- Indian Reserve (1763)
In the modern
United Statesit consisted of all the territory north of Floridaand New Orleans, Louisianathat was east of the Mississippi Riverand west of the Eastern Continental Dividein the Appalachian Mountainsthat formerly comprised the eastern half of Louisiana (New France).
Canadait consisted of all the land immediately north of the Great Lakesbut south of Rupert's Landland belonging to the Hudson's Bay Companyas well as a buffer between the Province of Quebec (1763-1791)and Rupert's Land stretching from Lake Nipissingto Newfoundland.
Most of the newly British territory had been claimed earlier by France but was ceded in the
Treaty of Paris (1763)that ended the French and Indian War/ Seven Years War. In the proclamation of 1763 George IIIconsolidated much of the new territorial gains in three colonies in North America -- East Florida, West Floridaand Quebec. The rest of the expanded British territory was left to Native Americans.
The proclamation also temporarily resolved jurisdictional claims for some of the areas near the
Thirteen Colonieson the east coast.
According to the royal proclamation, all settlers in the territory (who were mostly French) were supposed to leave the territory or get official permission to stay. Many of the settlers moved to New Orleans and the French land on the west side of the Mississippi (particularly
St. Louis, Missouri) which in turn had been ceded secretly to Spain to become Louisiana (New Spain). However, many of the settlers remained and the British did not actively attempt to evict them.
Restrictions on settlement in the land was to become a flash point in the
American Revolutionary War. The revoking of the lands at the end of the war, was to continue to be a source of friction for the Native Americans who were to largely side against the United States in the War of 1812.
Jacques Marquettefounds Great Village mission at Utica, Illinois
Iroquoismassacre Great Village
*1680 - Fort Crevecoeur established at
Illinois Countryfalls into Louisiana jurisdiction
Fort de Chartresestablished on Mississippi River near Prairie du Rocher, Illinois
Fort Presque Islebuilt near Erie, Pennsylvania
Fort Duquesnefounded at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
French and Indian War
*1754 - A French unit under
Joseph Coulon de Jumonvilleorders George Washingtonto leave French territory at Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Washington's militia attack the French and Jumonville is killed by Seneca nationchief Tanacharisonwhile in custody of Washington igniting the French and Indian War.
*1754 - Washington surrenders to Jumonville's half brother
Louis Coulon de Villiersin the Battle of the Great Meadowsin Fayette County, Pennsylvania. It is the only time Washington is to ever surrender in battle. He signs a document taking responsibility for the slaughter of Jumonville and is released. The document is to be used to widen the war into the global Seven Years War.
*1762 - Following massive French defeats, the French secretly cede Louisiana on the west side of the Mississippi to its ally Spain in the
Treaty of Fontainebleau (1762)
*1763 - France cedes all lands in modern Canada and all lands east of the Mississippi in the Treaty of Paris. Terms call for religious tolerance in Quebec and unrestricted emigration from French Canada for 18 months
*1763 - George III issues the Royal Proclamation setting aside the Indian Reserve and orders all settlers to leave the reserve and declares that the Crown rather than individual colonies has the right to negotiate settlements
Push to settle the territory
*1764 - Announcement that Spain has acquired the west bank of the Mississippi in
Louisiana (New Spain)
Treaty of Fort Stanwixcreates the Line of Propertyand Purchase Linein which the Iroquois cede much of Kentucky, West Virginiaand sections of western Pennsylvaniaand New York
*1772 - The Grand Ohio Company gets charter to settle the Vandalia colony south of the
Ohio Rivermuch of which is now West Virginia
Quebec Actexpands the borders of the Province of Quebecto take all the Native American land in Canada in the buffer with Rupert's Land as well as all the land in territory north of the Ohio River including, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsinand a section of Minnesota. The act is considered one the Intolerable Actsthat contribute to the American Revolutionary War.
Transylvania (colony)founded in what is now Kentuckyby Richard Henderson. Daniel Booneblazes Wilderness Trailthrough Cumberland Gapand founds Boonesborough.
*1775 - Most of the Thirteen Colonies lay formal claim to the land extending the borders in straight lines west to the Mississippi.
American Revolutionary War
*1777 - Native Americans raids kill numerous settlers and most settlers abandon the territory
*1778 - Larger conflicts in the
Western theater of the American Revolutionary Warbegin with the Siege of Boonesboroughin which Daniel Booneis initially captured and "adopted" by the Shawneebut eventually escapes to lead a successful American defense of Boonesbourough.
*1779 - American victories in
Battle of Vincennes, Fort Laurens, Battle of Saint Louis(only battle west of the Mississippi in Spanish held Louisiana (New Spain))
*1780 - British reassert control over the territory in
Bird's invasion of Kentucky
*1781 - More British victories in
Lochry's Defeatand Long Run Massacre
*1781 - Spain completes rout of Britain in Florida in the
Battle of Pensacola (1781)
*1782 - British victories continue in
Battle of Blue Licks-- 10 months after Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallissurrender in Siege of Yorktown
Treaty of Paris (1783)ends the war and the British cede the territory south of modern day Canada to the United States and Florida to Spain. United States repudiates the proclamation. No Native American tribes attend the negotiations.
* [http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/aboriginals/aboriginals3_e.html Canadiana.org map and background of territory]
* [http://maps.bpl.org/id/05_04_000101/ Boston Public Library Map of Canadian Portion of Territory]
* [http://www.rism.org/isg/dlp/bc/background/1763.htm Text of Proclamation of 1763]
* [http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/proc63.htm UShistory.org]
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