Arab diaspora


Arab diaspora

Infobox Ethnic group
group = Arab Diaspora العرب المغتربين


caption = Palestinian Refugees leaving of their Villages by 1948
population = approx. 350 to 500 million [ [http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576546/Arabic_Language.html Arabic Language - ninemsn Encarta ] ]
regions =
tablehdr =
regions = {! style="width:100%; background:transparent; text-align:left;"!- style="line-height:11pt;"
tablehdr =
languages = Arabic, Spanish, English, among others
religions = Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Druze among others
related = Palestinian diaspora ·Iraqi diaspora

Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well as parts of Asia, Latin America, The Caribbean, and West Africa, particularly in the Ivory Coast (home to over 100,000 Lebanese), [ [http://countrystudies.us/ivory-coast/72.htm Ivory Coast - The Levantine Community] ] Senegal (roughly 20,000 Lebanese), Sierra Leone (roughly 6,000 Lebanese today; about 30,000 prior to the outbreak of civil war in 1991), Liberia, and Nigeria. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6908065.stm Lebanese man shot dead in Nigeria] , BBC News] Since the end of the civil war in 2002, Lebanese traders have become reestablished in Sierra Leone.

Arab traders have long operated in Southeast Asia, trading in spices, timber and textiles. But an important trading minority in the region that goes largely unrecognised comprises the local descendants of Arabs. Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians and Singaporeans of Arab descent have their origins in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, especially the coastal Hadhramaut region of Yemen and Oman. They are the Hadramis. As many as 4 million Indonesians are of Hadrami descent and today there are almost 10,000 Hadramis in Singapore. [ [http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/talib95.htm Hadramis in Singapore, by Ameen Ali Talib] ] [ [http://www.worldbusinesslive.com/research/article/648273/the-worlds-successful-diasporas/ The world's successful diasporas] , World Business]

The Americas have long been a destination for Arab migration, with Arabs arriving in some countries at least as early as the nineteenth century, but even as early as 1492 with several Moors among Christopher Columbus' crew . The largest concentration of Arabs outside the Middle East is in Brazil, which has over 12 million Brazilians of Arab ancestry. Of these 12 million Brazilian Arabs, over 9 million are of Lebanese ancestry, making Brazil's population of Lebanese three times greater than that of Lebanon. Most other Brazilians of Arab descent are mainly Syrian. There are also large Arab communities in Mexico (about 400,000 Mexicans of Lebanese descent), Argentina, Colombia, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Trinidad & Tobago, Ecuador, and Venezuela. [ [http://www.aljadid.com/features/ArabsMakingTheirMarkinLatinAmerica.html Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America] ] Palestinians cluster in Chile and Central America, particularly El Salvador and Honduras (between 150,000 and 200,000). [ [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200104/the.arabs.of.honduras.htm The Arabs of Honduras] ] The 300,000-strong Palestinian community in Chile is the fourth largest in the world after those in Israel, Lebanon and Jordan. Arab Haitians (in which a large number live in the capital) are more often than not, concentrated in financial areas where the majority of them establish businesses. In the United States there are around 3.5 million people of Arab ancestry. Most Arabs of the Americas are of either Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian ancestry and are mostly Christian, with sizeable minorities of Jews and Muslims, as well. [ [http://www.aaiusa.org/arab-americans/22/demographics The Arab American Institute ] ] . The Lebanese diaspora, while historically trade-related, has more recently been linked to the Lebanese Civil War and the 2006 Lebanon War. In October 2006, shortly after the war between Hezbollah and Israel had concluded, the Edinburgh Middle East Report ran an article covering the brain drain from Lebanon's universities. [ [http://emeronline.blogspot.com/search?q=brain+drain Lebanon's Brain Drain] by Tim May. Edinburgh Middle East Report Online. Winter 2006.] Increasing numbers of Lebanese students are travelling abroad to further their education in safer environments.

As of June 21, 2007, the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugees estimated that over 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, with up to 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/06/20/damon.iraqrefugees/index.html Iraq refugees chased from home, struggle to cope] ] [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN0829163920071008?feedType=RSS&feedName=politicsNews U.S., West seen skirting Iraqi refugee crisis] ] [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/middleeast/articles/2006/11/03/un_nearly_100000_flee_iraq_monthly/ "U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly"] . Alexander G. Higgins, "Boston Globe," November 3, 2006.] As a result of growing international pressure, on June 1, 2007 the Bush administration said it was ready to admit 7,000 Iraqi refugees who had helped the coalition since the invasion. According to Washington based Refugees International the U.S. has admitted fewer than 800 Iraqi refugees since the invasion, Sweden had accepted 18,000 and Australia had resettled almost 6,000. [ [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21835052-2703,00.html US in Iraq for 'another 50 years'] , The Australian, June 2, 2007]

In France, the Benelux countries, Spain and much of the rest of Europe, the Arab communities are of North African origin, particularly Algeria and Morocco, and are mostly Muslim. In Marseille, Arabs make up 25% of the total population. About 80,000 Iraqis live in Sweden, formingthe country’s second largest immigrant group. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6355127.stm Sweden urges EU to take in Iraqis] ] An estimated 1,000,000 Arabs live in the United Kingdom representing 1.7% of the country's population, the vast majority of these originate from the Middle East (250,000 Iraqis live in the UK) and Egypt (some 150,000). There is also a medium sized Arab community in Australia (home to roughly 400,000 Arabs, mostly Lebanese), where Arabic is the fourth most widely spoken second-language. The number of Muslim and Christian Arab Australians are roughly equal with a slight upper hand to Christians. See Australian population: ethnic origins. [http://elecpress.monash.edu.au/pnp/free/pnpv7n4/v7n4_3price.pdf]

Challenges

There are no exact figures of how many Arabs live in diaspora (expatriates). There are many challenges facing Arabs in diaspora, especially in the post 9/11 world:

First: Suspicion of Arabs and Muslims has increased dramaticaly. Racism towards Arabs has reached new heights.

Second: Another delicate issue for the Diaspora Arabs is the relationship with motherlands and/or fatherlands. These challenges depend on which generation of Arab immigrants we are talking about. Usually, the first generation are caught between a love for the motherland that on one hand increased by leaps and bounds following immigration and fueled mainly by nostalgia and a certain degree of “culture shock,” and resentment stemming from feeling driven out by unfavorable circumstances.

Third: After an initial period of “shock,” the first generation Arab immigrants may start the slow process of acculturation/assimilation.

Notable persons

Prominent members of the Arab diaspora include;

*Abdalá Bucaram (Lebanese origin), former President of Ecuador
*Alberto Dahik (Lebanese origin), former Vice President of Ecuador
*Andres Dauhajre (Syrian origin), prominent Dominican Economist
*Antonio Saca (Palestinian origin), current President of El Salvador
*Carlos Alfredo Fatule (Palestinian origin), famous Dominican showman
*Mohamed ElBaradei (Egyptian Origin), General Director of the IAEA
*Julio Hazim (Lebanese origin), Important Dominican Businessman
*Jacobo Majluta (Lebanese origin), former President of Dominican Republic
*Salvador Jorge Blanco (Syrian origin), former President of Dominican Republic
*Nathalie Handal (Palestinian origin), renowned Haitian born poet, playwright, writer, and literary researcher
*André Apaid (Lebanese origin), high profile Haitian businessman
*Samir Mourra (Lebanese origin), Haitian businessman and 2006 Haitian presidential candidate
*Antoine Izméry (Palestinian origin), Former wealthy Haitian businessman and pro-democracy activist
*Paulo Maluf (Lebanese origin), politician, former mayor of São Paulo city and former governor of São Paulo state in Brazil
*Jamil Mahuad (Lebanese origin), former President of Ecuador
*Carlos Menem (Syrian origin), former President of Argentina
*Said Musa (Palestinian origin), current Prime Minister of Belize
*Edward Seaga (Lebanese origin), former Prime Minister of Jamaica
*Ralph Nader (Lebanese origin), 2004 US presidential candidate
*Gilberto Kassab (Lebanese origin), current mayor of São Paulo
*Jaime Nebot (Lebanese origin), current Alcalde of Guayaquil, Ecuador
*Edward Saïd (Palestinian origin), US intellectual
*Julio Cesar Turbay (Lebanese origin), former President of Colombia
*Elias Zerhouni (Algerian origin), current Director of National Institutes of Health (United States)
*Schafik Handal (Palestinian origin), Salvadoran born FMLN leader
*Carlos Ghosn (Lebanese origin), Brazilian born businessman, CEO of Nissan and Renault, former CEO of Michelin.
* Mário Zagallo (Lebanese origin),Brazilian football coach and former player
*Charles Elachi (Lebanese origin), the Director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
*Mohamed Al-Fayed (Egyptian origin), Businessman, owner of London's Harrods and the Ritz Palace in Paris.
*Nadhmi Auchi (Iraqi origin), Businessman, founder and Chairman of General Mediterranean Holdings.
*Azzedine Alaia (Tunisian origin), prominent fashion designer.
*Tarak Ben Ammar (Tunisian origin), international movie producer and distributor.
*Carlos Slim Helú (Lebanese origin), Mexican businessman. He was listed as the richest man in the world by Forbes.
*Salma Hayek (Lebanese origin), Mexican actress.
*Shakira Mebarak, (Lebanese origin) Colombian singer and musician.
*Rachid Taha (Algerian origin) Raï musician now living in France
*Khaled (also of Algerian origin) Raï musician now living in France
*Yazid Sabeg (Algerian-born) businessman now living in France
*Tariq Ramadan (Egyptian origin), Swiss intellectual
*Migati Amdjat (Jordanian origin), member of the Serbian National Party. The first ever foreign member of Serbian Parliament.

ee also

*Afro-Arab
*Arab Americans
*Arab Brazilian
*Arab Britons
*Arabs in France
*Arabs in Germany
*Arabs in Israel
*Arab Jews
*Syrian Jews
*Arab Mexican
*Arab Haitian
*Arab Singaporean
*History of Arabs in Afghanistan
*Baghdadi Jews (Iraqi Jews residing in India)
*Egyptians
*Egyptian British
*Iraqi diaspora
*British Iraqis
*Islam in Argentina
*Islam in Honduras
*Islam in South America
*Lebanese British
*Lebanese Australian
*Lebanese American
*Lebanese-Canadian
*Lebanese Jamaican
*fr Lebanese diaspora
*List of Arab Americans
*Palestinian diaspora
*Syrian American
*Assyrians
*Chaldeans
*Maronites
*Iranian Arabs
*Yemeni American
*Chaush (Yemenis in South India)
*Yemeni British

External links

* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6081416.stm Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion]
* [http://www.mari.org/JMS/october98/The_Lebanese_of_South_Africa.htm The Lebanese of South Africa]
* [http://leb.net/~aljadid/features/ArabsMakingTheirMarkinLatinAmerica.html Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America]
* [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200104/the.arabs.of.honduras.htm The Arabs of Honduras]
* [http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/200505/the.arabs.of.brazil.htm The Arabs of Brazil]
* [http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/14/int14.htm Descendants of Arabs thriving in S. America]
* [http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/talib95.htm Hadramis in Singapore]
* [http://www.worldbusinesslive.com/research/article/648273/the-worlds-successful-diasporas/ The world's successful diasporas]
* [http://onedroprule.org/about1751.html Latin-American Arabs]
* [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v25/n06/gils01_.html Out of the Hadhramaut]
* [http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0056.htm The Arrival Of The Lebanese]
* [http://www.washtimes.com/world/20050711-092503-1255r.htm The Washington Times, Arab-Brazilians]
* [http://www.danielpipes.org/blog/310 Arab Immigrants in Latin American Politics]
* [http://www.lebanesecommunity.org Lebanese Community in Egypt]
* [http://www.irishlebanese.com Lebanese Social and Cultural Community in Ireland]

References


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