Yakimanka District


Yakimanka District

Yakimanka District ( _ru. район Якиманка) is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. The area is named after Saint Joachim and Saint Anne. Yakimanka сontains the western half of historical Zamoskvorechye area (its eastern half is administered as Zamoskvorechye District proper), including Tretyakov Gallery, and the territories of Gorky Park and Neskuchny Sad. The boundary between Yakimanka and Zamoskvorechye districts follows Balchug Street and Bolshaya Ordynka Street (north of Garden Ring), Korovy Val and Mytnaya streets (south of Garden Ring).

History

Old Muscovy

"This section is based on P.V.Sytin's "History of Moscow Streets" [Russian: П.В.Сытин, "Из истории московских улиц", М, 1948]

Territories on the right (southern) bank of Moskva River, now known as Zamoskvorechye, were colonized since fourteenth century. Two river crossings, west and east of Moscow Kremlin walls, continued south to Kaluga and Serpukhov, and served as main axes of settlement. The western part of Yakimanka District (between Moskva River and Bolshaya Yakimanka Street) was regularly flooded, thus its inhabited area was contained within a 700 meter wide tract of land between Bolshaya Yakimanka and Bolshaya Ordynka streets (Kaluga and Serpukhov roads). The floodland was gradually built out in nineteenth century when Babiegorodskaya Dam was completed, but even then a large green field existed near Krymsky Bridge until 1972, when a new building of Tretyakov Gallery was built. The clover leafs on district's coat of arms are a memory of these fields.

"See Balchug for the expanation of Vodootvodny Canal flood control development that separated Bersenevka and Boloto neighborhoods from the mainland and the history of the island."

Lands south of Moskva river, exposed to the southern enemies, were regularly destroyed by raiders, notably by Algirdas in 1366 and 1368, Tokhtamysh in 1382, Edigu in 1408 and Mazovsha in 1451. Permanent militarized settlements of Muscovites, slobodas, were established by Prince Vasili III in early sixteents century. The fortified line on the site of present-day Garden Ring was built in 1591-1592 in the reign of Feodor I. The church of St. Joachim and St. Anne, that gave name to the district, was initially built in 1493 and subsequently rebuilt (see [http://orel.rsl.ru/vers_may2000/books/html/volume3p2/middle/m3p2n22.jpg19th century photo] ).

Yakimanka district had a diverse ethnic and social composition, rapidly changing through the course of history:
*Continuous presence of Tatars since 14th century; Ordynka Street is named after "Orda" (Golden Horde). Chernigov Lane was named to the memory of Prince Mikhail of Chernigov, killed in "Orda" and buried in the area.
*16-17th century settlement of foreign mercenaries employed by Vasili III, Ivan Grozny and early Romanovs.
*17-th century settlement of former Polish prisoners of war who remained in Moscow after the Time of Troubles, known as Baby Gorodok (Бабий городок, lit. Women's Town).
*A settlement of court translators ("tolmachi", German:Dolmetscher), taking care of the foreign visitors (current Tolmachevsky Lanes).
*16-17th century settlements of Cossacks (current Kazachy Lanes) and Streltsy, dispersed after the Streltsy Uprising of 1698 (Pyzhevsky Lane, after Streltsy colonel Pyzhov).
*Golutvin sloboda, owned by the Kolomna Golutvin Monastery (current Golutvinsky Lanes)
*Barrel makers sloboda ("kadashi", Kadashevsky Lanes).
*Mint workers (Staromonetny Lane).

18th century

The century was preceded by mass executions of Streltsy. September 30, 1698 Peter I hanged 36 soldiers at Serpukhov Gates, 36 at Kaluga Gates, etc., physically destroying the human core of sloboda system. By 1720, all streltsy troops were disbanded. At the same time, craftsmen lost their businesses when the royal court relocated to Saint Petersburg. Patchwork sloboda system of Zamoskvorechye fell apart, and within the 18th century social diversity settled down. Bolshaya Yakimanka remained a quiet street of single-family households, many of them still farming on the floodlands; Bolshaya Ordynka concentrated wealthy merchants. "Merchant of Zamoskvorechye" became a catchword for ultra-conservative, bearded, pious archetype, a subject of Alexandr Ostrovsky dramas. Even the wealthiest of them lived in country-like, single-story houses on generous land lots, a few of them remain to date. The areas on the edge of the city, where Peter hanged his soldiers, were taken over by grain warehouses and market squares, commemorated in the names of Zhitnaya (Wheat) and Mytnaya (Tax) Streets. Yakimanka was established as an administrative district in 1782, when Catherine II divided territory of Moscow into 20 police districts. In particular, Zamoskvorechye was split by Yakimanka and Pyatnitzkaya police precincts.

A different development began in the end of century on the Kaluga road outside of Garden Ring (which at that time was a city rampart, not a garden or a street). Present-day territory of Gorky Park and Neskuchny Sad, between Kaluga road and Moskva River, was home to the finest country houses of Golitsyn, Demidov, Trubetskoy, Stroganov and later Orlov families. In 1793, Prince Dmitry Golitsyn bequested 900.000 roubles to build Moscow's first free public hospital. The project, supported by the dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, was completed in 1796-1802 by Matvey Kazakov. Although Golitsyn family owned lands nearby, the hospital was set on Stroganov family land. Hospital construction continued on Kaluga Road throughout the next century. Today, these hospitals belong to Yakimanka district and are known as "First City" (Первая Градская).

19th century

"This section is based on "Moscow Builders: At the Turn of Century", 2001" [Russian: "Москва начала века", М, ООО "O-Мастер", 2001 ISBN 5-9207-0001-7]

The Fire of 1812 swept all the area, saving a few blocks in the southern end of Bolshaya Yakimanka and Kazakov's hospital (which took care of both Russian and French troops). Construction of Babiegorodskaya Dam and clearing of Vodootvodny Canal in 1830s reduced the flood hazard, but the land remained cheap. This led to steady industrialization of Zamoskvorechye. For example, Gustav List set up his first mechanical plant in Boloto, directly across Kremlin (his mansion, also in Boloto, would later house British embassy).

While most of Yakimanka remained a traditional, low-rise merchant neighborhood, a cluster of large 5-7 story factory buildings emerged in Golutvin and Bersenevka (Golutvin was the birthplace of Ryabushinsky family). Most of these are now converted to office space, while Krasny Oktyabr chocolate factory (originally "Einem") is scheduled for conversion soon. Hotels, catering to the businesspeople, were built nearby in Boloto and Balchug Street.

In 1896, the city built an electrical power plant in Zamoskvorechye District (MOGES-1, the oldest existing power plant). The [http://tram.rusign.com/powerstation1.php second power plant] , built specifically for the tram network, emerged in Yakimanka District, also in Bersenevka, and operates today. Since that time, electrical and oiling offices are major tenants on the Balchug island.

Late nineteenth century was also a time of charity and social experiments. Tretyakov Gallery, which started as a private collection of Pavel Tretyakov in 1850s, opened to public in 1892. Existing building, with facade designed by Apollinary Vasnetsov, was completed in 1899-1904. Pavel Tretyakov also financed construction and operation of the free housing for widows and children of Russian artist, located north from the Gallery.

Morozov Hospital, city's first surgical hospital for the children, started in 1896 as a two-room Red Cross clinic. Morozov family financed construction of the two-story existing building in Bolshaya Polyanka. Another free hospital was operated by Marfo-Mariinsky Convent. Finally, the city and private philantropists also provided cheap or free housing; the largest public housing projects were launched in 1890s in Boloto. The best known of these projects, Bakhrushin Free Apartments (1902, Sofiyskaya, 14), now houses Rosneft headquarters.

Modern history

In 1922, Bolshevik administration closed and looted 22 churches in Zamoskvorechye, including church of St. Joachim and St. Anne, St. Maron, St. Gregory of Nyssa and others; Church of St. John the Warrior remained the only opened church in Yakimanka. St. Joachim and St. Anne was torn down in 1933 [Russian: Official 1922 documents at [http://mir.voskres.ru/mirbo04/a32.htm mir.voskres.ru] ] . However, compared to other districts, Stalin's age brought very little damage to Yakimanka; the area seemed to be neglected.

1920s replaced the old Wine and Salt Court in Bersenevka with the House on Embankment; further south, Moscow's first cooperative apartment building was completed in 1926. Gorky Park development began in 1923 with the first All-Russian Agricultural Exhibition; in 1928, the fairgrounds were reopened as public park. Existing stalinist entrance arch was added later, in 1950s.

1935 Master Plan of Moscow called for completing Boulevard Ring through Zamoskvorechye, which was not done. The only trace of this project remaind in the 1937 Writers' Apartments building facing Tretyakov building (expanded in 1950s and 2000s); it housed literary elite like Yevgeny Petrov of Ilf and Petrov fame, Boris Pasternak and Konstantin Paustovsky. ["Из истории московских переулков", М, 1997] Similar grand stalinist buildings were planned all along the new route, but were cancelled.

Most important outcome of Stalin's projects came with completion of 1932-1938 Moscow Canal: floods were no more a threat for Yakimanka lowlands. River banks that uses to change every season were firmly set in granite; all downtown Moscow river and Vodootvodny Canal bridges were rebuilt to 6-8 lane capacity.

Major destruction of Yakimanka was launched in Brezhnev time. Western side of Bolshaya Yakimanka was rebuilt with typical socialist high-rise. Similar structures appeared in Polyanka Street, both as infills and as block-wide projects. This is now followed by facadist "reconstruction" of 1990s-2000s and new highrise like the 15-story [http://www.kopernik.ru/fasad.asp Copernicus] building. The City, however, banned construction of avant-garde towers designed by Erick van Egeraat. [Russian: "Русский Авангард" как "московский стиль", "Известия", 15.04.2004 [http://www.gif.ru/themes/culture/no-egerat/izvestia/ www.gif.ru] ]

Notable buildings, cultural and educational facilities

Museums

*Tretyakov Gallery
*Tretyakov Gallery exhibition hall on Krymsky Val, with the nearby sculpture park
*Art Museum of Vasili Tropinin and his contemporaries (Schetininsky, 10)
*Averky Kirillov estate in Bersenevka (by appointment)
*House on Embankment museum [http://www.museum.ru/M427 www.museum.ru] (by appointment)
*Marat Gelman gallery (Malaya Polyanka, 7/7)

Churches

*Marfo-Mariinsky Convent (1908-1912, architect: Alexey Shchusev, Bolshaya Ordynka, 34)
*Сhurch of Dormition (1695-1697, Bolshaya Polyanka, 37) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/21.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of Iberian Icon of Theotokos at Children's Hospital (1896-1901, Bolshaya Polyanka, 20) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/101.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of Icon of [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/89.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of Resurrection in "Kadashi" (2nd Kadashevsky 7-14) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/198.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of
*Church of St. Catherine (1766-1767, architect: Karl Blank, Bolshaya Ordynka, 60/2) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/98.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of St. Gregory of Nyssa (1668-1679, Bolshaya Polyanka, 29A) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/93.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of St. John the Warrior (1704-1717, Bolshaya Yakimanka, 46) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/104.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of St. Maron the Hermit in "Baby Gorodok", former Polish Sloboda (1727-1730, Bolshaya Yakimanka 32-2) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/110.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Сhurch of St. Mikhail of Chernigov and Fyodor (1675, Chernigovsky, 3) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/28.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
* (1656-1657, Bersenevskaya Naberezhnaya, 18)
*Сhurch of St. Nicholas in Tolmachi (Maly Tolmachevsky, 9) [http://days.pravoslavie.ru/Hram/266.htm www.pravoslavie.ru]
*Church of Trinity in Shabolovka (1885-1895, Shabolovka, 21)
*Churches of First City Hospital (Leninsky Prospect, 8)

Theaters

*Teatr Estrady in the House on Embankment

Memorial buildings

*Embassy of France, former Igumnov House, 1888-1895 ( [http://www.ambafrance.ru/article.php3?id_article=147 www.ambafrance.ru] , [http://www.rian.ru/photolents/20051026/41896136_10.html www.rian.ru] , [http://o-moskve.narod.ru/p2.html o-moskve.narod.ru] )
*Single-story house in Bolshaya Yakimanka, 8, remains of old Golutvin sloboda
*Writers' Building (Lavrushinsky lane, across Tretyakov Gallery)

Public transportation access

Moscow Metro:
*Polyanka, Tretyakovskaya - north and center
*Oktyabrskaya-Radialnaya, Oktyabrskaya-Koltsevaya - south
*Dobryninskaya, Serpukhovskaya - south-east

References

External links

*Official site [http://www.yakimanka.ru/ www.yakimanka.ru]
*1882 photographs, temples of Zamoskvorechye and Yakimanka * [http://orel.rsl.ru/vers_may2000/books/html/volume3p2.htm Russian State Library]


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