strings, and Percussion"
Aaron Jay Kernis, "String Quartet No. 2", "Musica Instrumentalis"
Wynton Marsalis, " Blood on the Fields", oratorio
* 1996: George Walker, "Lilacs", for
Morton Gould, "Stringmusic"
Gunther Schuller, "Of Reminiscences and Reflections"
* 1993: Christopher Rouse, "Trombone Concerto"
Wayne Peterson, "The Face of the Night, the Heart of the Dark"
Shulamit Ran, "Symphony"
* 1990: Mel D. Powell, "Duplicates: A Concerto"
Roger Reynolds, "Whispers Out of Time"
William Bolcom, "12 New Etudes for Piano"
John Harbison, "The Flight into Egypt"
George Perle, "Wind Quintet No. 4", for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, and bassoon
Stephen Albert, "Symphony RiverRun"
Bernard Rands, "Canti del Sole"
Ellen Zwilich, "Three Movements for Orchestra (Symphony No. 1)"
Roger Sessions, "Concerto for Orchestra"
* 1981: no prize awarded
David Del Tredici, "In Memory of a Summer Day"
Joseph Schwantner, "Aftertones of Infinity"
Michael Colgrass, "Deja Vu" for percussion and orchestra
Richard Wernick, "Visions of Terror and Wonder"
Ned Rorem, " Air Music"
Dominick Argento, "From the Diary of Virginia Woolf"
Donald Martino, " Notturno"
Elliott Carter, "String Quartet No. 3"
Jacob Druckman, "Windows"
Mario Davidovsky, "Synchronisms No. 6"
Charles Wuorinen, "Time's Encomium"
Karel Husa, "String Quartet No. 3"
George Crumb, "Echoes of Time and the River"
Leon Kirchner, "Quartet No. 3 for strings and electronic tape"
Leslie Bassett, "Variations for Orchestra"
* 1965: no prize awarded (See
* 1964: no prize awarded
Samuel Barber, "Piano Concerto"
Robert Ward, "The Crucible", opera
Walter Piston, "Symphony No. 7"
Elliott Carter, "String Quartet No. 2"
John La Montaine, "Piano Concerto"
Samuel Barber, "Vanessa", opera
Norman Dello Joio, "Meditations on Ecclesiastes"
Ernst Toch, "Symphony No. 3"
Gian Carlo Menotti, "The Saint of Bleecker Street", opera
Quincy Porter, "Concerto Concertante" for two pianos and orchestra
* 1953: no prize awarded
Gail Kubik, "Symphony Concertante"
Douglas Stuart Moore, "Giants in the Earth", opera
Gian-Carlo Menotti, " The Consul", opera
Virgil Thomson, "Louisiana Story", filmscore
Walter Piston, "Symphony No. 3"
Charles Ives, "Symphony No. 3"
Leo Sowerby, "The Canticle of the Sun"
Aaron Copland, " Appalachian Spring", ballet
Howard Hanson, "Symphony No. 4"
William Schuman, "Secular CantataNo. 2: A Free Song"
* [http://www.pulitzer.org/ Pulitzer Prize website]
* [http://www.newmusicbox.com/pulitzer/index.html The Pulitzer Prize for Music: A Sonic Gallery]
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