- Lancaster, Lancashire
infobox UK place
country = England
population = 45,952 (2001 Census)
City of Lancaster
region= North West England
constituency_westminster= Lancaster and Wyre
postcode_district = LA1
static_image_caption=A view of Lancaster showing the
River Lune, the Millennium Bridge and the Ashton Memorial.
Lancaster (pronounced IPA2|ˈlæŋˌkæstə or IPA2|ˈlænˌkæstə) is a
cityin Lancashire, England. Situated on the River Lune, it has a total resident population of 45,952, and together with a number of other towns, forms part of the wider City of Lancasterlocal government district, with a population of 133,914.
Long existing as a commercial, cultural and educational centre, Lancaster is the traditional
county townof Lancashire, to which it gives its name. Lancaster has several unique ties to the British monarchy; the House of Lancasterwas a branch of the English royal family, whilst the Duchy of Lancasterholds large estates on behalf of Queen Elizabeth, who herself is also the Duke of Lancaster.
Lancaster Castle, partly built in the 13th century and enlarged by Elizabeth I, stands on the site of a Roman garrison. Lancaster Castle is well-known as the site of the infamous Pendle witch trialsin 1612. It was said that the court based in the castle (the Lancaster Assizes) sentenced more people to be hanged than any other in the country outside of London, earning Lancaster the nickname, "the Hanging Town".
The city's name, first recorded in the
Domesday Bookin 1086 as "Loncastre" means 'Roman fort on the River Lune', from the Old English"cæster". [Ekwall, Eilert 'The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames' (1960), 4th edition, p285]
The traditional emblem for the
House of Lancasteris a red rose, the red rose of Lancaster, similar to that of the House of York, which is a white rose. These names derive from the emblems of the Royal Duchies of Lancaster and York in the 15th century. This erupted into a civil war over rival claims to the throne during the Wars of the Roses.
In more recent times, the term "Wars of the Roses" has been applied to rivalry in sports between teams representing
Lancashireand Yorkshire, not just the cities of Lancaster and York. It is also applied to the Roses Tournamentin which Lancaster and York Universities compete every year.
Lancaster gained its first
charterin 1193 as a market townand borough, but was not given city status until 1937. Many buildings in the city centre and along St. George's Quay date from the 1800s, built during a period when the port became one of the busiest in the UK; the fourth most important in the UK's slave trade. However, Lancaster's role as a major port was short lived, as the river began to silt up. Morecambe, Glasson Dockand Sunderland Pointserved as Lancaster's port for brief periods. Heyshamnow serves as the district's main port.
Lancaster is primarily a service-orientated city. Products of Lancaster include
animal feed, textiles, chemicals, livestock, paper, synthetic fibre, farm machinery, hgv trailers and mineral fibres. In recent years, a high-technology sector has emerged, as a result of Information Technologyand Communications companies investing in the city.
Lancaster was also home to the European headquarters of
Reebok. Following their merger with Adidas, Reebok moved to Boltonand Stockportin 2007.
Morecambehave grown into a single conurbationand are no longer administered separately. The former Cityand County Boroughof Lancaster and the Municpal Borough of Morecambe and Heysham along with other authorities merged in 1974 to form the District of Lancaster within the shire countyof Lancashire. This was given city status in the United Kingdomand Lancaster City Council is the local governing body for the district.
On March 5, 2004, Lancaster was granted
Fairtrade Citystatus. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/merseyside/3533855.stm BBC NEWS | England | Merseyside | Cities win Fairtrade recognition ] ]
The city lies in the Lancaster and Wyre constituency for elections of Members of Parliament to the House of Commons, and the North West which elects nine Members of the European Parliament (MEPs). The current MP for Lancaster and Wyre is Ben Wallace of the Conservative Party.
In the late-1990s and early-2000s, the city council was under the control of the Morecambe Bay Independents (MBIs)who campaigned for an independent
Morecambecouncil. In 2003 their influence waned and Labour became the largest party on the council. They formed a 'trafficlight' coalition with the LibDems and Greens.
At the May, 2007 local elections, Labour lost ground to the Greens in Lancaster and the MBIs in Morecambe resulting in a
no overall control, with all parties represented in a PR administration, with Labour and the Liberal Democratssupporting a Conservative Party leader.
Lancaster is one of the few places in the country where the Greens have a significant number of councillors (12 in 2007). They were first elected to the council in 1999 and have seen their number increase at each election since. [ [http://www.lancastergreenparty.org.uk Lancaster & District Green Party ] ]
A long-standing debate to determine the nature of a proposed high capacity road, that would link the port of
Heyshamto the M6 motorwaywith the intention of reducing traffic congestion in the city centre, is arguably the most prominent issue in local politics today.
2006 saw the city selected as one of just six places in the country to be named a 'cycling demonstration' town. [http://www.celebratingcycling.org] This accolade was awarded even though Lancaster has a very poor network of cycle paths (especially on busy roads for cyclists, such as the A6).
Lancaster is the most northerly city in Lancashire, located three miles inland from
Morecambe Bay. The city is located on the River Lune(from which it derives its name), and the Lancaster Canal.
hub = Lancaster
type = ex
Morecambe Bay, Barrow-in-Furness
Slyne, Hest Bank, Bolton-le-Sands, Carnforth
NE = Caton, Halton,
Kirkby Lonsdale, Wennington
Glasson Dock, Pilling, Knott End-on-Sea, Fleetwood, Blackpool
Lancaster University, Galgate, Bay Horse, Garstang, Preston
Abbeystead, Forest of Bowland, Dolphinholme
Wards in Lancaster
*John O'Gaunt (named after
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster)
M6 motorwaypasses to the east of Lancaster, with junctions 33 and 34 to the south and north respectively. The A6 roadpasses through the city leading southwards to Preston, Chorleyand Manchesterand northwards to Carnforth, Kendal, Penrith and Carlisle.
Lancaster is served by the West Coast railway line which runs through
Lancaster railway station. This station was formerly named "Lancaster Castle railway station" in order to differentiate it from " Lancaster Green Ayre railway station" on the Leeds–Morecambe line, which closed in 1966. The Caton–Morecambe section of this railway is now used as a cycle path.
Lancaster Canaland River Lunealso pass through the city. The nearest airport is Blackpool International, some 21 miles away.
Bailriggthe city is home to Lancaster University, a research university, and one of only two business schools in the country to have achieved a 6 star research rating.Fact|date=August 2008 InfoLab21 at the University is Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies.Fact|date=August 2008 Lancaster is also home to a campus of the University of Cumbria- on the site of the former St Martin's College- which was inaugurated in 2007. It provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in the arts, social sciences, business, teacher training, health care and nursing.
Lancaster Royal Grammar School
Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
Ripley St. Thomas C of E High School
Our Lady's Catholic College
Central Lancaster High School
Lancaster Steiner School
Lancaster and Morecambe College
Skerton Community High School
Lancaster, as a historic city, offers a moderate level of cultural entertainment. The city is fortunate to have retained many fine examples of
Georgian architecture. Lancaster Castle, the Priory Church of St. Mary and the Edwardian Ashton Memorialare among many sites of historical importance.The Lancaster Grand Theatre and Duke's Theatreare two of the city's most notable venues for live performances. Lancaster also hosts 'The Play in the Park', a series of open-air performances in the award-winning Williamson Park. The university has the Nuffield Theatre, with the largest student theatre stage in Europe, which regularly attracts big name comics, dance companies and dramatic productions. Lancaster also offers numerous museums, including the Lancaster City Museum, Maritime Museum and Judges' Lodgings Museum. Throughout the year, various festivals are held in and around the city, such as the Lancaster Jazz Festival and The Maritime Festival.
Cinemas in Lancaster are the independent Dukes Theatre and the mainstream VUE multiplex in the city centre. The 1930s
art decoRegal Cinema closed in 2006 [ [http://www.lancastertoday.co.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?SectionID=31&ArticleID=1702784] .]
The city also entertains contestants in the Lancaster International Youth Games, a multi-sport 'Olympic' style event, featuring competitors from Lancaster's
twin towns: Rendsburg(Germany), Perpignan(France), Viana do Castelo(Portugal), Aalborg(Denmark), Almere(Netherlands), Lublin(Poland) and Växjö(Sweden).
Lancaster has a large arts community which can be accessed at [http://www.virtual-lancaster.net/whatson/exhibitions.htm Virtual Lancaster's "What's on"] and [http://www.studioarts.co.uk/exhibitions.htm Studio Arts Events and Exhibitions] .
Lancaster Cricket Clubis sited near the River Lunein Lancaster. They have two senior teams that participate in the Northern League.
Lancaster is home to many
golfclubs, including the Ashton Golf Centre and Lancaster Golf Club.
Lancaster John O'Gaunt Rowing Club is the fourth-oldest rowing club in the UK.Fact|date=January 2008 It competes nationally at regattas and heads races organised by the
Amateur Rowing Association. The clubhouse is located next to the weir at Skerton.
Rugby Union is a very popular sport in the area with the local clubs being Vale of Lune RUFC and
Lancaster's swimming club is 'Lancaster Amateur Swimming and Waterpolo Club' and they compete in a variety of competitions in the North West. The senior men's waterpolo team has won the English championships several times. The club trains at Salt Ayre Sports Centre.
Lancaster is home to two
trampolineclubs; SMATAC Trampoline Club at The University of CumbriaSports Copmlex and Lancaster and Morecambe Trampoline Club at Lancaster and Morecambe CollegeSports Centre.
Lancaster has produced a number of successful bands and musicians since the 1990s, notably the drummer Keith Baxter of
3 Colours Redand the all-girl punk-rock band Angelica. Both used the Lancaster Musicians Co-operative, the main rehearsal and recording studio in the area.
The city has also produced many other musicians, including singer and songwriter
John Waite, who first became known as lead singer of The Babysin the 1970s; Chris Acland, drummer of the early 1990s shoegaze band Lush; Tom English, drummer of North East indie band Maximo Parkand Steve Kemp, drummer of the indie band Hard-Fi.
Lancaster still continues to produce many bands and musicians, with acts like
The Adventures of Loki, The Lovely Eggs, Death In Public, and How's My Pop? all receiving considerable national radio play and press coverage.
Lancaster is also the founding home of the dance-music sound systems The Rhythm Method and The ACME Bass Company. Pioneers in the field of the free party, these two systems, along with others, forged one of the strongest representations of the genre in the North West of England during the 1990s.
Lancaster's prime music venue is The Yorkshire House, [http://www.yorkshirehouse.enta.net/] which in the early 2000s hosted such acts as
John Renbourn, Polly Paulusmaand Alasdair Roberts. Other notable music venues are The Gregson and The Bobbin. In 2008, the library hosted a number of music events under the "Get it loud in libraries" initiative. Musicians such as The Thrills, Kate Nash, The Long Blondesand Bat for Lasheshave taken part. [cite web | url=http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/libraries/services/getitloud/index.asp | title=Lancashire County Library and Information Service - Get it Loud in Lancaster Music Library | accessdate=2008-02-26 | publisher=Lancashire County Council]
The Bay, the largest radio station in North Lancashire and South Cumbria, is based at St. George's Quay in the city and broadcasts on three separate frequencies: 96.9 FM (Lancaster), 102.3 FM (Windermere) and 103.2 FM (Kendal).
Commercially available newspapers include "The Lancaster Guardian" (a popular
broadsheet) and "The Visitor" (a tabloidnewspaper mainly targeted at residents of Morecambe). Freely available newspapers in Lancaster include "The Lancaster & Morecambe Citizen" and "The Reporter".
The city also has a community radio station, Diversity FM, on 103.5 FM with a five year licence from 2006. The community led project is based at the local
YMCA. The station includes a show broadcast in the Polish language. [ [http://www.commedia.org.uk/news-amp-press/airflash-home/search-articles/news-and-views-issue-91/ News and Views - Issue 91 ] ] [ [http://www.lancasterukonline.net/news/news_archive/2007/archive_11_07_i.html Virtual Lancaster - News Archive: 1 - November 15, 2007 ] ] The city's university, Lancaster University, also has its own student radio station, Bailrigg FM, broadcasting on a signal of 87.7 FM, and an online television station called LUTube.tvrun by its students
Places of interest
Lancaster City Museum
Lune Millennium Bridge
Ashton Memorialand Butterfly House
*The Music Room, Sun Street
*The Storey Institute
*The Judges Lodgings
Lancaster University's Ruskin Library
Penny's Hospital, 18th-century almshouses on King Street
*Quayside Maritime Museum
Lancaster Royal Grammar School
Lancaster Girls' Grammar School
The Duke's Playhouse
The Gregson Centre
*Lancaster Grand Theatre
Dalton Square: Queen Victoria's statue and the Town Hall
Lancaster Musicians Co-operative
Lancaster Golf ClubSee also
Duke of Lancaster
Duchy of Lancaster
Cherith Baldry- author.
*Keith Baxter - drummer of British rock band
3 Colours Red.
*James Beattie - footballer
Laurence Binyon- poet
Jim Bowen- former presenter of TV gameshow "Bullseye". Actually born in Padiham, Lancashirebut lived in the area for many years.
Henry Cort(1740–1800) was an English ironmaster and inventor.
Thomas Edmondson- inventorof the Edmondson railway ticket.
Edward Frankland- scientist. Born near Lancaster but was educated at LRGS.
Eric Morecambe- comedian. Actually born in Morecambe.
Richard Owen- biologist. Renowned for coining the term " dinosaur". Lived on Brock Street.
John Waite- musician, now solo but formerly lead singer of the bands Bad English and The Babys.
Alan Warriner-Little- 2001 World Grand Prix Dartschampion, known to darts fans as "The Iceman".
Andy Wear- actor, star of ITV's " The Royal".
*Keith Wilkinson -
ITV1" Central Tonight" news reporter.
*Jon Richardson - comedian.
Lancaster's current twinned cities:
Viana do Castelo, Portugal
* The famous bomber aircraft of World War 2, the Lancaster Bomber, was named after the city. In turn, Mitchell's of Lancaster [ [http://www.quaffale.org.uk/php/brewery/473 Mitchell's of Lancaster (Brewers) Ltd ] ] named one of their bitters "Lancaster Bomber". When the brewery ceased production, the recipe was sold to
Royal NavyType 23, Duke Class Frigate, HMS Lancaster, is affiliated with the city.
* The words '
scientist' and ' dinosaur' were coined by Lancaster academics, William Whewelland Richard Owenrespectively.
* [http://www.lancaster.gov.uk/ Lancaster City Council] - Homepage of Lancaster City Council
* [http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/environment/oldmap/towns/lancastr/lancastr.htm Ordnance survey map of Lancaster circa 1890]
* [http://www.citycoastcountryside.co.uk/ Tourist information website]
* [http://www.tofubandits.org.uk/guide.html Alternative guide to Lancaster] A4 pdf to print out - includes map.
* [http://www.lancasterguardian.co.uk Lancaster Guardian] - A weekly newspaper and local resource.
* [http://virtual-lancaster.net/ Virtual Lancaster] - Independent Lancaster news and resources.
* [http://lancaster.openguides.org The Open Guide to Lancaster] - A Wiki town guide based on Lancaster, Morecambe and Lancaster
* [http://travel.webshots.com/album/567239942pkJamm/ Lancaster in pictures] - Photos of Lancaster.University.
* [http://dmoz.org/Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/England/Lancashire/Lancaster/ Directory of Lancaster websites] at the
Open Directory Project.
* [http://www.visitlancashire.com Official Lancashire Tourist information]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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